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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544993/muscarinic-receptor-m4-positive-allosteric-modulators-attenuate-central-effects-of-cocaine
#1
Camilla Dall, Pia Weikop, Ditte Dencker, Anna C Molander, Gitta Wörtwein, P Jeffrey Conn, Anders Fink-Jensen, Morgane Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544800/reinforced-microextraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-polluted-soil-samples-using-an-in-needle-coated-fiber-with-polypyrrole-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite
#2
Mina Behfar, Ali Reza Ghiasvand, Fatemeh Yazdankhah
The surface of a stainless-steel wire was platinized using electrophoretic deposition method to create a high-surface-area, porous and cohesive substrate. The platinized fiber was coated by the polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposite by electropolymerization and accommodated into a stainless-steel needle to fabricate an in-needle coated fiber. The developed setup was coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and applied to extract and determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in complicated solid matrices, along with reinforcement of the extraction by cooling the sorbent, using liquid carbon dioxide...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544615/suppressing-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-does-patient-global-assessment-blur-the-target-a-practice-based-call-for-a-paradigm-change
#3
Ricardo J O Ferreira, Cátia Duarte, Mwidimi Ndosi, Maarten de Wit, Laure Gossec, J A P da Silva
OBJECTIVES: In current management paradigms of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), patient global assessment (PGA) is crucial to decide whether a patient has attained remission (target) or needs reinforced therapy. We investigated whether the clinical and psychological determinants of PGA are appropriate to support this important role. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, single centre study including consecutive ambulatory RA patients. Data collection comprised swollen (SJC28) and tender joint counts (TJC28), C-Reactive protein (CRP), PGA, pain, fatigue, function, anxiety, depression, happiness, personality traits, and comorbidities...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544279/controlled-clinical-trial-exploring-the-impact-of-a-brief-intervention-for-prevention-of-falls-in-an-emergency-department
#4
Kristie J Harper, Annette D Barton, Glenn Arendts, Deborah G Edwards, Antonio C Petta, Antonio Celenza
OBJECTIVE: To establish the effectiveness of a brief intervention to prevent falls in older patients presenting to the ED post-discharge. METHODS: The present study is a prospective single-centre, quasi-randomised controlled clinical trial of a brief targeted educational intervention to prevent falls. The intervention group received brief scripted education and were advised of their percentage probability of falling in the next 6 months. The key message was to reinforce the importance of falls prevention strategies and the seriousness of falls...
May 23, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544049/tone-identification-behavior-in-rattus-norvergicus-muscarinic-receptor-blockage-lowers-responsiveness-in-non-target-selective-neurons-while-nicotinic-receptor-blockage-selectively-lowers-target-responses
#5
Ezekiel P Carpenter-Hyland, Jackson Griffeth, Kristopher Bunting, Alvin Terry, Almira Vazdarjanova, David T Blake
Learning to associate a stimulus with reinforcement causes plasticity in primary sensory cortex. Neural activity caused by the associated stimulus is paired with reinforcement, but population analyses have not found a selective increase in response to that stimulus. Responses to other stimuli increase as much as, or more than, responses to the associated stimulus. Here, we applied population analysis at a new time point, and additionally evaluated whether cholinergic receptor blockers interacted with the plastic changes in cortex...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544018/next-generation-nucleic-acid-aptamers-with-two-base-modified-nucleotides-improve-the-binding-affinity-and-potency
#6
Rakesh Naduvile Veedu, Hadi AlShamaileh
Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides (RNA or DNA) that can bind to their targets with high affinities and specificities because of their ability to adopt three-dimensional shapes in solution. Traditionally, aptamers are developed by SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), a reiterative process involving selection by target molecule incubation with an oligonucleotide library and enrichment of the selected oligonucleotides by amplification. One drawback of current aptamer selection approach is the lack of diversity in the nucleic acid library with only four nucleobases compositions...
