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Lung anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141779/five-field-imrt-class-solutions-and-dosimetric-planning-guidelines-for-implementing-accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation
#1
Sarah Quirk, Petra Grendarova, Michael Roumeliotis
PURPOSE: A comprehensive set of planning guidelines was developed to aid in achieving reproducible dosimetric results for external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The methodology for the development of class solutions for dosimetric planning of the APBI technique, including dose constraint recommendations, is presented for target coverage and conformity as well as normal tissues. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A conservative patient setup was simulated on a linear accelerator, and a comprehensive arrangement of gantry and couch angles was measured for clearance...
September 28, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131765/comprehensive-cross-sectional-imaging-of-the-pulmonary-veins
#2
Cameron Hassani, Farhood Saremi
The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, but their importance to the radiologist extends far beyond this seemingly straightforward function. The anatomy of the pulmonary veins is variable among patients, with several noteworthy variant and anomalous patterns, including supernumerary pulmonary veins, a common ostium, anomalous pulmonary venous return, and levoatriocardinal veins. Differences in pulmonary vein anatomy and the presence of variant or anomalous anatomy can be of critical importance, especially for preoperative planning of pulmonary and cardiac surgery...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128013/bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-and-other-late-pulmonary-complications-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Anne Bergeron, Guang-Shing Cheng
As more individuals survive their hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), there is growing appreciation of the late organ complications of this curative procedure for malignant and nonmalignant hematologic disorders. Late noninfectious pulmonary complications encompass all aspects of the bronchopulmonary anatomy. There have been recent advances in the diagnostic recognition and management of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, which is recognized as a pulmonary manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114928/a-new-substitute-for-formalin-application-to-embalming-cadavers
#4
Yoshinori Haizuka, Miki Nagase, Satoshi Takashino, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Fujikura, George Matsumura
The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109913/comparative-analysis-of-the-microrna-transcriptome-between-yak-and-cattle-provides-insight-into-high-altitude-adaptation
#5
Jiuqiang Guan, Keren Long, Jideng Ma, Jinwei Zhang, Dafang He, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Anan Jiang, Xun Wang, Yaodong Hu, Shilin Tian, Zhi Jiang, Mingzhou Li, Xiaolin Luo
Extensive and in-depth investigations of high-altitude adaptation have been carried out at the level of morphology, anatomy, physiology and genomics, but few investigations focused on the roles of microRNA (miRNA) in high-altitude adaptation. We examined the differences in the miRNA transcriptomes of two representative hypoxia-sensitive tissues (heart and lung) between yak and cattle, two closely related species that live in high and low altitudes, respectively. In this study, we identified a total of 808 mature miRNAs, which corresponded to 715 pre-miRNAs in the two species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099727/supplemental-computational-phantoms-to-estimate-out-of-field-absorbed-dose-in-photon-radiotherapy
#6
Kyle Joseph Gallagher, Jaad Tannous, Racile Nabha, Joelle Ann Feghali, Zeina Ayoub, Wassim T Jalbout, Bassem Youssef, Phillip J Taddei
The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extents of these patients' computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients' image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated...
