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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921656/animal-models-for-studying-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-low-back-pain
#1
REVIEW
Changgui Shi, Sujun Qiu, Scott M Riester, Vaskar Das, Bingqian Zhu, Atiyayein A Wallace, Andre J van Wijnen, Fackson Mwale, James C Iatridis, Daisuke Sakai, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Chronic low back pain is a major cause of disability and health care costs. Effective treatments are inadequate for many patients. Animal models are essential to further understanding of the pain mechanism and testing potential therapies. Currently, a number of preclinical models have been developed attempting to mimic aspects of clinical conditions that contribute to low back pain. This review focused on describing these animal models and the main behavioral tests for assessing pain in each model. Animal models of low back pain can be divided into the following five categories: discogenic low back pain, radicular back pain, facet joint osteoarthritis back pain, muscle-induced low back pain, and spontaneous occurring low back pain models...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920461/discovery-and-development-of-tramadol-for-the-treatment-of-pain
#2
Lidia Bravo, Juan Antonio Mico, Esther Berrocoso
Tramadol is an opioid drug that, unlike classic opioids, also modulates the monoaminergic system by inhibiting noradrenergic and serotoninergic reuptake. For this reason, tramadol is considered an atypical opioid. These special pharmacological characteristics have made tramadol one of the most commonly prescribed analgesic drugs to treat moderate to severe pain. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide a historical description of the biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and particularly, the mechanisms of action of tramadol...
September 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919812/the-effect-of-local-topical-analgesics-on-incisional-pain-in-a-pig-model
#3
David Castel, Itai Sabbag, Sigal Meilin
Interest in the development of new topical/local drug administration for blocking pain at peripheral sites, with maximum drug activity and minimal systemic effects, is on the rise. In the review article by Kopsky and Stahl, four critical barriers in the process of research and development of topical analgesics were indicated. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the formulation are among the major challenges. The road to the development of such drugs passes through preclinical studies. These studies, if planned correctly, should serve as guidance for choosing the right API and formulation...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914784/antiallodynic-effects-of-bee-venom-in-an-animal-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-1-crps-i
#4
Sung Hyun Lee, Jae Min Lee, Yun Hong Kim, Jung Hyun Choi, Seung Hwan Jeon, Dong Kyu Kim, Hyeon Do Jeong, You Jung Lee, Hue Jung Park
Neuropathic pain in a chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model mimics the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). The administration of bee venom (BV) has been utilized in Eastern medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases accompanying pain. However, the analgesic effect of BV in a CPIP model remains unknown. The application of a tight-fitting O-ring around the left ankle for a period of 3 h generated CPIP in C57/Bl6 male adult mice. BV (1 mg/kg ; 1, 2, and 3 times) was administered into the SC layer of the hind paw, and the antiallodynic effects were investigated using the von Frey test and by measuring the expression of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
September 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910306/a-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-approach-incorporating-a-novel-liver-model-for-predicting-pharmacokinetic-drug-drug-interactions
#5
Mohammed H Cherkaoui-Rbati, Stuart W Paine, Peter Littlewood, Cyril Rauch
All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the metabolism occurs. However, the circulatory system of the liver has a complex hierarchical geometry which distributes xenobiotics throughout the organ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904559/cartilage-protection-and-analgesic-activity-of-a-botanical-composition-comprised-of-morus-alba-scutellaria-baicalensis-and-acacia-catechu
#6
Mesfin Yimam, Teresa Horm, Laura Wright, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Qi Jia
Although there have been augmented advances in drug discovery, current OA management is inadequate due to the lack of successful therapies proven to be effective in modifying disease progression. For some, the risk outweighs the benefit. As a result, there is a desperate need for safe and efficacious natural alternatives. Here we evaluated a composition from Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monoiodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904107/hyperpolarization-activated-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channels-potentially-modulate-axonal-excitability-at-different-thresholds
#7
Dinushi Weerasinghe, Parvathi Menon, Steve Vucic
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated (HCN) channels mediate differences in sensory and motor axonal excitability at different thresholds in animal models. Importantly, HCN channels are responsible for voltage-gated inward rectifying (Ih) currents activated during hyperpolarization. The Ih currents exert a crucial role in determining the resting membrane potential and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, including neuropathic pain. In humans, differences in biophysical properties of motor and sensory axons at different thresholds remain to be elucidated and could provide crucial pathophysiological insights in peripheral neurological diseases...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893394/biceps-tenotomy-in-the-presence-of-a-supraspinatus-tear-alters-the-adjacent-intact-tendons-and-glenoid-cartilage
