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Autism anxiety bipolar disorder attention deficit disorder

Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Paola Bozzatello, Elena Brignolo, Elisa De Grandi, Silvio Bellino
A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
M Bauer, T Banaschewski, A Heinz, I Kamp-Becker, A Meyer-Lindenberg, F Padberg, M A Rapp, R Rupprecht, F Schneider, T G Schulze, H-U Wittchen
Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement...
September 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Elina Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, David Gyllenberg, Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Mika Gissler, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
IMPORTANCE: Previous research has focused on examining the familial clustering of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is known about the clustering of other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of persons with ASD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among full siblings of probands with ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders used a population-based cohort that included children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2005, who received a diagnosis of ASD by December 31, 2007...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Ashley E Nordsletten, Henrik Larsson, James J Crowley, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
IMPORTANCE: Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Jie Hu, Jun Liao, Malini Sathanoori, Sally Kochmar, Jessica Sebastian, Svetlana A Yatsenko, Urvashi Surti
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of brain function that affect emotion, learning, and memory. Copy number variations of contactin genes (CNTNs), including CNTN3, CNTN4, CNTN5, and CNTN6, have been suggested to be associated with these disorders. However, phenotypes have been reported in only a handful of patients with copy number variations involving CNTNs. METHODS: From January 2009 to January 2013, 3724 patients ascertained through the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were referred to our laboratory for clinical array comparative genomic hybridization testing...
2015: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Joseph R Phillips, Doaa H Hewedi, Abeer M Eissa, Ahmed A Moustafa
The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders...
2015: Frontiers in Public Health
Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
F I Tarazi, Z T Sahli, J Pleskow, S A Mousa
Asperger's syndrome (AS), a behavioral disorder that is related to autism, is associated with abnormal social functioning and repetitive behaviors but not with a decrease in intelligence or linguistic functionality. This article reviews the clinical diagnosis of AS and discusses the comorbid disorders that may be present with AS, as well as the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pharmacotherapies given to AS patients, as reported in preclinical and clinical studies. AS may be present with several comorbid disorders including: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and Tourette's syndrome...
March 2015: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Natalia N Kudryavtseva, Dmitry A Smagin, Irina L Kovalenko, Galina B Vishnivetskaya
Repeated aggression is a frequent symptom of many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including obsessive-compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, bipolar and post-traumatic stress disorders, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia and drug abuse. However, repeated aggression is insufficiently studied because there is a lack of adequate models in animals. The sensory contact model (SCM), widely used to study the effects of chronic social defeat stress, can also be used to investigate the effects of repeated aggression...
November 2014: Nature Protocols
Leah Kaye, Marie Kurtz, Cheryl Tierney, Ajay Soni, Marilyn Augustyn
Chase is a 5½-year-old boy whom you have followed in your primary care practice since age 26 months. He was born full-term vaginal delivery weighing 6 pounds 15 ounces. His biological mother used heroin, tobacco, and cocaine during pregnancy. From 8 weeks to 18 months, he spent time in a foster home where he was provided limited attention and nurturing. At age 18 months, he entered a loving foster home; at 26 months, he was adopted. There is maternal history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, depression, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse but no history of autism or cognitive disability...
November 2014: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Manpreet K Singh, Terence Ketter, Kiki D Chang
Pediatric onset bipolar disorder (BD) is a challenging diagnosis with potentially debilitating outcomes. This review aims to critically evaluate recently published literature relevant to the diagnosis of BD in youth, emphasizing interesting and important new findings characterizing pediatric BD and reporting updates in the diagnostic and statistical manual relevant to this disorder in youth. Challenges regarding the diagnosis of BD will be discussed, in addition to important distinctions with other childhood disorders, including other bipolar spectrum disorders; major depressive disorder; dysthymia; disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavioral disorders; anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); psychotic disorders; autism spectrum disorders; substance use disorders; and borderline personality disorder...
December 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jie Song, Sarah E Bergen, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén, Paul Lichtenstein
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BPD) shares genetic components with other psychiatric disorders; however, uncertainty remains about where in the psychiatric spectra BPD falls. To understand the etiology of BPD, we studied the familial aggregation of BPD and co-aggregation between BPD and schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug abuse, personality disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. METHODS: A population-based cohort was created by linking several Swedish national registers...
March 2015: Bipolar Disorders
Brian J Piper, Hilary M Gray, Jacob Raber, Melissa A Birkett
AIM: The parent form of the 113-item Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is widely utilized by child psychiatrists and psychologists. This report examines the reliability and validity of a recently developed abbreviated version of the CBCL, the Brief Problem Monitor (BPM). METHODS: Caregivers (n = 567) completed the CBCL online and the 19 BPM items were examined separately. RESULTS: Internal consistency of the BPM was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0...
October 2014: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Louisa Grandin Sylvia, Leah W Shesler, Andrew D Peckham, Temple Grandin, David A Kahn
Previous studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders and attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in which a heightened response is evoked by stimuli in the environment. These individuals also display symptoms of anxiety such as irritability, avoidance, and sweating. Deep touch pressure, a technique in which firm touch is applied to the body either by the self or by a machine, has been shown to improve functioning and reduce symptoms of anxiety in these populations...
January 2014: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Donna Spencer, Jaclyn Marshall, Brady Post, Mahesh Kulakodlu, Craig Newschaffer, Taylor Dennen, Francisca Azocar, Anjali Jain
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine rates and predictors of psychotropic use and multiclass polypharmacy among commercially insured children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: This retrospective observational study used administrative medical and pharmacy claims data linked with health plan enrollment and sociodemographic information from 2001 to 2009. Children with ASD were identified by using a validated ASD case algorithm. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent medication fills across ≥ 2 classes for at least 30 days...
November 2013: Pediatrics
Marc Manseau, Brady G Case
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine racial-ethnic differences in use of mental health treatment for a comprehensive range of specific disorders over time. METHODS: Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to examine adult outpatient mental health visits to U.S. physicians from 1993 to 2008 (N=754,497). Annual visit prevalence for three racial-ethnic groups was estimated as the number of visits divided by the group's U...
January 1, 2014: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Elizabeth K Nousen, Juliana G Franco, Elinor L Sullivan
The increased prevalence and high comorbidity of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and mental health disorders (MHDs) have prompted investigation into the potential contributing mechanisms. There is a bidirectional association between MetS and MHDs including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Medication side effects and social repercussions are contributing environmental factors, but there are a number of shared underlying neurological and physiological mechanisms that explain the high comorbidity between these two disorders...
2013: Neuroendocrinology
Ram Lakhan
Background. The coexistence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID) is common. This study determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID in Barwani, India. Method. A total of 262 children with ID were evaluated for psychiatric disorders using the diagnostic criteria outlined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Psychiatric disorders appeared in study participants at the following rates: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6...
2013: ISRN Psychiatry
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