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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917250/emerging-technologies-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#1
Lijun Ma, Lei Wang, Chia-Lin Tseng, Arjun Sahgal
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) stems from the initial developments of intra-cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Despite similarity in their names and clinical goals of delivering a sufficiently high tumoricidal dose, maximal sparing of the surrounding normal tissues and a short treatment course, SBRT technologies have transformed from the early days of body frame-based treatments with X-ray verification to primarily image-guided procedures with cone-beam CT or stereoscopic X-ray systems and non-rigid body immo-bilization...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#2
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914856/-the-russian-consensus-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-pancreatitis-enzyme-replacement-therapy
#3
I E Khatkov, I V Maev, D S Bordin, Yu A Kucheryavyi, S R Abdulkhakov, S A Alekseenko, E I Alieva, R B Alikhanov, I G Bakulin, A Yu Baranovsky, E V Beloborodova, E A Belousova, I M Buriev, E V Bystrovskaya, S V Vertyankin, L V Vinokurova, E I Galperin, A V Gorelov, V B Grinevich, M V Danilov, V V Darvin, E A Dubtsova, T G Dyuzheva, V I Egorov, M G Efanov, N V Zakharova, V E Zagainov, V T Ivashkin, R E Izrailov, N V Korochanskaya, E A Kornienko, V L Korobka, N Yu Kokhanenko, M A Livzan, I D Loranskaya, K A Nikolskaya, M F Osipenko, A V Okhlobystin, V D Pasechnikov, E Yu Plotnikova, S I Polyakova, O A Sablin, V I Simanenkov, N I Ursova, V V Tsvirkun, V V Tsukanov, A V Shabunin
Pancreatology Club Professional Medical Community, 1A.S. Loginov Moscow Clinical Research and Practical Center, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 2A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow; 3Kazan State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Kazan; 4Kazan (Volga) Federal University, Kazan; 5Far Eastern State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Khabarovsk; 6Morozov City Children's Clinical Hospital, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 7I...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914642/implications-of-weight-loss-for-cancer-patients-receiving-radiotherapy
#4
Steven Kai Ming Lau, Puneeth Iyengar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer-associated weight loss is a common comorbid condition best described among patients with advanced malignancy receiving systemic therapy, but its relationship to patients undergoing radiation treatment is less well described. We review the interaction between cancer-associated weight loss and radiation treatment as well as its prognostic significance. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies demonstrate a consistent detrimental effect of cancer-associated weight loss either existing prior to treatment or developing during radiotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911303/role-of-protein-kinases-and-their-inhibitors-in-radiation-response-of-tumor-cells
#5
Byeong Mo Kim, Wonsuck Yoon, Jung-Hyun Shim, Haiyoung Jung, Ji Hong Lim, Hyun-Jung Choi, MiRan Seo, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Hyun Min
Phosphorylation, the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, is an effective way of regulating the biological properties of that molecule. Protein phosphorylation is a post translational modification of proteins and affects cellular signaling transduction. Protein kinases induce phosphorylation by catalyzing the transfer of phosphate groups to serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues on protein substrates. Consistent with their roles in cancer, protein kinases have emerged as one of the most clinically useful target molecules in pharmacological cancer therapy...