#8
Zakary M Beach, Jennica J Tucker, Stephen J Thomas, Katherine E Reuther, Chancellor F Gray, Chang-Soo Lee, David L Glaser, Louis J Soslowsky
A rotator cuff tear is a common injury in athletes and workers who repeatedly perform overhead movements, and it is not uncommon for this demographic to return to activity shortly after treatment. A biceps tenotomy is often performed in the presence of a rotator cuff tear to help reduce pain and improve joint function. However, the effect of this procedure on the surrounding tissues in the glenohumeral joint is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a biceps tenotomy in the presence of a supraspinatus rotator cuff tear followed by overuse activity on ambulatory function and mechanical and histologic properties of the remaining rotator cuff tendons and glenoid cartilage...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892928/anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-activities-of-topical-formulations-of-pterocarpus-santalinus-powder-in-rat-model-of-chronic-inflammation
#9
Priti Pravin Dhande, Amit O Gupta, Sourav Jain, Jayshree Shriram Dawane
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. AIM: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I - Control, Group II -Gel base, Group III -P...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890052/neuropeptide-y-and-its-involvement-in-chronic-pain
#10
Marta Diaz-delCastillo, David P D Woldbye, Anne Marie Heegaard
Chronic pain is a serious condition that significantly impairs the quality of life, affecting an estimate of 1.5 billion people worldwide. Despite the physiological, emotional and financial burden of chronic pain, there is still a lack of efficient treatments. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a highly conserved endogenous peptide in the central and peripheral nervous systems of all mammals, which has been implicated in both pro- and antinociceptive effects. NPY is expressed in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where it appears to mediate its antinociceptive actions via the Y1 and Y2 receptors...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887457/spinal-mirna-124-regulates-synaptopodin-and-nociception-in-an-animal-model-of-bone-cancer-pain
#11
Sara Elramah, María José López-González, Matthieu Bastide, Florence Dixmérias, Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Anne-Cécile Wielanek-Bachelet, Anne Vital, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Alexandre Brochard, Marc Landry, Alexandre Favereaux
Strong breakthrough pain is one of the most disabling symptoms of cancer since it affects up to 90% of cancer patients and is often refractory to treatments. Alteration in gene expression is a known mechanism of cancer pain in which microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding regulatory RNAs, play a crucial role. Here, in a mouse model of cancer pain, we show that miR-124 is down-regulated in the spinal cord, the first relay of the pain signal to the brain. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that miR-124 is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of synaptopodin (Synpo), a key protein for synaptic transmission...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886046/effects-of-water-avoidance-stress-on-peripheral-and-central-responses-during-bladder-filling-in-the-rat-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-study-of-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-mapp-research-network-study
#12
Zhuo Wang, Harriet H Chang, Yunliang Gao, Rong Zhang, Yumei Guo, Daniel P Holschneider, Larissa V Rodriguez
Stress plays a role in the exacerbation and possibly the development of functional lower urinary tract disorders. Chronic water avoidance stress (WAS) in rodents is a model with high construct and face validity to bladder hypersensitive syndromes, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), characterized by urinary frequency and bladder hyperalgesia and heightened stress responsiveness. Given the overlap of the brain circuits involved in stress, anxiety, and micturition, we evaluated the effects chronic stress has on bladder function, as well as its effects on regional brain activation during bladder filling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886020/low-plasma-cortisol-and-fecal-cortisol-metabolite-measures-as-indicators-of-compromised-welfare-in-domestic-horses-equus-caballus
#13
Jodi Pawluski, Patrick Jego, Séverine Henry, Anaelle Bruchet, Rupert Palme, Caroline Coste, Martine Hausberger
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions…) on the HPA axis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885457/cannabis-constituent-synergy-in-a-mouse-neuropathic-pain-model
#14
Sherelle L Casey, Nicholas Atwal, Christopher W Vaughan
Cannabis and its psychoactive constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have efficacy against neuropathic pain however, this is hampered by their side-effects. It has been suggested that co-administration with another major constituent cannabidiol (CBD) might enhance the analgesic actions of THC and minimise its deleterious side-effects. We examined the basis for this phytocannabinoid interaction in a mouse chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. Acute systemic administration of THC dose-dependently reduced CCI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia, but also produced motor incoordination, catalepsy and sedation...
