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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770198/recent-advances-in-managing-understanding-meningioma
#1
REVIEW
Nawal Shaikh, Karan Dixit, Jeffrey Raizer
Meningiomas are the most common adult primary intracranial tumor. Despite their higher incidence, there have not-until recently-been as many advances in understanding and managing meningiomas. Thus far, two broad classes of meningiomas have emerged on the basis of their mutational profile: those driven by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) inactivation and those with non-NF2 driver gene alterations, such as mammalian target of rapamycin and Hedgehog, Wingless/b-catenin, Notch, transforming growth factor-b receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phospholipase C pathway alterations...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748391/tumor-specific-inhibition-of-in-situ-vaccination-by-distant-untreated-tumor-sites
#2
Zachary S Morris, Emily I Guy, Lauryn R Werner, Peter M Carlson, Clinton M Heinze, Jasdeep S Kler, Sara M Busche, Abigail A Jaquish, Raghava N Sriramaneni, Lakeesha Carmichael, Hans Loibner, Stephen D Gillies, Alan J Korman, Amy K Erbe, Jacquelyn A Hank, Alexander L Rakhmilevich, Paul M Harari, Paul M Sondel
In situ vaccination is an emerging cancer treatment strategy that uses local therapies to stimulate a systemic antitumor immune response. We previously reported an in situ vaccination effect when combining radiation (RT) with intra-tumor (IT) injection of tumor-specific immunocytokine (IC), a fusion of tumor-specific antibody and IL2 cytokine. In mice bearing two tumors, we initially hypothesized that delivering RT plus IT-IC to the "primary" tumor would induce a systemic antitumor response causing regression of the "secondary" tumor...
May 10, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741421/treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-current-and-emerging-therapies
#3
Tarsheen K Sethi, Nishitha M Reddy
Primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare extra-nodal subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and most cases are of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma histology with an aggressive presentation. The treatment of PCNSL has evolved over the years from radiation alone to multi-agent chemotherapy with the goal of minimizing long-term toxicity. Recent studies have evaluated autologous stem cell transplant as consolidation in eligible patients with success. The prognosis of relapsed disease remains poor and hence the emphasis is on effective and less toxic frontline strategies...
May 9, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735190/potential-morbidity-reduction-with-proton-radiation-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Lior Z Braunstein, Oren Cahlon
Proton radiotherapy confers significant dosimetric advantages in the treatment of malignancies that arise adjacent to critical radiosensitive structures. To date, these advantages have been most prominent in the treatment of pediatric and central nervous system malignancies, although emerging data support the use of protons among other anatomical sites in which radiotherapy plays an important role. With advances in the overall treatment paradigm for breast cancer, most patients with localized disease now exhibit long-term disease control and, consequently, may manifest the late toxicities of aggressive treatment...
April 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735187/does-proton-therapy-offer-demonstrable-clinical-advantages-for-treating-thoracic-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Zhongxing Liao, Saumil J Gandhi, Steven H Lin, Jeffrey Bradley
The finite range of proton beams in tissues offers unique dosimetric advantages that theoretically allow dose to the target to be escalated while minimizing exposure of surrounding tissues and thus minimizing radiation-induced toxicity. This theoretical advantage has led to widespread adoption of proton therapy around the world for a wide variety of tumors at different anatomical sites. Many treatment-planning comparisons have shown that proton therapy has substantial dosimetric advantages over conventional radiotherapy...