June 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903456/tumor-reductive-therapies-and-antitumor-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Huiqin Guo, Kangla Tsung
Tumor reductive therapy is to reduce tumor burden through direct killing of tumor cells. So far, there is no report on the connection between antitumor immunity and tumor reductive therapies. In the last few years, a new category of cancer treatment, immunotherapy, emerged and they are categorized separately from classic cytotoxic treatments (chemo and radiation therapy). The most prominent examples include cellular therapies (LAK and CAR-T) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1 and CTLA-4). Recent advances in clinical immunotherapy and our understanding of the mechanism behind them revealed that these therapies have a closer relationship with classic cancer treatments than we thought...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900526/lung-us-features-of-severe-interstitial-pneumonia-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Tiziano Perrone, Federica Quaglia
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumonia is reported to account for a relatively large number of cases of CAP. In elderly patients in particular, the clinical presentation can be a severe form of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. The chest X-ray presentation is aspecific. Lung US can show a typical pattern of diffuse interstitial lung syndrome; in some cases, like the present one, the association of multiple B lines with a coarse and thickened pleural line points to a more likely diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891217/reproducibility-of-f18-fdg-pet-radiomic-features-for-different-cervical-tumor-segmentation-methods-gray-level-discretization-and-reconstruction-algorithms
#8
Baderaldeen A Altazi, Geoffrey G Zhang, Daniel C Fernandez, Michael E Montejo, Dylan Hunt, Joan Werner, Matthew C Biagioli, Eduardo G Moros
Site-specific investigations of the role of radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are emerging. We evaluated the reproducibility of radiomic features extracted from (18) Flourine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) PET images for three parameters: manual versus computer-aided segmentation methods, gray-level discretization, and PET image reconstruction algorithms. Our cohort consisted of pretreatment PET/CT scans from 88 cervical cancer patients. Two board-certified radiation oncologists manually segmented the metabolic tumor volume (MTV1 and MTV2 ) for each patient...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884088/oncolytic-viral-therapy-for-mesothelioma
#9
REVIEW
Daniel F Pease, Robert A Kratzke
The limited effectiveness of conventional therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma demands innovative approaches to this difficult disease. Even with aggressive multimodality treatment of surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, the median survival is only 1-2 years depending on stage and histology. Oncolytic viral therapy has emerged in the last several decades as a rapidly advancing field of immunotherapy studied in a wide spectrum of malignancies. Mesothelioma makes an ideal candidate for studying oncolysis given the frequently localized pattern of growth and pleural location providing access to direct intratumoral injection of virus...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851573/x-ray-microfluorescence-for-biodistribution-studies-of-nanomedicines
#10
Céline Epaule, Andrey Maksimenko, Gérard Bastian, Joachim Caron, Didier Desmaële, Fatima Zouhiri, Patrick Couvreur, Jean Doucet
Currently, the in vivo distribution of drugs is investigated by non-spatial quantitative techniques. With the emergence of personal therapies using nanomedicines, deeper investigations are required to precisely know the in vivo fate of entrapped drugs, especially to predict possible toxicity. Here, we assess the capabilities of SR-μXRF for i) detecting drugs into nanomedicines without adding any marker, ii) mapping their distribution into tissues and iii) locally quantifying the drugs loaded into nanomedicines...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836985/providing-guidance-for-genomics-based-cancer-treatment-decisions-insights-from-stakeholder-engagement-for-post-prostatectomy-radiation-therapy
#11
James Abe, Jennifer M Lobo, Daniel M Trifiletti, Timothy N Showalter
BACKGROUND: Despite the emergence of genomics-based risk prediction tools in oncology, there is not yet an established framework for communication of test results to cancer patients to support shared decision-making. We report findings from a stakeholder engagement program that aimed to develop a framework for using Markov models with individualized model inputs, including genomics-based estimates of cancer recurrence probability, to generate personalized decision aids for prostate cancer patients faced with radiation therapy treatment decisions after prostatectomy...
August 24, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835720/therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms-when-genetics-and-environment-collide
#12
REVIEW
Megan E McNerney, Lucy A Godley, Michelle M Le Beau
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) arise as a late effect of chemotherapy and/or radiation administered for a primary condition, typically a malignant disease, solid organ transplant or autoimmune disease. Survival is measured in months, not years, making t-MN one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers. In this Review, we discuss recent developments that reframe our understanding of the genetic and environmental aetiology of t-MN. Emerging data are illuminating who is at highest risk of developing t-MN, why t-MN are chemoresistant and how we may use this information to treat and ultimately prevent this lethal disease...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830737/chemotherapy-and-radiation-treatment-decision-making-experiences-of-older-adults-with-cancer-a-qualitative-study
#13
Schroder Sattar, Shabbir M H Alibhai, Margaret Fitch, Monika Krzyzanowska, Natasha Leighl, Martine T E Puts
PURPOSE: Little is known about the perspectives of older adults (OAs) with newly-diagnosed cancer on their experiences with cancer treatment decision-making. The objective of this study was to explore the factors that were important for accepting or refusing cancer treatment by older adults undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 OAs aged ≥65years with newly diagnosed cancer (<6months) receiving either curative or palliative chemotherapy and/or radiation or who had declined therapy...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826292/radiobiological-issues-in-proton-therapy
#14
Radhe Mohan, Christopher R Peeler, Fada Guan, Lawrence Bronk, Wenhua Cao, David R Grosshans
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for particle therapy is a complex function of particle type, radiation dose, linear energy transfer (LET), cell type, endpoint, etc. In the clinical practice of proton therapy, the RBE is assumed to have a fixed value of 1.1. This assumption, along with the effects of physical uncertainties, may mean that the biologically effective dose distributions received by the patient may be significantly different from what is seen on treatment plans. This may contribute to unforeseen toxicities and/or failure to control the disease...
