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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642353/when-sanctity-of-life-and-self-determination-clash-briggs-versus-briggs-2016-ewcop-53-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#1
Jenny Kitzinger, Celia Kitzinger, Jakki Cowley
In a landmark judgment in the English Court of Protection, the judge (Charles J) found it to be in the best interests of a minimally conscious patient for clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (CANH) to be withdrawn, with the inevitable consequence that the patient would die. In making this judgment, it was accepted that the patient's level of consciousness - if CANH were continued and rehabilitation provided - might improve, and that he might become capable of expressing emotions and making simple choices...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639817/a-systematic-review-of-treatments-for-problem-gambling
#2
Nancy M Petry, Meredith K Ginley, Carla J Rash
Gambling problems impact 0.2%-4.0% of the population, and research related to treating gambling has burgeoned in the last decades. This article reviews trials for psychosocial treatments of gambling problems. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Standards, we identified 21 randomized trials. Eleven studies evaluated interventions delivered via multisession, in-person therapy: cognitive therapies, cognitive-behavioral (CB) therapies, and motivational interventions (MI) alone or with CB therapies...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637725/filling-the-gaps-in-sards-research-collection-and-linkage-of-administrative-health-data-and-self-reported-survey-data-for-a-general-population-based-cohort-of-individuals-with-and-without-diagnoses-of-systemic-autoimmune-rheumatic-disease-sards-from-british
#3
Natalie McCormick, Kathryn Reimer, Ali Famouri, Carlo A Marra, J Antonio Aviña-Zubieta
PURPOSE: Systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) are a group of debilitating autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders. Assessing the healthcare and economic burden of SARDs has been challenging: while administrative databases can be used to determine healthcare utilisation and costs with minimal selection and recall bias, other health, sociodemographic and economic data have typically been sourced from highly selected, clinic-based cohorts...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637155/reliability-validity-and-norms-of-the-2-min-walk-test-in-children-with-and-without-neuromuscular-disorders-aged-6-12
#4
Tamis W Pin, H L Choi
PURPOSE: The 2-min walk test may be more appropriate functional exercise test for young children. This study aimed to examine the 2-min walk test's reliability; validity; and minimal clinically important difference; and to establish norms for children aged 6-12. METHODS: Sixty-one healthy children were recruited to examine the 2-min walk test's reliability. Forty-six children with neuromuscular disorders (63% cerebral palsy) were recruited to test the validity. The normative study involved 716 healthy children without neuromuscular disorders (male = 51%, female = 49%)...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630680/purely-entropic-self-assembly-of-the-bicontinuous-ia3d-gyroid-phase-in-equilibrium-hard-pear-systems
#5
Philipp W A Schönhöfer, Laurence J Ellison, Matthieu Marechal, Douglas J Cleaver, Gerd E Schröder-Turk
We investigate a model of hard pear-shaped particles which forms the bicontinuous Ia[Formula: see text]d structure by entropic self-assembly, extending the previous observations of Barmes et al. (2003 Phys. Rev. E68, 021708. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.68.021708)) and Ellison et al. (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 237801. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.237801)). We specifically provide the complete phase diagram of this system, with global density and particle shape as the two variable parameters, incorporating the gyroid phase as well as disordered isotropic, smectic and nematic phases...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607896/a-survey-of-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-otolaryngologists
#6
Twinkle Dabholkar, Sujata Yardi, Yogesh G Dabholkar, Haritosh K Velankar, Gaurav Ghuge
There are increased reports of prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in surgeons performing minimal access surgeries. Due to the nature of the speciality, otolaryngologists spend their work days in performing markedly precise procedures in small workspaces i.e. the patients' ear, nose and throat. Due to this, they frequently adopt awkward neck, back and shoulder postures while using devices like otoscope, endoscope and microscope. The field of otolaryngology has barely received any attention with respect to ergonomic assessment...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607405/neural-basis-of-self-initiative-in-relation-to-apathy-in-a-student-sample
#7
Claire Kos, Nicky G Klaasen, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Esther M Opmeer, Henderikus Knegtering, André Aleman, Marie-José van Tol
