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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330551/autapses-promote-synchronization-in-neuronal-networks
#1
Huawei Fan, Yafeng Wang, Hengtong Wang, Ying-Cheng Lai, Xingang Wang
Neurological disorders such as epileptic seizures are believed to be caused by neuronal synchrony. However, to ascertain the causal role of neuronal synchronization in such diseases through the traditional approach of electrophysiological data analysis remains a controversial, challenging, and outstanding problem. We offer an alternative principle to assess the physiological role of neuronal synchrony based on identifying structural anomalies in the underlying network and studying their impacts on the collective dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313873/the-value-of-incorporating-personally-relevant-stimuli-into-consciousness-assessment-with-the-coma-recovery-scale-revised-a-pilot-study
#2
Jonas Stenberg, Alison K Godbolt, Marika C Möller
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the use of personally relevant stimuli, for some tasks in the Coma Recovery Scale - Revised (CRS-R), generates more responses in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness compared with neutral stimuli. DESIGN: Multiple single-case design. SUBJECTS: Three patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness recruited from an inpatient department at a regional brain injury rehabilitation clinic in Stockholm, Sweden...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300994/sexual-orientation-discrimination-and-tobacco-use-disparities-in-the-united-states
#3
Sean Esteban McCabe, Tonda L Hughes, Alicia K Matthews, Joseph G L Lee, Brady T West, Carol J Boyd, Cynthia Arslanian-Engoren
Introduction: Differences in tobacco/nicotine use by sexual orientation are well documented. Development of interventions requires attention to the etiology of these differences. This study examined associations among sexual orientation discrimination, cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder (TUD) in the U.S. Methods: We used data from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions based on in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U...
December 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294964/rape-crisis-counseling-trauma-contagion-and-supervision
#4
Niveen Rizkalla, Maya Zeevi-Barkay, Steven P Segal
This study of rape crisis counselors considers whether increased exposure to victims' trauma is associated with increased supervision-believed necessary to combat trauma contagion-and whether such supervision will reduce the negative impact of such exposure. One hundred six women counselors in seven of nine rape crisis centers in Israel completed anonymous questionnaires documenting their work and trauma exposure. Trauma exposure was defined by counselors' number of victim-contact hours per week and their assessment of the trauma severity they experienced...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294936/the-effect-of-the-moscow-theatre-siege-on-expectations-of-well-being-in-the-future
#5
Margarita Vorsina, Matthew Manning, Christopher M Fleming, Christine Smith
We employ the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE), a survey of 6,000 individuals, and a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to examine the effect of the 2002 Moscow theatre siege on the level of self-reported expectations of life in the future of the Russian population. The longitudinal nature of the data allows us to explore both the short- and long-term effects of terrorism on this population as well as contribute to the limited number of quasi-experimental studies in this area...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290454/-teacher-sick-leave-prevalence-duration-reasons-and-covariates
#6
M-N Vercambre-Jacquot, F Gilbert, N Billaudeau
BACKGROUND: Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. METHODS: In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %)...
December 28, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241371/capitalizing-on-technology-for-developing-communication-skills-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-single-case-study
#7
Veena Mohan, Suja Kurian Kunnath, Vineetha Sara Philip, Lakshmi Santha Mohan, Neethu Thampi
PURPOSE: In this case study, we discuss the application of a patient-centred clinical approach that led to the use of an assisted communication platform to combat severe communicative deficit in a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Initial assessment at four years of age revealed that the patient had rudimentary communication skills, with significant sensory integration dysfunction manifested as oral, olfactory, and tactile seeking behaviours; self-stimulatory behaviour; and complete dependence on caregiver for activities of daily living...
December 15, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236882/narratives-of-family-members-on-the-suicide-of-older-adults-in-an-amazonian-metropolis
#8
André Luis Sales da Costa, Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de Souza
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the narratives of family members on the suicide of older adults in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the narratives of eight older adults, who committed suicide in the period of 2001-2012. In the analytic-interpretative process, we have tried to perform the hermeneutic double exercise: to interpret the interpretation of narrators. We have used as theoretical references authors who have investigated suicide from the perspective of gender and its correlations with the sociofamiliar context and with mental disorders...
December 11, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217994/local-fields-in-human-subthalamic-nucleus-track-the-lead-up-to-impulsive-choices
#9
John M Pearson, Patrick T Hickey, Shivanand P Lad, Michael L Platt, Dennis A Turner
The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is known for the impulsive side effects of PD, though multiple studies have implicated theta band activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the site of DBS treatment, in processes of conflict monitoring and countermanding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195031/surgical-correction-of-peyronie-s-disease-via-tunica-albuginea-plication-long-term-follow-up
#10
M Seveso, S Melegari, O De Francesco, A Macchi, J Romero Otero, G Taverna, G Bozzini
Peyronie's disease (PD) is an acquired connective tissue disorder of the tunica albuginea with fibrosis and inflammation that lead to palpable plaques formation, penile curvature, and pain during erection. Patients report negative effects on main domains such as physical appearance and self-image, sexual function, and performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate plication of the albuginea outcomes after a long-term follow-up period. Between 1998 and 2006, a total of 204 patients with PD underwent surgical correction with albuginea plication technique...
