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Lung anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321268/caudal-fluoroscopy-to-guide-venous-access-for-pacemaker-device-implantation-should-this-now-be-standard-practice
#1
Hitesh C Patel, Carl Hayward, Shane Nanayakkara, Archer Broughton, Justin A Mariani
We describe a technique that uses both posterior-anterior and caudal fluoroscopy to achieve venous access for pacemaker device implantation. A significant advantage of this technique is the ability to clearly demarcate both the anatomy of venous drainage and the lung border. We would encourage all centres to adopt this technique as a safe approach to venous access.
2017: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320428/a-topology-based-method-to-mitigate-the-dosimetric-uncertainty-caused-by-the-positional-variation-of-the-boost-volume-in-breast-conservative-radiotherapy
#2
Peng-Yi Lee, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shang-Wen Chen, Chun-Ru Chien, Chun-Nan Chu, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Ji-An Liang, Ying-Jun Lin, An-Cheng Shiau
BACKGROUND: To improve local control rate in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery, additional boost dose to the tumor bed could be delivered simultaneously via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) modulated technique. However, the position of tumor bed kept changing during the treatment course as the treatment position was aligned to bony anatomy. This study aimed to analyze the positional uncertainties between bony anatomy and tumor bed, and a topology-based approach was derived to stratify patients with high variation in tumor bed localization...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297347/geometric-dose-prediction-model-for-hemithoracic-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-in-mesothelioma-patients-with-two-intact-lungs
#3
LiCheng Kuo, Ellen D Yorke, Vishruta A Dumane, Amanda Foster, Zhigang Zhang, James G Mechalakos, Abraham J Wu, Kenneth E Rosenzweig, Andreas Rimner
The presence of two intact lungs makes it challenging to reach a tumoricidal dose with hemithoracic pleural intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who underwent pleurectomy/decortications or have unresectable disease. We developed an anatomy-based model to predict attainable prescription dose before starting optimization. Fifty-six clinically delivered IMRT plans were analyzed regarding correlation of prescription dose and individual and total lung volumes, planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral normal lung volume and ratios: contralateral/ipsilateral lung (CIVR); contralateral lung/PTV (CPVR); ipsilateral lung /PTV (IPVR); ipsilateral normal lung /total lung (INTLVR); ipsilateral normal lung/PTV (INLPVR)...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295386/an-integrated-segmentation-and-shape-based-classification-scheme-for-distinguishing-adenocarcinomas-from-granulomas-on-lung-ct
#4
Mehdi Alilou, Niha Beig, Mahdi Orooji, Anant Madabhushi, Prabhakar Rajiah, Michael Yang, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Sagar Rakshit, Niyoti Reddy, Frank Jacono
PURPOSE: Distinguishing between benign granulmoas and adenocarcinomas is confounded by their similar visual appearance on routine CT scans. Unfortunately, owing to the inability to discriminate these lesions radigraphically, many patients with benign granulomas are subjected to unnecessary surgical wedge resections and biopsies for pathologic confirmation of cancer presence or absence. This suggests the need for improved computerized characterization of these nodules in order to distinguish between these two classes of lesions on CT scans...
March 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291404/outcomes-and-effectiveness-of-posterior-occipitocervical-fusion-for-suboccipital-spinal-metastases
#5
Panya Luksanapruksa, Jacob M Buchowski, Neill M Wright, Frank H Valone, Colleen Peters, David B Bumpass
OBJECTIVE The incidence of suboccipital spinal metastases is rare but has increased given cancer patients' longer life expectancies. Operative treatment in this region is often challenging because of limited fixation points due to tumor lysis, as well as adjacent neural and vascular anatomy. Few studies have reported on this population of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and complications of patients with suboccipital spinal metastases who had undergone posterior occipitocervical fixation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287530/open-tracheostomy-gastric-acid-aspiration-murine-model-of-acute-lung-injury-results-in-maximal-acute-nonlethal-lung-injury
#6
Ravi Alluri, Hilliard L Kutscher, Barbara A Mullan, Bruce A Davidson, Paul R Knight
Acid pneumonitis is a major cause of sterile acute lung injury (ALI) in humans. Acid pneumonitis spans the clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by neutrophilic alveolitis, and injury to both alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium. Clinically, ARDS is defined by acute onset of hypoxemia, bilateral patchy pulmonary infiltrates and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Human studies have provided us with valuable information about the physiological and inflammatory changes in the lung caused by ARDS, which has led to various hypotheses about the underling mechanisms...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267978/identification-of-essential-components-of-thoracoscopic-lobectomy-and-targets-for%C3%A2-simulation
#7
Mark K Ferguson, Cathy Bennett
BACKGROUND: Fewer than 50% of lobectomies for lung cancer are performed using thoracoscopic (video-assisted thoracic surgery [VATS]) techniques. This situation could be mitigated through the use of simulation training. Using a Delphi process, this study identified essential components of VATS right upper lobectomy most amenable to focused simulation. METHODS: Experienced VATS surgeons were randomly selected for participation. A custom Internet interface permitted anonymous voting, commenting, and the ability to modify and propose new components...