November 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097628/morphological-and-functional-properties-of-the-conducting-human-airways-investigated-by-in-vivo-ct-and-in-vitro-mri
#7
Tristan Van de Moortele, Christine H Wendt, Filippo Coletti
The accurate representation of the human airway anatomy is crucial for understanding and modeling the structure-function relationship in both healthy and diseased lungs. The present knowledge in this area is based on morphometric studies of excised lung casts, partially complemented by in vivo studies in which computed tomography (CT) was used on a small number of subjects. In the present study, we analyze CT scans of a cohort of healthy subjects and obtain comprehensive morphometric information down to the seventh generation of bronchial branching, including airway diameter, length, branching angle, and rotation angle...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079071/occult-spinal-cord-injury-after-blunt-force-trauma-in-a-patient-with-achondroplasia-a-case-report-and-review-of-trauma-management-strategy
#8
Martin Huecker, Zach Harris, Eric Yazel
BACKGROUND: Achondroplastic dwarfism is associated with anatomic abnormalities that can predispose to occult injury and challenges in trauma management. Airway anatomy is problematic due to macrocephaly, midface hypoplasia, and a narrow nasopharynx. Manipulation of the neck is very dangerous due to the high likelihood of preexisting cervicomedullary stenosis. Restrictive lung disease and obstructive sleep apnea may complicate respiratory status. Peripheral and central venous access can be difficult to obtain...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078799/comparing-microbiotas-in-the-upper-aerodigestive-and-lower-respiratory-tracts-of-lambs
#9
Laura Glendinning, David Collie, Steven Wright, Kenny M D Rutherford, Gerry McLachlan
BACKGROUND: Recently, the importance of the lung microbiota during health and disease has been examined in humans and in small animal models. Whilst sheep have been proposed as an appropriate large animal model for studying the pathophysiology of a number of important human respiratory diseases, it is clearly important to continually define the limits of agreement between these systems as new concepts emerge. In humans, it has recently been established that the lung microbiota is seeded by microbes from the oral cavity...
October 27, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078674/single-incision-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-left-lower-lobe-anterior-segmentectomy-s8
#10
Carlos Galvez, Francisco Lirio, Julio Sesma, Benno Baschwitz, Sergio Bolufer
Unusual anatomical segmentectomies are technically demanding procedures that require a deep knowledge of intralobar anatomy and surgical skill. In the other hand, these procedures preserve more normal lung parenchyma for lesions located in specific anatomical segments, and are indicated for benign lesions, metastasis and also early stage adenocarcinomas without nodal involvement. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed of a benign pneumocytoma in the anterior segment of the left-lower lobe (S8, LLL), so we performed a single-incision video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SI-VATS) anatomical S8 segmentectomy in 140 minutes under intercostal block...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076936/lung-ultrasound-after-transbronchial-biopsy-for-pneumothorax-screening-in-post-lung-transplant-patients
#11
Karen Bensted, Jane McKenzie, Adrian Havryk, Marshall Plit, Erez Ben-Menachem
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound has been suggested as an alternative to routine chest radiography (CXR) to screen for pneumothorax after transbronchial lung biopsy. In post-lung transplant patients, who may have altered anatomy and pleural adhesions, the validity of lung ultrasound to screen for postbiopsy pneumothoraces has not been investigated. METHODS: Lung ultrasound using an ultraportable handheld device was performed in a standardized manner 2-hour after biopsy in post-lung transplant patients...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065887/computed-tomography-of-the-thorax-in-rabbits-a-prospective-study-in-ten-clinically-healthy-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#12
Désirée Müllhaupt, Sandra Wenger, Patrick Kircher, Nadja Pfammatter, Jean-Michel Hatt, Stefanie Ohlerth
BACKGROUND: Literature investigating the normal cross-sectional anatomy of rabbits with computed tomography (CT) is sparse and incomplete. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the normal thoracic structures, in particular the cranial thorax, with CT angiography in 10 clinically healthy New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. RESULTS: Absolute and relative measurements of the trachea, heart, thoracic caudal vena cava and aorta, right and left principal bronchi, right and left caudal lobar bronchi and the accompanying branches of the right and left pulmonary artery and vein, right and left lung volume and lung density were taken...
October 24, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063595/pulmonary-anatomy-and-a-case-of-unilateral-aplasia-in-a-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina-developmental-perspectives-on-cryptodiran-lungs
#13
E R Schachner, J C Sedlmayr, R Schott, T R Lyson, R K Sanders, M Lambertz
The common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is a well studied and broadly distributed member of Testudines; however, very little is known concerning developmental anomalies and soft tissue pathologies of turtles and other reptiles. Here, we present an unusual case of unilateral pulmonary aplasia, asymmetrical carapacial kyphosis, and mild scoliosis in a live adult C. serpentina. The detailed three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the respiratory system in both the pathological and normal adult C. serpentina, and a hatchling are visualized using computed tomography (CT), microCT, and 3D digital anatomical models...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049667/when-can-computed-tomography-fissure-analysis-replace-chartis-collateral-ventilation-assessment-in-the-prediction-of-patients-with-emphysema-who-might-benefit-from-endobronchial-valve-therapy
#14
Alfonso Fiorelli, Mario Santini, Pallav Shah
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was when can computed tomography-fissure analysis replace Chartis collateral ventilation assessment in the prediction of patients with emphysema who might benefit from endobronchial valve therapy? Twelve papers were chosen to answer the question. The authors, date, journal, country of publication and study type; patient group studied; relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. Five studies retrospectively compared the prognostic value of 2 methods...