December 1, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183102/-spectrum-and-frequency-of-adhd-related-symptoms-and-minimal-cerebral-brain-dysfunctions-in-psychosomatic-inpatients
#11
Michael Linden, Nils Noack, Volker Köllner
Objective ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorders) and MCD (minimal cerebral dysfunctions) can impair participation. They pose difficult diagnostic problems. Aim of the present study has been to describe the frequency and the spectrum of ADHD and MCD in psychosomatic inpatients. Methods 1453 psychosomatic inpatients filled in the ADHS-SB and the MCD-TLS-FB screening for self-reported ADHD and minimal cerebral dysfunctions. Prevalence rates were calculated depending on different intensities of symptoms...
November 28, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175296/eating-styles-in-major-depressive-disorder-results-from-a-large-scale-study
#12
Nadine P G Paans, Mariska Bot, Tatjana van Strien, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Brenda W J H Penninx
Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170597/the-psychometric-properties-of-english-and-spanish-versions-of-the-life-orientation-test-revised-in-hispanic-americans
#13
Tonya M Pan, Sarah D Mills, Rina S Fox, Sharon H Baik, Kadie M Harry, Scott C Roesch, Georgia Robins Sadler, Vanessa L Malcarne
The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) is a widely used measure of optimism and pessimism, with three positively worded and three negatively worded content items. This study examined the structural validity and invariance, internal consistency reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the English and Spanish versions of the LOT-R among Hispanic Americans. A community sample of Hispanic Americans (N = 422) completed self-report measures, including the LOT-R, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, in their preferred language of English or Spanish...
December 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167087/eating-behaviors-weight-bias-and-psychological-functioning-in-multi-ethnic-low-income-adolescents
#14
Rana Halabi Najjar, Eufemia Jacob, Lorraine Evangelista
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to: 1) Describe the incidence of disordered eating, weight bias, body dissatisfaction, and psychological distress, 2) Examine the relationship between sociodemographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and income) and disordered eating, weight bias, body dissatisfaction, and psychological distress in a sample of low-income adolescents. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 105 adolescents from low-income neighborhoods...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146211/using-parent-and-self-reports-to-evaluate-eating-disturbances-in-young-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Vicki Bitsika, Christopher F Sharpley
BACKGROUND: Eating Disturbances (ED) often occur in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but most previous studies have relied on parent-reported data about males with ASD. Few studies have collected data from younger girls with ASD using self-reports and parents' reports. AIMS: To compare self-reports and parents' reports of ED in a sample of 52 young girls with ASD, a standardised scale for ED was revised for use with younger girls with ASD. METHODS: Mothers of 52 girls with ASD aged from 6 to 17 years completed the Swedish Eating Assessment for Autism spectrum disorders (SWEAA) on their daughters; the girls also completed the SWEAA as a self-report...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144981/barriers-to-self-compassion-for-female-survivors-of-childhood-maltreatment-the-roles-of-fear-of-self-compassion-and-psychological-inflexibility
#16
Derrecka M Boykin, Sara J Himmerich, Caitlin M Pinciotti, Lindsay M Miller, Lynsey R Miron, Holly K Orcutt
Preliminary evidence has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-compassion in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, survivors of childhood maltreatment may present with unique challenges that compromise the effectiveness of these and other PTSD treatments. Specifically, childhood maltreatment victims often exhibit a marked fear and active resistance of self-kindness and warmth (i.e., fear of self-compassion). Victims may also attempt to control distressing internal experiences in a way that hinders engagement in value-based actions (i...
November 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107786/predictors-of-treatment-utilization-and-barriers-to-treatment-utilization-among-individuals-with-lifetime-cannabis-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#17
Bradley T Kerridge, Pia M Mauro, S Patricia Chou, Tulshi D Saha, Roger P Pickering, Amy Z Fan, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
OBJECTIVE: To present information on predictors of treatment utilization and barriers to treatment utilization among individuals with lifetime DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD). METHOD: Face-to-face survey of a representative sample of the adult US general population (n=36,309). RESULTS: Treatment rates for CUD were low in this general population survey (13.7%). Severity of CUD and comorbidity of other lifetime drug use disorders were significant predictors of lifetime treatment utilization for CUD...
October 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#18
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052749/-body-experience-and-self-esteem-after-minimally-invasive-skin-rejuvenation-study-of-female-patients-using-botulinum-toxin%C3%A2-a-and-or-dermal-fillers
#19
REVIEW
D Scharschmidt, S Preiß, E Brähler, T Fischer, A Borkenhagen
BACKGROUND: More and more people worldwide and also in Germany are using botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and hyaluronic acid injections for skin rejuvenation. OBJECTIVE: Study on body image and self-esteem of women with BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid filler treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 145 women who requested BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid injections completed a survey comprised of the body dysmorphic disorder questionnaire, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and questionnaires on the attitudes and motives on measures for optimization of the body and demographic features...
October 20, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051177/high-intelligence-and-the-risk-of-adhd-and-other-psychopathology
#20
Nanda Rommelse, Kevin Antshel, Stijn Smeets, Corina Greven, Lianne Hoogeveen, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman
BackgroundHigh intelligence may be associated with positive (adaptive, desired) outcomes, but may also come with disadvantages.AimsTo contribute empirically to the debate concerning whether a trade-off in IQ scores exists in relation to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related problems, suggesting that high intelligence - like low intelligence - increases the risk of ADHD.MethodCurves of the relation between IQ score and ADHD problems were fitted to questionnaire data (parent, teacher, self-report} in a population-based study of 2221 children and adolescents aged 10-12 years...
December 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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