March 4, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240666/pulmonary-perfusion-changes-following-extracardiac-lateral-fontan-and-bilateral-bidirectional-glenn-shunt-in-hypoplastic-right-ventricle-with-duplicated-superior-vena-cava
#8
Roberto Andres Salas Fragomeni, Evrim B Turkbey, Blake C Jones, Lilja B Solnes, Steven P Rowe
The incidence of congenital heart disease requiring specialized care is 2.5 to 3 per 1000 live births with a prevalence of congenital heart disease of 81.4 per 10,000 live births. Total cavopulmonary or atriopulmonary connection, used for palliation of certain types of congenital heart disease, diverts flow from the vena cava or atrium directly into the pulmonary arteries. Altered anatomy in patients who have undergone this intervention may result in contrast and/or radiotracer localizing preferentially to a single lung leading to interpretation errors and redundant studies...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237697/heart-transplantation-in-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease
#9
REVIEW
Lucile Houyel, Ngoc-Tram To-Dumortier, Yannick Lepers, Jérôme Petit, Régine Roussin, Mohamed Ly, Emmanuel Lebret, Elie Fadel, Jürgen Hörer, Sébastien Hascoët
With the advances in congenital cardiac surgery and postoperative care, an increasing number of children with complex congenital heart disease now reach adulthood. There are already more adults than children living with a congenital heart defect, including patients with complex congenital heart defects. Among these adults with congenital heart disease, a significant number will develop ventricular dysfunction over time. Heart failure accounts for 26-42% of deaths in adults with congenital heart defects. Heart transplantation, or heart-lung transplantation in Eisenmenger syndrome, then becomes the ultimate therapeutic possibility for these patients...
February 22, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237293/method-of-predicting-the-mean-lung-dose-based-on-a-patient-s-anatomy-and-dose-volume-histograms
#10
Anna Zawadzka, Marta Nesteruk, Beata Brzozowska, Paweł F Kukołowicz
The aim of this study was to propose a method to predict the minimum achievable mean lung dose (MLD) and corresponding dosimetric parameters for organs-at-risk (OAR) based on individual patient anatomy. For each patient, the dose for 36 equidistant individual multileaf collimator shaped fields in the treatment planning system (TPS) was calculated. Based on these dose matrices, the MLD for each patient was predicted by the homemade DosePredictor software in which the solution of linear equations was implemented...
April 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218614/first-i-in-vivo-i-magnetic-particle-imaging-of-lung-perfusion-in-rats
#11
Xinyi Yedda Zhou, Kenneth Jeffris, Elaine Yu, Bo Zheng, Patrick Goodwill, Payam Nahid, Steven Conolly
Pulmonary embolism (PE), along with the closely related condition of deep vein thrombosis, affect an estimated 600,000 patients in the US per year. Untreated, PE carries a mortality rate of 30%. Because many patients experience mild or non-specific symptoms, imaging studies are necessary for definitive diagnosis of PE. Iodinated CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is recommended for most patients, while nuclear medicine-based ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans are reserved for patients in whom the use of iodine is contraindicated...
February 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185691/thoracic-ultrasound-technique-applications-and-interpretation
#12
REVIEW
Suraj H Rambhia, Catherine A D'Agostino, Ali Noor, Robert Villani, Jason J Naidich, John S Pellerito
Thoracic ultrasound is used at the bedside in emergency and critical care settings. Advantages of ultrasound include rapid real-time, low-cost, diagnostic information that can direct patient care without the use of ionizing radiation. We describe methods on how to perform lung ultrasound, with the intent to educate the radiologist who might otherwise be relatively unfamiliar with thoracic sonography. We describe and depict the normal sonographic appearance of lung anatomy. We also show the sonographic appearance of a wide range of lung and pleural pathologies such as pneumonia, pneumothorax, as well as lung and pleural masses...
