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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211218/the-integration-of-mri-in-radiation-therapy-collaboration-of-radiographers-and-radiation-therapists
#1
Robba Rai, Shivani Kumar, Vikneswary Batumalai, Doaa Elwadia, Lucy Ohanessian, Ewa Juresic, Lynette Cassapi, Shalini K Vinod, Lois Holloway, Paul J Keall, Gary P Liney
The increased utilisation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation therapy (RT) has led to the implementation of MRI simulators for RT treatment planning and influenced the development of MRI-guided treatment systems. There is extensive literature on the advantages of MRI for tumour volume and organ-at-risk delineation compared to computed tomography. MRI provides both anatomical and functional information for RT treatment planning (RTP) as well as quantitative information to assess tumour response for adaptive treatment...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209015/boron-neutron-capture-therapy-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Kavitaa Nedunchezhian, Nalini Aswath, Manigandan Thiruppathy, Sarumathi Thirugnanamurthy
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiation science which is emerging as a hopeful tool in treating cancer, by selectively concentrating boron compounds in tumour cells and then subjecting the tumour cells to epithermal neutron beam radiation. BNCT bestows upon the nuclear reaction that occurs when Boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield α particles (Helium-4) and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. A large number of 10 Boron (10B) atoms have to be localized on or within neoplastic cells for BNCT to be effective, and an adequate number of thermal neutrons have to be absorbed by the 10B atoms to maintain a lethal 10B (n, α) lithium-7 reaction...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194641/unsupervised-exercise-in-survivors-of-human-papillomavirus-related-head-and-neck-cancer-how-many-can-go-it-alone
#3
Joshua Bauml, Jiyoung Kim, Xiaochen Zhang, Charu Aggarwal, Roger B Cohen, Kathryn Schmitz
PURPOSE: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer (HNC) have a better prognosis relative to other types of HNC, making survivorship an emerging and critical issue. Exercise is a core component of survivorship care, but little is known about how many survivors of HPV-related HNC can safely be advised to start exercising on their own, as opposed to needing further evaluation or supervised exercise. METHODS: We utilized guidelines to identify health issues that would indicate value of further evaluation prior to being safely prescribed unsupervised exercise...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193241/present-state-and-issues-in-iort-physics
#4
REVIEW
Frank W Hensley
Literature was reviewed to assess the physical aspects governing the present and emerging technologies used in intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Three major technologies were identified: treatment with electrons, treatment with external generators of kV X-rays and electronic brachytherapy. Although also used in IORT, literature on brachytherapy with radioactive sources is not systematically reviewed since an extensive own body of specialized literature and reviews exists in this field. A comparison with radioactive sources is made in the use of balloon catheters for partial breast irradiation where these are applied in almost an identical applicator technique as used with kV X-ray sources...
January 27, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177190/improving-patient-selection-for-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-of-intra-hepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-a-meta-regression-study
#5
Alessandro Cucchetti, Alberta Cappelli, Cristina Mosconi, Jian-Hong Zhong, Matteo Cescon, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Rita Golfieri
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is emerging as a potential therapy for unresectable intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), able to prolong life-expectancy. Aim of the study was to collect available literature, meta-analyze data and results and investigate sources of heterogeneity through a meta-regression approach, before suggesting SIRT as a valuable option. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published until 1 September 2016 in PubMed and Scopus databases was performed...
February 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164384/design-of-organic-macrocycle-modified-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-drug-delivery
#6
Ali Trabolsi, Tina Skorjanc, Farah Benyettou, John-Carl Olsen
Paul Ehrlich's vision of a "magic bullet" cure for disease inspires the modern design of nanocarriers whose purpose is to deliver drug cargo to specific sites in the body while circumventing endogenous immunological clearance mechanisms. Iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have emerged as particularly promising nanocarriers because of their biodegradability, ability to be guided magnetically to sites of pathology, mediation of hyperthermic therapy and imaging capabilities. In this review, we focus on the design and drug-delivery aspects of IONPs coated with organic macrocycles (crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calix[n]arenes, cucurbit[n]urils, or pillar[n]arenes) which, by means of reversible complexation, allow for the convenient loading and release of drug molecules...
