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Platelet Aggregation

Pernille Just Vinholt, Anne B Alnor, Mads Nybo, Anne-Mette Hvas
: In thrombocytopenia, differences in haemostatic capacity may explain discrepancies in bleeding risk between patients with cancer and patients with liver cirrhosis. The objective was to compare the haemostatic capacity in different thrombocytopenic patient populations. We evaluated platelet aggregation using impedance aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF:ristocetin-cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, and thrombin generation in adult hospitalized patients with platelet count less than 80 × 10/l...
March 19, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Zhengze Dai, Jie Gao, Shun Li, Rongrong Li, Zhaoyao Chen, Meng Liang, Xinfeng Liu, Gelin Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Platelet aggregation plays a vital role in the development of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been suggested as an index of platelet reactivity. This study aimed to investigate the association between MPV and ISR in CAS patients. METHODS: A total of 261 patients with CAS were enrolled. MPV was measured before CAS procedure. Digital subtraction angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or duplex ultrasonography was performed at 6 months and annually after the procedure...
March 20, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kristina Busygina, Janina Jamasbi, Till Seiler, Hans Deckmyn, Christian Weber, Richard Brandl, Reinhard Lorenz, Wolfgang Siess
Interaction of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) with platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib and of collagen with GPVI is essential for thrombus formation on ruptured or eroded atherosclerotic plaques (atherothrombosis). GPIb and GPVI signal through Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) which can irreversibly be blocked by oral application of ibrutinib, an established therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with long term safety. We found that ibrutinib and the novel Btk-inhibitors acalabrutinib and ONO/GS-4059 block GPVI-dependent static platelet aggregation in blood exposed to human plaque homogenate and collagen but not to ADP or arachidonic acid...
March 20, 2018: Blood
Mathias Montenarh, Claudia Götz
Ecto-protein kinases, including protein kinase CK2 (former name, casein kinase 2), have been the focus of research for more than 30 years. At the beginning of the ecto-kinase research their identification was performed with substrates and inhibitors whose specificity under the current knowledge was rather limited. Since all currently known ecto-kinases, including ecto-CK2, have intracellular counterparts, one has to exclude that an ecto-localization originates from intracellular counterparts after cell damage...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Michel Lagarde, Michel Guichardant, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Catherine Calzada, Evelyne Véricel
The oxygenation metabolism of arachidonic acid (ArA) has been early described in blood platelets, in particular with its conversion into the potent labile thromboxane A2 that induces platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cells contraction. In addition, the primary prostaglandins D2 and E2 have been mainly reported as inhibitors of platelet function. The platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) product, i.e. the hydroperoxide 12-HpETE, appears to stimulate platelet ArA metabolism at the level of its release from membrane phospholipids through phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1) activities, the first enzymes in prostanoid production cascade...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Irena Krga, Nevena Vidovic, Dragan Milenkovic, Aleksandra Konic-Ristic, Filip Stojanovic, Christine Morand, Marija Glibetic
Accumulating evidence suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in the cardioprotective effects associated with consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods. These benefits may partly be attributed to their effects on platelets, significant contributors to cardiovascular disease development. This study aimed to investigate the impact of physiologically relevant concentrations of anthocyanins and their metabolites on platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Whole blood from seven healthy volunteers was treated with anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside at 0...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ivar van Asten, Roger E G Schutgens, Rolf T Urbanus
The laboratory diagnostics of (inherited) platelet function disorders mainly comprises aggregation and secretion assays, which may be suitable for diagnosing some specific severe platelet function disorders, but are not reliable enough for diagnosing mild platelet function disorders or disorders associated with low platelet count. Flow cytometric assessment of platelet reactivity will expectedly provide additional value during the diagnostic work-up of platelet function disorders because it only requires a small volume of whole blood and allows the measurement of platelet function in thrombocytopenic samples...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Ulrike Binsker, Raghavendra Palankar, Jan Wesche, Thomas P Kohler, Josephine Prucha, Gerhard Burchhardt, Manfred Rohde, Frank Schmidt, Barbara M Bröker, Uwe Mamat, Jan Pané-Farré, Anica Graf, Patrick Ebner, Andreas Greinacher, Sven Hammerschmidt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Currently no drug therapy prevents secondary injury progression after TBI. Our aim was to investigate the effects of small-volume intravenous adenosine, lidocaine and Mg (ALM) resuscitation fluid after moderate-TBI in a rat fluid-percussion injury model. METHODS: Anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats (449±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) Sham (craniotomy without TBI), 2) No-Treatment, 3) Saline-controls or 4) ALM therapy (all n=16)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Kenneth E Remy, Mark H Yazer, Arun Saini, Ajlana Mehanovic-Varmaz, Sharon R Rogers, Col Andrew P Cap, Philip C Spinella