August 22, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822765/real-time-monitoring-of-circulating-tumor-cell-ctc-release-after-nanodrug-or-tumor-radiotherapy-using-in-in%C3%A2-vivo-flow-cytometry
#15
Nathan A Koonce, Mazen A Juratli, Chengzhong Cai, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Yulian A Menyaev, Judith Dent, Charles M Quick, Ruud P M Dings, Dmitry Nedosekin, Vladimir Zharov, Robert J Griffin
Noninvasive biological readouts of tumor metastatic risk and therapeutic efficacy are needed as healthcare costs rise. CTCs are the source of metastasis in distant organs that are responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Here we demonstrate the acute and long-term effect of vascular disrupting therapies (high-dose radiotherapy and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)) on CTCs released from the primary tumor with a non-invasive real-time in vivo flow cytometry system. Using our innovative flow cytometry platform, we show here that radiation and nanodrug treatment can lead to short term release of CTC from the primary tumor...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818953/new-horizons-for-precision-medicine-in-biliary-tract-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Juan W Valle, Angela Lamarca, Lipika Goyal, Jorge Barriuso, Andrew X Zhu
Biliary tract cancers (BTC), including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, are poor-prognosis and low-incidence cancers, although the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising. A minority of patients present with resectable disease but relapse rates are high; benefit from adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Cisplatin/gemcitabine combination chemotherapy has emerged as the reference first-line treatment regimen; there is no standard second-line therapy. Selected patients may be suitable for liver-directed therapy (e...
September 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800299/representing-the-dosimetric-impact-of-deformable-image-registration-errors
#17
Jason Vickress, Jerry Battista, Rob Barnett, Slav Yartsev
Deformable image registration (DIR) is emerging as a tool in radiation therapy for calculating the cumulative dose distribution across multiple fractions of treatment. Unfortunately, due to the variable nature of DIR algorithms and dependence of performance on image quality, registration errors can result in dose accumulation errors. In this study, landmarked images were used to characterize the DIR error throughout an image space and determine its impact on dosimetric analysis. Ten thoracic 4DCT images with 300 landmarks per image study matching the end-inspiration and end-expiration phases were obtained from 'dir-labs'...
August 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798812/clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-profile-of-patients-with-a-retinoblastoma-diagnosis-experience-in-the-costa-rica-national-children-s-hospital-oncology-unit-from-january-2009-to-december-2015
#18
Jennie Chen Lo, Carlos Rodríguez, Rigoberto Monestel, Arnoldo Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma represents only 3% of paediatric cancers, but it is the most prevalent intraocular tumour in this population. It develops in the retina as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour that affects development during gestation. The tumour presents in two different forms depending on whether or not it expresses a genetic modification. For patients diagnosed at preschool age, 75% are unilateral non-hereditary cases. While enucleation is the preferred treatment for advanced stages of the tumour, other modalities, such as systemic and intraocular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and local treatments with thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy can be used to try to preserve the eye...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795286/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies-for-patients-with-malignant-epidural-spinal-cord-compression
#19
REVIEW
Dilan A Patel, Jian L Campian
Malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is an oncologic emergency with the potential for devastating consequences for patients if not promptly diagnosed and treated. MESCC is diagnosed by imaging. MRI is by far the most sensitive test, preferably with gadolinium. Once the diagnosis of MESCC is suspected, patients with neurologic deficits should receive prompt administration of dexamethasone with a 10-mg IV loading dose followed by 4 mg every 6 h. Quick taper is recommended once the definitive treatment is established...
August 10, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794813/cytocompatible-cell-encapsulation-via-hydrogel-photopolymerization-in-microfluidic-emulsion-droplets
#20
Bingzhao Xia, Zhongliang Jiang, Daniel Debroy, Dongmei Li, John Oakey
Encapsulating cells within biocompatible materials is a widely pursued and promising element of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. Recently, extensive interest in microfluidic-enabled cell encapsulation has emerged as a strategy to structure hydrogels and establish custom cellular microenvironments. In particular, it has been shown that the microfluidic-enabled photoencapsulation of cells within PEG diacrylate (PEGDA)-based microparticles can be performed cytocompatibly within gas-permeable, nitrogen-jacketed polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices, which mitigate the oxygen inhibition of radical chain growth photopolymerization...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
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