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l-carnosine, memory

Jun Kaneko, Akiko Enya, Kota Enomoto, Qiong Ding, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Anserine/carnosine supplementation improves cerebral blood flow and verbal episodic memory in elderly people, as we previously reported. Anserine's buffering activity is superior to that of carnosine at neutral pH. In human sera, carnosine but not anserine is rapidly cleaved by carnosinase, limiting its effectiveness. This study examined the effects of anserine on AβPPswe/PSEN1dE9 Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice over 18-months old, an age at which these mice exhibit detectable memory deficits. We found that 8 weeks of anserine treatment completely recovered the memory deficits, improved pericyte coverage on endothelial cells in the brain, and diminished chronic glial neuroinflammatory reactions in these mice...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Raúl Domínguez, Juan Hernández Lougedo, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Carnosine, dipeptide formed by amino acids ß-alanine and L-histidine, has important physiological functions among which its antioxidant and related memory and learning. However, in connection with the exercise, the most important functions would be associated with muscle contractility, improving calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers, and the regulatory function of pH. Thus, it is proposed that carnosine is the major intracellular buffer, but could contribute to 7-10% in buffer or buffer capacity. Since carnosine synthesis seems to be limited by the availability of ß-alanine supplementation with this compound has been gaining increasing popularity among the athlete population...
October 6, 2014: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mark A Babizhayev
The activities of carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), carnosine imidazole containing dipeptide based derivatives (N-acetylcarnosine, carcinine, homocarnosine) and a carnosine degrading enzyme (serum carnosinase (EC; [human tissue carnosinase (EC, CN2 (CNDP2)] ) activities have been discrepantly linked to neuropathophysiological processes. Approximately 82% of the U.S. population will experience normal age-related cognitive decline, as compared to the precipitous losses that are associated with dementing disorders...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Chuan-Hsiao Han, Yin-Shiou Lin, Tai-Lin Lee, Hong-Jen Liang, Wen-Chi Hou
The oral administration of Asn-Trp (NW) or carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) dipeptides to D-galactose (Gal)-induced BALB/c mice was used to evaluate antioxidant activities in vivo. D-Galactose (Gal) was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal necks of mice daily for eight weeks to induce oxidative stress (Gal group). From the beginning of the fifth week, groups of NW10, NW40 (10 or 40 mg NW kg(-1)) or carnosine40 (40 mg carnosine kg(-1)) were administered orally concurrent Gal injection until the end of studies...
September 2014: Food & Function
Brent J Small, Kerri S Rawson, Christina Martin, Sarah L Eisel, Cyndy D Sanberg, Cathy L McEvoy, Paul R Sanberg, R Douglas Shytle, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford
Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53)...
February 2014: Rejuvenation Research
Bruno Herculano, Minami Tamura, Ayaka Ohba, Mayu Shimatani, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not feeding young (4 months old) Alzheimer's disease model transgenic mice with a high fat diet (HFD), consisting of 32% fat, is capable of causing cognitive decline and whether treatment with β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) is capable of reducing these effects. Carnosine is an endogenous antioxidant and antiglycating agent that is abundantly present in the brain and muscle tissues of vertebrates. After 8 weeks of feeding with HFD, we observed a significant decline in the contextual memory in transgenic mice fed with HFD as compared to transgenic mice fed with a normal diet as well as to normal diet-wild type mice...
2013: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
K N Roy Chengappa, Scott R Turkin, Susan DeSanti, Christopher R Bowie, Jaspreet S Brar, Patricia J Schlicht, Sherry L Murphy, Michelle L Hetrick, Robert Bilder, David Fleet
BACKGROUND: Targeting glutamatergic dysfunction provides an exciting opportunity to improve cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. One treatment approach has targeted inadequate antioxidant defenses at glutamatergic synapses. Animal and human data suggest NMDA antagonists worsen executive cognitive controls--e.g. increase perseverative responses and impair set-shifting. We conducted a preliminary study to test the hypothesis that L-carnosine, an antioxidant and anti-glycation agent which is co-localized and released with glutamate would improve executive dysfunction, a cognitive domain associated with glutamate...
December 2012: Schizophrenia Research
Mark A Babizhayev, Anatoliy I Deyev, Yegor E Yegorov
A decrease in olfactory function with age has been attributed to a variety of factors including normal anatomical and physiological changes in aging, surgery, trauma, environmental factors, medications and disease. Olfactory impairment has also been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. Deficits in these chemical senses cannot only reduce the pleasure and comfort from food, but represent risk factors for nutritional and immune deficiencies as well as adherence to specific dietary regimens...
November 2011: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Carlo Corona, Valerio Frazzini, Elena Silvestri, Rossano Lattanzio, Rossana La Sorda, Mauro Piantelli, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Domenico Ciavardelli, Enrico Rizzarelli, Stefano L Sensi
BACKGROUND: The pathogenic road map leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still not completely understood; however, a large body of studies in the last few years supports the idea that beside the classic hallmarks of the disease, namely the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles, other factors significantly contribute to the initiation and the progression of the disease. Among them, mitochondria failure, an unbalanced neuronal redox state, and the dyshomeostasis of endogenous metals like copper, iron, and zinc have all been reported to play an important role in exacerbating AD pathology...
2011: PloS One
Cem Suer, Nazan Dolu, A Seda Artis, Leyla Sahin, Sami Aydogan
Carnosine is a dipeptide synthesized by the carnosine synthetase from β-alanine and l-histidine. The well-known effects of carnosine may be related with mechanisms producing long-term potentiation which is one of the electrophysiological signs of memory. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effect of four different doses of carnosine on long-term potentiation in urethane-anesthetized rat. A bipolar stimulating electrode was placed in the medial perforant path and a double-barrel glass micropipette was placed in the dentate gyrus as the recording electrode...
February 2011: Neuropeptides
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Helmut L Haas
Hyperammonemia, a major pathophysiological factor in hepatic encephalopathy, impairs long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission, a cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampus. We have now studied the protective action of taurine on this paradigm by analyzing LTP characteristics in mouse hippocampal slices treated with ammonium chloride (1 mM) in the presence of taurine (1 mM), an ubiquitous osmolyte, antioxidant, and neuromodulator, as well as other substances with such properties. Ammonia-treated slices displayed a significant impairment of LTP maintenance...
September 2006: Neurobiology of Disease
Claudia Temperini, Andrea Scozzafava, Luca Puccetti, Claudiu T Supuran
Activation of the carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC isoforms hCA I, II, and IV with l-histidine and some of its derivatives has been investigated by kinetic and X-ray crystallographic methods. l-His was a potent activator of isozymes I and IV (activation constants in the range of 4-33microM), and a moderate hCA II activator (activation constant of 113microM). Both carboxy- as well as amino-substituted l-His derivatives, such as the methyl ester or the dipeptide carnosine (beta-Ala-His), acted as more efficient activators as compared to l-His...
December 1, 2005: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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