BACKGROUND: Agitation of platelet units stored at room temperature is performed routinely to maintain platelet function and leukoreduction of blood products is standard of care in many countries to reduce immune consequences of transfusion. The effect of agitation and leukoreduction on whole blood stored at 4° C requires investigation as reductions in hemostatic capacity of whole blood may reduce its efficacy in treating trauma-induced coagulopathy and platelet dysfunction. We hypothesize that agitation of whole blood will not affect hemostatic function and that leukoreduction will reduce hemostatic function of whole blood...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ali R Keramati, Lisa R Yanek, Kruthika Iyer, Margaret A Taub, Ingo Ruczinski, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Katrine Munk Begtrup, Johanne Andersen Hojbjerg, Birgitte Vrou Offersen, Anne-Mette Hvas
Cancer is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease. Venous thromboembolic disease accounts for a substantial addition to morbidity and mortality rates in cancer patients and is the second leading cause of death in cancer patients, exceeded only by the underlying cancer. Only few previous studies have investigated the influence of radiotherapy on hemostasis and whether radiotherapy in itself causes an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease. The aim was to investigate if adjuvant radiotherapy affects hemostasis after surgery and chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Masanori Tsujimoto, Yukiko Enomoto, Masafumi Miyai, Yusuke Egashira, Toru Iwama
Purpose To determine the best platelet function test for in-stent tissue protrusion following carotid artery stenting (CAS). Methods Patients who underwent CAS were recruited prospectively in this observational study. Combination of aspirin 100 mg/day and clopidogrel 75 mg/day was administered for a minimum of 7 days prior to procedure. Platelet aggregation was measured by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) following stimulation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) and by the point of care assay, VerifyNow which measures aspirin and thienopyridine reaction units...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Guangtao Yao, Guohai Su, Keqing Li, Bin Li, Hongwei Dong
Objectives: Comparison of Ticagrelor vs clopidogrel in antiplatelet therapeutic effect of acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods: The study focused on 2000 acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2015. To reduce the formation of acute stent thrombosis caused by clopidogrel resistance, we had two options, one was to double the dosage of clopidogrel, and the other was to substitute ticagrelor for clopidogrel...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Diana A Gorog
The stability of an arterial thrombus, determined by its structure and ability to resist endogenous fibrinolysis, is a major determinant of the extent of infarction that results from coronary or cerebrovascular thrombosis. There is ample evidence from both laboratory and clinical studies to suggest that in addition to inhibiting platelet aggregation, antithrombotic medications have shear-dependent effects, potentiating thrombus fragility and/or enhancing endogenous fibrinolysis. Such shear-dependent effects, potentiating the fragility of the growing thrombus and/or enhancing endogenous thrombolytic activity, likely contribute to the clinical effectiveness of such medications...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Vincent-Philippe Lavallée, Jalila Chagraoui, Tara MacRae, Miriam Marquis, Arnaud Bonnefoy, Jana Krosl, Sébastien Lemieux, Anne Marinier, Caroline Pabst, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
A V Belyaev, J L Dunster, J M Gibbins, M A Panteleev, V Volpert
Hemostasis is a complex physiological mechanism that functions to maintain vascular integrity under any conditions. Its primary components are blood platelets and a coagulation network that interact to form the hemostatic plug, a combination of cell aggregate and gelatinous fibrin clot that stops bleeding upon vascular injury. Disorders of hemostasis result in bleeding or thrombosis, and are the major immediate cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis is immensely complex, as it depends on blood cell adhesion and mechanics, hydrodynamics and mass transport of various species, huge signal transduction networks in platelets, as well as spatiotemporal regulation of the blood coagulation network...
March 5, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Boris Aleksovski, Violeta Neceva, Viktorija Vujović, Nensi Manusheva, Vladimir Rendevski, Antoni Novotni, Ana Filipce, Anastazija Spasovska, Aspazija Sofijanova, Vasko Aleksovski, Icko Gjorgoski
INTRODUCTION: Adverse effects with bleeding disorders are often associated with the administration of SSRI in depression, although the exact mechanisms remain contradicting. This study is aimed at detecting and exploring the mechanisms of SSRI-induced changes in platelet reactivity in non-responding patients with Recurrent Depressive Disorder (RDD) and life-long exposure to antidepressants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients and thirty-one healthy controls were included in the study...
March 10, 2018: Thrombosis Research
S Arques
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Conceptually, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory status and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of most cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease and heart failure. Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, has many physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation activity. It also plays an essential role in the fluid exchange across the capillary membrane...
March 12, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen
BACKGROUND: Recent work has developed solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) of efavirenz that have been demonstrated, preclinically, improved oral bioavailability and the potential to enable up to a 50% dose reduction, and is currently being studied in a healthy volunteer clinical trial. Other SDN formulations are being studied for parenteral administration, either as intramuscular long-acting formulations, or for direct administration intravenously. The interaction of nanoparticles with the immunological and haematological systems can be a major barrier to successful translation but has been understudied for SDN formulations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
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