September 5, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032865/electron-postmastectomy-chest-wall-plus-comprehensive-nodal-irradiation-technique-using-electron-monte-carlo-dose-algorithm
#15
Linda Hong, Ase Ballangrud, Beryl McCormick, James Mechalakos
For left-sided postmastectomy patients requiring chest wall plus comprehensive nodal irradiation, sometimes traditional techniques such as partial wide tangents or electron/tangents combination are not feasible due to abnormal chest wall contour or heart position or unusually wide excision scar. We developed electron chest wall irradiation technique using Electron Monte Carlo (EMC) dose algorithm that will achieve heart sparing with acceptable ipsilateral lung dose, minimal contralateral lung, and breast dose...
October 9, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024453/the-histopathologic-reliability-of-tissue-taken-from-cadavers-within-the-gross-anatomy-laboratory
#16
Guenevere Rae, William P Newman, Robin McGoey, Supriya Donthamsetty, Aryn C Karpinski, Jeffrey Green
The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution. The tissue was processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at six micrometers, and stained with H&E. The microscope slides were evaluated by a board certified pathologist to determine whether the cellular components of the tissues were preserved at a high enough quality to allow for histopathologic diagnosis...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019755/interstitial-lung-disease-in-children-made-easier%C3%A2-well-almost
#17
Thomas R Semple, Michael T Ashworth, Catherine M Owens
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pediatric patients is different from that in adults, with a vast array of pathologic conditions unique to childhood, varied modes of presentation, and a different range of radiologic appearances. Although rare, childhood ILD (chILD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, most notably in conditions of disordered surfactant function, with respiratory failure in 100% of neonates with surfactant protein B dysfunction and 100% mortality without lung transplantation...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018606/exceptional-soft-tissues-preservation-in-a-mummified-frog-eating-eocene-salamander
#18
Jérémy Tissier, Jean-Claude Rage, Michel Laurin
Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was 'mummified' (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago) in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei, whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992232/development-of-a-minipig-physical-phantom-from-ct-data
#19
Sooyeun Park, Pilsoo Lee, Wi-Ho Ha, Han Sung Kim, Byeong Ryong Park, Jae Seok Kim, Sehwan Shim, Sunhoo Park, Young-Su Kim, Chan Hyeong Kim, Young-Woo Jin
Quantification of pathological progression of radiation-induced injury is essential in development of treatment methods, and a proper animal model is necessary for relevant radiological and medical studies. A minipig is a current animal model selected because of its similarities to humans in anatomy and pathology. In the present study, a minipig physical phantom was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. For dosimetry purposes, the minipig physical phantom was constructed on a slice-by-slice basis, with an array of holes to accommodate dosimeters...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971627/the-functional-anatomy-of-nerves-innervating-the-ventral-grooved-blubber-of-fin-whales-balaenoptera-physalus
#20
Wayne Vogl, Hannes Petersen, Arlo Adams, Margo A Lillie, Robert E Shadwick
Nerves that supply the floor of the oral cavity in rorqual whales are extensible to accommodate the dramatic changes in tissue dimensions that occur during "lunge feeding" in this group. We report here that the large nerves innervating the muscle component of the ventral grooved blubber (VGB) in fin whales are branches of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). Therefore, the muscles of the VGB are homologous to second branchial arch derived muscles, which in humans include the muscles of "facial expression." We speculate, based on the presence of numerous foramina on the dorsolateral surface of the mandibular bones, that general sensation from the VGB likely is carried by branches of the mandibular division (V3) of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve), and that these small branches travel in the lipid-rich layer directly underlying the skin...
November 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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