February 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156606/role-of-emergent-palliative-radiation-therapy-in-the-care-of-patients-with-cancer
#7
Michael Zhang, Steve E Braunstein, Shannon E Fogh
: 201 Background: Radiation therapy (RT) provides an important role in the palliative care of patients with cancer. For patients with metastatic spinal cord compression not amenable to surgery, the value of timely palliative RT is well established; however, the value of the rapid application of RT for other chief complaints is less clear. The importance of palliative care service (PCS) involvement in patients treated with RT is becoming increasingly recognized and rapidly instituted RT could compromise this involvement...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152762/ro-ils-radiation-oncology-incident-learning-system-data-trends-2014-2015
#8
Eric C Ford, Nadine L Eads, Ksenija Kapetanovic, Cindy Tomlinson
: 59 Background: Incident learning is one of the most effective ways to improve quality care. To facilitate patient safety improvement at a national level, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) launched RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System in June 2014. RO-ILS mission is to facilitate safer and higher quality care through a shared learning environment that is secure and non-punitive. METHODS: To ensure the security and protection of data, ASTRO contracted with Clarity PSO, a federally-certified patient safety organization that operates under the auspices of the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151534/targeted-nanoparticles-for-tumour-radiotherapy-enhancement-the-long-dawn-of-a-golden-era
#9
Elisabetta Gargioni, Florian Schulz, Annette Raabe, Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Thorsten Rieckmann, Kai Rothkamm
Despite considerable progress in (I) our understanding of the aetiopathology of head and neck cancer and (II) the precise delivery of radiotherapy, long-term survival rates for many patients with head and neck cancer remain disappointingly low. Over the past years, gold nanoparticles (NP) have emerged as promising radiation dose enhancers. In a recent study published in Nanoscale, Popovtzer et al. have used gold NP coated with an antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in an attempt to enhance radiation-induced tumour cell killing in a head and neck cancer xenograft model...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145723/ultrasmall-silica-based-bismuth-gadolinium-nanoparticles-for-dual-magnetic-resonance-computed-tomography-image-guided-radiation-therapy
#10
Alexandre Detappe, Eloise Thomas, Mark W Tibbitt, Sijumon Kunjachan, Oksana Zavidij, Nishita Parnandi, Elizaveta Reznichenko, François Lux, Olivier Tillement, Ross Berbeco
Selective killing of cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues is the goal of clinical radiation therapy. This therapeutic ratio can be improved by image-guided radiation delivery and selective radiosensitization of cancer cells. Here, we have designed and tested a novel trimodal theranostic nanoparticle made of bismuth and gadolinium for on-site radiosensitization and image contrast enhancement to improve the efficacy and accuracy of radiation therapy. We demonstrate in vivo magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) contrast enhancement, and tumor suppression with prolonged survival in a non-small cell lung carcinoma model during clinical radiation therapy...
February 2, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144398/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-overcoming-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Omar Elaskalani, Norbaini Binti Abdol Razak, Marco Falasca, Pat Metharom
Pancreatic cancer has one of the worst prognoses among all cancers due to the late manifestation of identifiable symptoms and high resistance to chemo- and radiation therapies. In recent years, a cancer development phase termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has gained increasing research focus. The process is implicated in tumour metastasis, and emerging evidence suggests EMT also contributes or induces chemoresistance in several cancers. Nevertheless, the applicability of therapeutic targeting of EMT faces many challenges...
January 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142149/cancer-stem-cells-in-prostate-cancer-implications-for-targeted-therapy
#12
Ricardo Leão, Célia Domingos, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Robert Hamilton, Uri Tabori, Pedro Castelo-Branco
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the developed world. Conventional anti-PCa therapies include surgery, radiation, hormonal ablation, and chemotherapy. Despite increasing efforts, these therapies are not effective for patients with advanced and/or metastatic disease. In most cases, cancer therapies fail due to an incomplete depletion of tumor cells, resulting in tumor relapse. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis is an emerging model that explains many of the molecular characteristics of oncological disease as well as the tendency of cancers to relapse, metastasize, and develop resistance to conventional therapies...
February 1, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137267/targeting-cd133-improves-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-of-recurrent-pediatric-pilocytic-astrocytoma-following-prolonged-chemotherapy
#13
Guifa Xi, Yuping Derek Li, Gordan Grahovac, Veena Rajaram, Nitin Wadhwani, Tatiana Pundy, Barbara Mania-Farnell, Charles David James, Tadanori Tomita
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common pediatric central nervous system neoplasms. In the majority of cases these tumors are benign and receive favorable prognosis following gross total surgical resection. In patients with progressive or symptomatic tumors, aggressive surgical resection is generally not feasible, thus radiation or chemotherapy are accepted initial or adjuvant interventions. Due to serious long-lasting side-effects, radiation is limited in young children; therefore, chemotherapy is widely practiced as an adjuvant treatment for these patients...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134800/immune-modulation-by-androgen-deprivation-and-radiation-therapy-implications-for-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer L Kalina, David S Neilson, Alexandra P Comber, Jennifer M Rauw, Abraham S Alexander, Joanna Vergidis, Julian J Lum
Prostate cancer patients often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with radiation therapy (RT). Recent evidence suggests that both ADT and RT have immune modulatory properties. First, ADT can cause infiltration of lymphocytes into the prostate, although it remains unclear whether the influx of lymphocytes is beneficial, particularly with the advent of new classes of androgen blockers. Second, in rare cases, radiation can elicit immune responses that mediate regression of metastatic lesions lying outside the field of radiation, a phenomenon known as the abscopal response...