Human behaviour can be externally driven, e.g. catching a falling glass, or self-initiated and goal-directed, e.g. drinking a cup of coffee when one deems it is time for a break. Apathy refers to a reduction of self-initiated goal-directed or motivated behaviour, frequently present in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The amount of undertaken goal-directed behaviour varies considerably in clinical as well as healthy populations. In the present study, we investigated behavioural and neural correlates of self-initiated action in a student sample (N = 39) with minimal to high levels of apathy...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597917/prediction-of-specific-depressive-symptom-clusters-in-youth-with-epilepsy-the-nddi-e-y-versus-neuro-qol-sf
#8
Tanja S Kellermann, Martina Mueller, Emma G Carter, Byron Brooks, Gigi Smith, Olivia J Kopp, Janelle L Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Proper assessment and early identification of depressive symptoms are essential to initiate treatment and minimize the risk for poor outcomes in youth with epilepsy (YWE). The current study examined the predictive utility of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory-Epilepsy for Youth (NDDI-E-Y) and the Neuro-QOL Depression Short Form (Neuro-QOL SF) in explaining variance in overall depressive symptoms and specific symptom clusters on the gold standard Children's Depression Inventory-2 (CDI-2)...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597186/problem-behaviors-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-association-with-verbal-ability-and-adapting-coping-skills
#9
Diane L Williams, Matthew Siegel, Carla A Mazefsky
Data from the Autism Inpatient Collection was used to examine the relationship between problem behaviors and verbal ability, which have generally, though not universally, been highly associated. In a comparison of 169 minimally-verbal and 177 fluently-verbal 4 to 20-year-old psychiatric inpatients with ASD, the severity of self-injurious behavior, stereotyped behavior, and irritability (including aggression and tantrums) did not significantly differ, when controlling for age and NVIQ. Verbal ability was not strongly related to the severity of problem behaviors...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576664/uncertainty-and-stress-why-it-causes-diseases-and-how-it-is-mastered-by-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Achim Peters, Bruce S McEwen, Karl Friston
The term 'stress' - coined in 1936 - has many definitions, but until now has lacked a theoretical foundation. Here we present an information-theoretic approach - based on the 'free energy principle' - defining the essence of stress; namely, uncertainty. We address three questions: What is uncertainty? What does it do to us? What are our resources to master it? Mathematically speaking, uncertainty is entropy or 'expected surprise'. The 'free energy principle' rests upon the fact that self-organizing biological agents resist a tendency to disorder and must therefore minimize the entropy of their sensory states...
May 30, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574740/people-who-inject-drugs-and-have-mood-disorders-a-brief-assessment-of-health-risk-behaviors
#11
Stacey Carroll Williams, Melissa Ann Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs have a greater risk of infectious disease and mortality than other substance abusers and nondrug users. Variation in risk behavior among people who inject drugs is likely associated with comorbid mental health disorders. OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between a history of mood disorder and recent risk behavior among people who inject drugs. METHODS: With baseline data from a behavioral HIV prevention clinical trial in a population of people who inject drugs, we used logistic regression models to compare the risk behaviors of people who report a past diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 113) or depression (n = 237) to a comparison group with no history of diagnosed mental illness (n = 446)...
June 2, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572052/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-autoimmune-disorders-from-immune-regulatory-processes-to-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Margit Zeher, Gábor Papp, Britt Nakken, Peter Szodoray
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of autoreactive T- and B-cells targeting self-antigens, which eventually can result in chronic and persistent organ damage. The autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) opened new avenues in the treatment of patients with severe, treatment-resistant autoimmune diseases. This paper reviews the immune-regulatory mechanisms behind AHSCT, and also summarizes the experiences of clinical practice related to the therapy in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases...
May 29, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569534/family-caregivers-opinions-about-interaction-with-the-environment-in-consciousness-disorders
#13
Pasquale Moretta, Luigi Trojano, Orsola Masotta, Viviana Cardinale, Vincenzo Loreto, Anna Estraneo
OBJECTIVES: To assess family caregivers' opinions about level of interaction with the environment in their relatives with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) and to explore psychological features of caregivers whose opinions diverge from clinicians' diagnosis. METHOD: Forty-five family caregivers of 38 DOC inpatients without communication abilities answered 2 questions assessing their opinion about level of interaction with the environment in their relatives. Self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate caregivers' depression, anxiety, psychophysiological disturbances, prolonged grief disorder, coping strategies, quality of perceived needs and social support...