December 15, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178715/infectious-causes-of-right-middle-lobe-syndrome
#13
Aatif Rashid, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151425/the-contribution-of-small-airway-obstruction-to-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
REVIEW
James C Hogg, Peter D Paré, Tillie-Louise Hackett
The hypothesis that the small conducting airways were the major site of obstruction to airflow in normal lungs was introduced by Rohrer in 1915 and prevailed until Weibel introduced a quantitative method of studying lung anatomy in 1963. Green repeated Rohrer's calculations using Weibels new data in 1965 and found that the smaller conducting airways offered very little resistance to airflow. This conflict was resolved by seminal experiments conducted by Macklem and Mead in 1967, which confirmed that a small proportion of the total lower airways resistance is attributable to small airways <2 mm in diameter...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122571/continuous-paravertebral-block-using-a-thoracoscopic-catheter-insertion-technique-for-postoperative-pain-after-thoracotomy-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#15
Yoshikane Yamauchi, Mitsuhiro Isaka, Kamon Ando, Keita Mori, Hideaki Kojima, Tomohiro Maniwa, Shoji Takahashi, Eiji Ando, Yasuhisa Ohde
BACKGROUND: Thoracic epidural analgesia (EDA) is the gold standard for pain control after thoracotomy. However, because of its severe side effects, it is contraindicated in patients taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. In addition, some patients' anatomy can make epidural catheter insertion challenging. We therefore investigated the safety and efficacy of paravertebral block (PVB) using a thoracoscopic insertion technique, which avoids damage to the parietal pleura, for postoperative pain after thoracotomy...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112399/estimating-organ-doses-from-tube-current-modulated-ct-examinations-using-a-generalized-linear-model
#16
Maryam Bostani, Kyle McMillan, Peiyun Lu, Grace Hyun J Kim, Dianna Cody, Gary Arbique, S Bruce Greenberg, John J DeMarco, Chris H Cagnon, Michael F McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: Currently available Computed Tomography dose metrics are mostly based on fixed tube current Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and/or physical measurements such as the size specific dose estimate (SSDE). In addition to not being able to account for Tube Current Modulation (TCM), these dose metrics do not represent actual patient dose. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a dose estimation model based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which extends the ability to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated examinations by incorporating regional descriptors of patient size, scanner output and other scan-specific variables as needed...
January 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102956/experimental-verification-of-4d-monte-carlo-simulations-of-dose-delivery-to-a-moving-anatomy
#17
Sara Gholampourkashi, Miro Vujicic, Jason Belec, Joanna E Cygler, Emily Heath
PURPOSE: To evaluate a novel 4D Monte Carlo simulation tool by comparing calculations to physical measurements using a respiratory motion phantom. METHODS: We used a dynamic Quasar phantom in both stationary and breathing states (sinusoidal motion of amplitude of 1.8 cm and period of 3.3 s) for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linear accelerator. Gafchromic EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system were placed inside the lung insert of the phantom to measure dose profiles and point-dose values at the center of the spherical tumor inside the insert...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096728/high-resolution-imaging-of-neural-anatomy-and-pathology-of-the-neck
#18
REVIEW
Jeong Hyun Lee, Kai-Lung Cheng, Young Jun Choi, Jung Hwan Baek
The neck has intricately connected neural structures, including cervical and brachial plexi, the sympathetic system, lower cranial nerves, and their branches. Except for brachial plexus, there has been little research regarding the normal imaging appearance or corresponding pathologies of neural structures in the neck. The development in imaging techniques with better spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio has made it possible to see many tiny nerves to predict complications related to image-guided procedures and to better assess treatment response, especially in the management of oncology patients...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073579/robustness-of-4d-optimized-scanned-carbon-ion-beam-therapy-against-interfractional-changes-in-lung-cancer
#19
Christian Graeff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moving targets could be conformally treated with actively scanned carbon ion beams using 4D-optimization. As this heavily exploits 4D-CTs, an important question is whether the conformity also upholds in the context of interfractional changes, i.e. variable positioning, anatomy and breathing patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 4 lung cancer patients, 6 weekly 4D-CTs were available. 4D-CTs and their phases were non-rigidly registered to propagate contours and 4D-doses...
January 7, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066676/image-guided-localization-of-small-lung-nodules-in-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery
#20
REVIEW
Ze-Rui Zhao, Rainbow W H Lau, Peter S Y Yu, Randolph H L Wong, Calvin S H Ng
The advancement of imaging technology has recently facilitated single port minimally-invasive thoracic surgery techniques. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows promising results in visualizing the target lesion and its surrounding critical anatomy, with an error of less than 2 mm. The integration of CBCT with the operating room (OR) to form the hybrid OR, provides unparalleled real-time imaging of the patient, which can be used with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy to confirm successful navigation and increase procedural accuracy particularly for small peripheral pulmonary targets...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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