April 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733308/therapy-testing-in-a-spheroid-based-3d-cell-culture-model-for-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Jan Hagemann, Christian Jacobi, Sabine Gstoettner, Christian Welz, Sabina Schwenk-Zieger, Roland Stauber, Sebastian Strieth, Julian Kuenzel, Philipp Baumeister, Sven Becker
Current treatment options for advanced and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) enclose radiation and chemo-radiation approaches with or without surgery. While platinum-based chemotherapy regimens currently represent the gold standard in terms of efficacy and are given in the vast majority of cases, new chemotherapy regimens, namely immunotherapy are emerging. However, the response rates and therapy resistance mechanisms for either chemo regimen are hard to predict and remain insufficiently understood...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726358/how-advances-in-imaging-will-affect-precision-radiation-oncology
#7
David A Jaffray, Shiva Das, Paula M Jacobs, Robert Jeraj, Philippe Lambin
Radiation oncology is 1 of the most structured disciplines in medicine. It is of a highly technical nature with reliance on robotic systems to deliver intervention, engagement of diverse expertise, and early adoption of digital approaches to optimize and execute the application of this highly effective cancer treatment. As a localized intervention, the dependence on sensitive, specific, and accurate imaging to define the extent of disease, its heterogeneity, and adjacency to normal tissues directly affects the therapeutic ratio...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726357/using-big-data-analytics-to-advance-precision-radiation-oncology
#8
Todd R McNutt, Stanley H Benedict, Daniel A Low, Kevin Moore, Ilya Shpitser, Wei Jiang, Pranav Lakshminarayanan, Zhi Cheng, Peijin Han, Xuan Hui, Minoru Nakatsugawa, Junghoon Lee, Joseph A Moore, Scott P Robertson, Veeraj Shah, Russ Taylor, Harry Quon, John Wong, Theodore DeWeese
Big clinical data analytics as a primary component of precision medicine is discussed, identifying where these emerging tools fit in the spectrum of genomics and radiomics research. A learning health system (LHS) is conceptualized that uses clinically acquired data with machine learning to advance the initiatives of precision medicine. The LHS is comprehensive and can be used for clinical decision support, discovery, and hypothesis derivation. These developing uses can positively impact the ultimate management and therapeutic course for patients...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723407/rationale-and-emerging-strategies-for-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#9
REVIEW
Amy J Wisdom, Yvonne M Mowery, Richard F Riedel, David G Kirsch
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are heterogeneous, mesenchymal malignancies with variable biologic behavior. The primary management for localized STS is surgical resection, which may be combined with neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiation therapy to increase the probability of achieving local control. Many patients with large, high-grade STS develop metastatic disease. Several clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade for STS have produced promising responses in patients with metastatic disease. In this review, recent and ongoing clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibition for STS are discussed...
May 3, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722183/near-infrared-low-level-laser-therapy-and-cell-proliferation-the-emerging-role-of-redox-sensitive-signal-transduction-pathways
#10
REVIEW
Mario Migliario, Maurizio Sabbatini, Carmen Mortellaro, Filippo Renò
Lasers devices are widely used in various medical fields (e.g. surgery, dermatology, dentistry, rehabilitative medicine, etc) for different applications, ranging from surgical ablation of tissues to biostimulation and pain relief. Laser is an electromagnetic radiation which effects on biological tissues strongly depends on a number of physical parameters. Laser wavelength, energy output, irradiation time and modality, temperature and tissue penetration properties have to be set up according to the clinical target tissue and the desired effect...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716738/neuropsychological-consequences-of-childhood-medulloblastoma-and-possible-interventions-a-review
#11
E Doger de Spéville, V Kieffer, C Dufour, J Grill, M Noulhiane, L Hertz-Pannier, M Chevignard
BACKGROUND: Children who have been treated for a medulloblastoma often suffer long-term cognitive impairments that often negatively affect their academic performance and quality of life. In this article, we will review the neuropsychological consequences of childhood medulloblastoma and discuss the risk factors known to influence the presence and severity of these cognitive impairments and possible interventions to improve their quality of life. METHODS: This narrative review was based on electronic searches of PubMed to identify all relevant studies...
April 28, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705029/usefulness-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd
#12
REVIEW
Silvia Pecere, Grainne Holleran, Maria Elena Ainora, Matteo Garkovic, Franco Scaldaferri, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maria Assunta Zocco
Intestinal ultrasonography has emerged as a cheap, non-invasive and readily accessible modality for the assessment of a number of gastroenterological diseases. Over the last decade, particularly due to the widespread use of biological agents in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), guidelines regarding management and follow-up advise more regular disease assessment and surveillance in order to guide treatment adjustments, and provide more personalised care. Given the young age of the majority of patients with IBD the availability of an alternative modality to harmful radiation or the risks of endoscopy for this indication offers an appealing advantage...