May 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569044/anxiety-disorders-gender-nonconformity-bullying-and-self-esteem-in-sexual-minority-adolescents-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#14
Abbeygail Jones, Emily Robinson, Olakunle Oginni, Qazi Rahman, Katharine A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. youth not exclusively heterosexual) report more anxiety than heterosexual youth on symptom questionnaires but no research has used standardised diagnostic tools to investigate anxiety disorder risk. This study uses a UK birth cohort to investigate the risk of anxiety disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual youth using a computerised structured clinical interview and explores the influence of gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547999/a-long-term-self-managed-handwriting-intervention-for-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-the-control-group-of-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Johnny Collett, Marloes Franssen, Charlotte Winward, Hooshang Izadi, Andy Meaney, Wala Mahmoud, Marko Bogdanovic, Martin Tims, Derick Wade, Helen Dawes
OBJECTIVE: To report on the control group of a trial primarily designed to investigate exercise for improving mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (pwP). The control group undertook a handwriting intervention to control for attention and time spent practising a specific activity. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a two-arm parallel phase II randomized controlled trial with blind assessment. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: PwP able to walk ⩾100 m and with no contraindication to exercise were recruited from the Thames Valley, UK, and randomized (1:1) to exercise or handwriting, via a concealed computer-generated list...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522358/self-tolerance-and-autoimmunity-in-a-minimal-model-of-the-idiotypic-network
#16
Stefan Landmann, Nicolas Preuss, Ulrich Behn
We consider self-tolerance and its failure-autoimmunity-in a minimal mathematical model of the idiotypic network. A node in the network represents a clone of B-lymphocytes and its antibodies of the same idiotype which is encoded by a bitstring. The links between nodes represent possible interactions between clones of almost complementary idiotype. A clone survives only if the number of populated neighbored nodes is neither too small nor too large. The dynamics is driven by the influx of lymphocytes with randomly generated idiotype from the bone marrow...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518111/using-enzyme-based-biosensors-to-measure-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-in-alzheimer-s-mouse-models
#17
Holly C Hunsberger, Sharay E Setti, Ryan T Heslin, Jorge E Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Miranda N Reed
Neurotransmitter disruption is often a key component of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a role in the pathology underlying Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety. Traditionally, microdialysis has been the most common (lauded) technique to examine neurotransmitter changes that occur in these disorders. But because microdialysis has the ability to measure slow 1-20 minute changes across large areas of tissue, it has the disadvantage of invasiveness, potentially destroying intrinsic connections within the brain and a slow sampling capability...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505487/heroin-refusal-self-efficacy-and-preference-for-medication-assisted-treatment-after-inpatient-detoxification
#18
Shannon R Kenney, Genie L Bailey, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
OBJECTIVE: An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502243/a-60-week-prospective-rct-of-a-self-management-intervention-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness-and-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Martha Sajatovic, Douglas D Gunzler, Stephanie W Kanuch, Kristin A Cassidy, Curtis Tatsuoka, Richard McCormick, Carol E Blixen, Adam T Perzynski, Douglas Einstadter, Charles L Thomas, Mary E Lawless, Siobhan Martin, Corinna Falck-Ytter, Eileen L Seeholzer, Christine L McKibben, Mark S Bauer, Neal V Dawson
OBJECTIVES: A 60-week randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of targeted training in illness management (TTIM) versus treatment as usual among 200 individuals with serious mental illness and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The study used the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess psychiatric symptoms; the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) to assess functioning; the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess general health, and serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess diabetes control...
May 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499521/investigating-clinically-and-scientifically-useful-cut-points-on-the-compulsive-sexual-behavior-inventory
#20
Michael H Miner, Nancy Raymond, Eli Coleman, Rebecca Swinburne Romine
INTRODUCTION: One of the major obstacles to conducting epidemiologic research and determining the incidence and prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has been the lack of relevant empirically derived cut points on the various instruments that have been used to measure the concept. AIM: To further develop the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) through exploring predictive validity and developing an empirically determined and clinically useful cut point for defining CSB...
May 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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