September 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884307/the-role-of-the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-type-1-trpa1-channel-in-migraine-pain-evaluation-in-an-animal-model
#15
Chiara Demartini, Cristina Tassorelli, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Germana Tonsi, Oscar Francesconi, Cristina Nativi, Rosaria Greco
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental studies have pointed to the possible involvement of the transient receptor potential ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels in migraine pain. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of these channels in an animal model of migraine using a novel TRPA1 antagonist, ADM_12, as a probe. METHODS: The effects of ADM_12 on nitroglycerin-induced hyperalgesia at the trigeminal level were investigated in male rats using the quantification of nocifensive behavior in the orofacial formalin test...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883634/association-of-the-resolvin-precursor-17-hdha-but-not-d-or-e-series-resolvins-with-heat-pain-sensitivity-and-osteoarthritis-pain-in-humans
#16
Ana M Valdes, Srinivasarao Ravipati, Cristina Menni, Abhishek Abhishek, Sarah Metrustry, Juliette Harris, Ayrun Nessa, Frances M K Williams, Tim D Spector, Michael Doherty, Victoria Chapman, David A Barrett
Resolvins are omega-3 fatty acid derived potent bioactive lipids that resolve inflammation and modulate transient receptor potential channels. Exogenous administration of the resolvin precursor 17-HDHA shows a strong analgesic effect in animal models of osteoarthritis and acute inflammatory pain, but has not been studied in humans. Our aim was to assess the role of 17-HDHA and resolvins in heat pain sensitivity and in osteoarthritis pain in humans. Resolvins D1, D2, D3, D5, E1 and 17-HDHA, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tested for association with heat pain thresholds in 250 healthy volunteers who had undergone quantitative sensory testing...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882631/neurochemical-dynamics-of-acute-orofacial-pain-in-the-human-trigeminal-brainstem-nuclear-complex
#17
Nuno M P de Matos, Andreas Hock, Michael Wyss, Dominik A Ettlin, Mike Brügger
The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882562/candesartan-prevents-resiniferatoxin-induced-sensory-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-mice-by-promoting-angiotensin-ii-mediated-at2-receptor-stimulation
#18
Flavien Bessaguet, Aurore Danigo, Laurent Magy, Franck Sturtz, Alexis Desmoulière, Claire Demiot
Sensory defects associated with small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) can lead to profound disabilities. The relationship between the sensory nervous system and modulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been described and focused on pain and neurodegeneration in several animal models. We have recently developed an experimental model of functional sensory neuropathy showing thermal hypoalgesia and neuropeptide depletion without nerve fiber degeneration. Here, we aimed to determine whether the modulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) activity could prevent sensory neuropathy induced by RTX...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875858/managing-neuropathic-pain-in-multiple-sclerosis-pharmacological-interventions
#19
Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Of the plethora of motor and sensory disturbances experienced by sufferers, neuropathic pain is a highly prevalent and debilitating symptom, and at present remains extremely difficult to treat. Common forms of neuropathic pain seen in MS patients include central neuropathic pain, Lhermitte's phenomenon and trigeminal neuralgia, which are all speculated to arise from specific patterns of lesion formation...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874973/inhibiting-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-injured-intervertebral-discs-attenuates-pain-related-neuropeptide-expression-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rats
#20
Jun Sato, Kazuhide Inage, Masayuki Miyagi, Yoshihiro Sakuma, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Masao Koda, Takeo Furuya, Junichi Nakamura, Miyako Suzuki, Go Kubota, Yasuhiro Oikawa, Takeshi Sainoh, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Shiga, Koki Abe, Hirohito Kanamoto, Masahiro Inoue, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Masaki Norimoto, Tomotaka Umimura, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori, Sumihisa Orita
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental animal study. PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the content and distribution of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal ganglia in a rat model. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Increased expression of VEGF in degenerative disc disease increases the levels of inflammatory cytokines and nerve ingrowth into the damaged discs. In animal models, increased levels of VEGF can persist for up to 2 weeks after an injury...
August 2017: Asian Spine Journal
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