April 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696530/prognostic-value-of-the-glasgow-prognostic-score-for-glioblastoma-multiforme-patients-treated-with-radiotherapy-and-temozolomide
#13
Erkan Topkan, Ugur Selek, Yurday Ozdemir, Berna A Yildirim, Ozan C Guler, Fuat Ciner, Huseyin Mertsoylu, Kadir Tufan
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), the combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent plus adjuvant temozolomide (GPS). METHODS: Data of newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with partial brain RT and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into three according to the GPS criteria: GPS-0: CRP < 10 mg/L and albumin > 35 g/L; GPS-1: CRP < 10 mg/L and albumin < 35 g/L or CRP > 10 mg/L and albumin > 35 g/L; and GPS-2: CRP > 10 mg/L and albumin < 35 g/L...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694234/expanding-the-therapeutic-index-of-radiation-therapy-by-normal-tissue-protection
#14
Pierre Montay-Gruel, Lydia Meziani, Chakradhar Yakkala, Marie-Catherine Vozenin
Normal tissue damages induced by radiation therapy remain dose-limiting factors in Radiation Oncology and this is still true despite recent advances in treatment planning and delivery of image-guided radiation therapy. Additionally, as the number of long-term cancer survivors increases, unacceptable complications emerge and dramatically reduce the patients' quality of life. This means that patients and clinicians expect discovery of new options for the therapeutic management of radiation-induced complications...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691296/tryptophan-metabolism-contributes-to-radiation-induced-immune-checkpoint-reactivation-in-glioblastoma
#15
Pravin Kesarwani, Antony Prabhu, Shiva Kant, Praveen Kumar, Stewart F Graham, Katie L Buelow, George D Wilson, Christopher Ryan Miller, Prakash Chinnaiyan
PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors designed to revert tumor-induced immune suppression have emerged as potent anti-cancer therapies. Tryptophan metabolism represents an immune checkpoint and targeting this pathway's rate limiting enzyme IDO1 is actively being investigated clinically. Here, we studied the intermediary metabolism of tryptophan metabolism in glioblastoma and evaluated the activity of the IDO1 inhibitor GDC-0919, both alone and in combination with radiation (RT).  Experimental Design: LC/GC-MS and expression profiling was performed for metabolomic and genomic analyses of patient-derived glioma...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689488/solution-combustion-synthesis-of-doped-tio-2-compounds-and-its-potential-antileishmanial-activity-mediated-by-photodynamic-therapy
#16
A A Lopera, A M A Velásquez, L C Clementino, S Robledo, A Montoya, L M de Freitas, V D N Bezzon, C R Fontana, C Garcia, M A S Graminha
Photodynamic therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, and compounds with photocatalytic behavior are promising candidates to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this parasitic disease. Titanium dioxide TiO2 is a semiconductor ceramic material that shows excellent photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity under Ultraviolet irradiation. Due to the harmful effects of UV radiation, many efforts have been made in order to enhance both photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of TiO2 in the visible region of the spectrum by doping or through modifications in the route of synthesis...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685424/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hodgkin-lymphoma-an-evolving-paradigm
#17
REVIEW
Steven M Bair, Anthony Mato, Jakub Svoboda
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is one of the most common lymphomas in the Western world. Although most patients are cured with standard first-line therapy, up to 20% of patients will have relapsed or refractory disease. Although the conventional approach to treatment has consisted of chemotherapy, radiation, and for those who relapse, autologous or allogeneic transplantation, newer approaches have become available in recent years, including immunoconjugates and checkpoint inhibitors. These approaches have shown significant efficacy in clinical trials and might be associated with fewer long-term toxicities compared with conventional therapies...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683461/utilizing-high-resolution-ultrasound-to-monitor-tumor-onset-and-growth-in-genetically-engineered-pancreatic-cancer-models
#18
Robert-Guenther Goetze, Soeren M Buchholz, Shilpa Patil, Golo Petzold, Volker Ellenrieder, Elisabeth Hessmann, Albrecht Neesse
The LSL-KrasG12D/+ ; LSL-Trp53R172H/+ ; Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mouse model represents an established and frequently used transgenic model to evaluate novel therapies in pancreatic cancer. Tumor onset is variable in the KPC model between 8 weeks and several months. Therefore, non-invasive imaging tools are required to screen for tumor onset and monitor for response to treatment. To address this issue, different approaches have emerged over the last years. High resolution ultrasound has major advantages such as non-invasiveness, fast session times and a high image resolution without radiation exposure...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667769/targeting-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-b-lineage-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Alberto M Martelli, Giorgio Zauli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Despite considerable progress in treatment protocols, B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) displays a poor prognosis in about 15-20% of pediatric cases and about 60% of adult patients. In addition, life-long irreversible late effects from chemo- and radiation therapy, including secondary malignancies, are a growing problem for leukemia survivors. Targeted therapy holds promising perspectives for cancer treatment as it may be more effective and have fewer side effects than conventional therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulatory cascade which controls proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of cancer cells, and it is frequently upregulated in the different subtypes of B-ALL, where it plays important roles in the pathophysiology, maintenance and progression of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650894/-chemoradiotherapy-the-standard-treatment-at-present
#20
Sadamoto Zenda
Chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy has been widely used in clinical practice because the additional benefit on radiotherapy alone had shown. Head and neck cancer: CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy has been a standard treatment for 15years both in definitive setting and postoperative setting. Esophageal cancer: 5-FU/CDDP is the best partner for radiotherapy and appropriate radiation dose has been discussed. Anal cancer: Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-FU and mitomycin C(MMC)remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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