January 27, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133121/-a-case-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-its-disease-progression-could-be-controlled-by-multimodal-treatment
#15
Takahiro Yoshikawa, Takeo Nomi, Daisuke Hokuto, Ichirou Yamato, Satoshi Yasuda, Shinsaku Obara, Chihiro Kawaguchi, Shoichi Kinoshita, Satoshi Nishiwada, Minako Nagai, Takahiro Akahori, Takatsugu Yamada, Masayuki Sho, Hiromichi Kanehiro, Yoshiyuki Nakajima
The patient was a 73-year-old man, diagnosed with advanced huge hepatocellular carcinoma with a tumor thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava and extrahepatic metastases. Radiation therapy(50 Gy)was applied for the bone metastases, primary tumor, and tumor thrombus, and the patient received a cisplatin transcatheter arterial infusion(100mg/ body, 5 courses). Sorafenib was administered orally once the local lesion was under control. The tumor showed a partial response according to the RECIST criteria, but the tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava almost disappeared...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129857/discovering-novel-oncogenic-pathways-and-new-therapies-using-zebrafish-models-of-sarcoma
#16
M N Hayes, D M Langenau
Sarcoma is a type of cancer affecting connective, supportive, or soft tissue of mesenchymal origin. Despite rare incidence in adults (<1%), over 15% of pediatric cancers are sarcoma. Sadly, both adults and children with relapsed or metastatic disease have devastatingly high rates of mortality. Current treatment options for sarcoma include surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy; however, significant limitations exist with respect to the efficacy of these strategies. Strong impetus has been placed on the development of novel therapies and preclinical models for uncovering mechanisms involved in the development, progression, and therapy resistance of sarcoma...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126309/smart-radiation-therapy-biomaterials
#17
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Francis Boateng, Rajiv Kumar, Darrell J Irvine, Silvia Formenti, Twalib Ngoma, Carsten Herskind, Marlon R Veldwijk, Georg Lars Hildenbrand, Michael Hausmann, Frederik Wenz, Juergen Hesser
Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123916/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-inoperable-liver-tumors-results-of-a-single-institutional-experience
#18
Hussam Hijazi, Marie-Pierre Campeau, David Roberge, David Donath, Real Lapointe, Franck Vandenbroucke-Menu, Daniel Taussky, Karim Boudam, Gabriel Chan, Alexis Bujold, Guila Delouya
OBJECTIVES: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for liver tumors unsuitable for ablation or surgery. We report our experience with SBRT in the treatment of liver tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with primary or secondary liver cancer were identified in our local SBRT database. Patients were included irrespective of prior liver-directed therapies. The primary endpoint of our review was in-field local control (LC). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity...
December 20, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119770/lumbar-herniated-disc-spontaneous-regression
#19
Idiris Altun, Kasım Zafer Yüksel
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a frequent condition that results in substantial disability and causes admission of patients to neurosurgery clinics. To evaluate and present the therapeutic outcomes in lumbar disc hernia (LDH) patients treated by means of a conservative approach, consisting of bed rest and medical therapy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort was carried out in the neurosurgery departments of hospitals in Kahramanmaraş city and 23 patients diagnosed with LDH at the levels of L3-L4, L4-L5 or L5-S1 were enrolled...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116853/utility-of-68-ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography-in-diagnosis-and-response-assessment-of-recurrent-renal-cell-carcinoma
#20
Shankar Siva, Jason Callahan, David Pryor, Jarad Martin, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Michael S Hofman
INTRODUCTION: Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) is an emerging imaging modality in prostate cancer. However, (68) Ga-PSMA-PET may also have diagnostic utility in the setting of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We investigate the differential role of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and PSMA-PET/CT scanning in patients with oligometastatic RCC. In particular, we focus on the utility of PSMA-PET for diagnostic evaluation of isolated or limited metastases planned for local surgery or radiation, as well as the potential utility of PSMA-PET for therapeutic response assessment in patients receiving stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
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