May 24, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543930/further-analysis-of-acute-antinociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline-in-mice
#7
Vanessa D G Silva, Angélica S Reis, Mikaela Pinz, Caren A R da Fonseca, Luis Fernando B Duarte, Juliano A Roehrs, Diego Alves, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm
A new quinoline containing selenium, 4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline (4-PSQ), was described and synthetized by our research group. Recently, we demonstrated the potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory of 4-PSQ. For this reason, the first objective of this study was to expand our previous findings by investigating the contribution of glutamatergic, serotonergic and nitrergic systems to the acute antinociceptive action of this compound. Pretreatment with 4-PSQ (0.01-25 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the nociception induced by glutamate...
May 23, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543671/patient-centred-dietetic-care-from-the-perspectives-of-older-malnourished-patients
#8
E Hazzard, L Barone, M Mason, K Lambert, A McMahon
BACKGROUND: Governing organisations for health services currently recommend a patient-centred (PC) approach to practice for all health professions, including dietetics. For the vulnerable older malnourished patient, this approach needs to be prioritised to improve outcomes. The paucity of patient experience data likely limits evidence-based, patient-centred care (PCC) from being implemented effectively. The present study aimed to identify quality indicators of dietetic services from the perspectives of older malnourished patients to inform evidence-based PC dietetic care...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543271/characterization-of-cellular-adhesion-reinforcement-by-multiple-bond-force-spectroscopy-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#9
Nguyen Ngoc-Minh, Angely Christelle, Andre Dias Sofia, Planus Emmanuelle, Filoche Marcel, Pelle Gabriel, Louis Bruno, Isabey Daniel
BACKGROUND: Integrin-mediated adhesion is a key process by which cells physically connect their environment, express sensitivity and adaptation through mechanotransduction. A critical step of cell adhesion is the formation of the first bonds which individually generate weak contacts (∼tens pN) but can sustain thousand times higher forces (∼tens nN) when associated. RESULTS: We propose an experimental validation by multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) of a stochastic model predicting adhesion reinforcement permitted by non cooperative, multiple bonds on which force is homogeneously distributed (called parallel bond configuration)...
May 24, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542842/failure-to-find-a-distance-effect-in-pigeon-choice
#10
Matthew C Bell, Federico Sanabria
Primates take longer to choose between alternatives with smaller differences in value. This effect-a particular instance of the distance effect in symbolic comparisons-has not been replicated in birds. Instead, birds appear to respond independently to each alternative, such that the latency to choose depends primarily on the alternative of highest value. Three experiments tested for the distance effect in pigeons under conditions not previously considered. Experiment 1 presented pigeons with forced- and binary free-choice trials, where each alternative was one of three possible delays to reinforcement (4, 8, and 16 s)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542620/elevated-catalase-expression-in-a-fungal-pathogen-is-a-double-edged-sword-of-iron
#11
Arnab Pradhan, Carmen Herrero-de-Dios, Rodrigo Belmonte, Susan Budge, Angela Lopez Garcia, Aljona Kolmogorova, Keunsook K Lee, Brennan D Martin, Antonio Ribeiro, Attila Bebes, Raif Yuecel, Neil A R Gow, Carol A Munro, Donna M MacCallum, Janet Quinn, Alistair J P Brown
Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542555/parenting-styles-feeding-styles-and-food-related-parenting-practices-in-relation-to-toddlers-eating-styles-a-cluster-analytic-approach
#12
Klazine van der Horst, Ester F C Sleddens
INTRODUCTION: Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. METHODS: An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542469/biophysical-markers-of-the-peripheral-vasoconstriction-response-to-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Patjanaporn Chalacheva, Maha Khaleel, John Sunwoo, Payal Shah, Jon A Detterich, Roberta M Kato, Wanwara Thuptimdang, Herbert J Meiselman, Richard Sposto, Jennie Tsao, John C Wood, Lonnie Zeltzer, Thomas D Coates, Michael C K Khoo
Painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), a complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), occurs when sickled red blood cells obstruct flow in the microvasculature. We postulated that exaggerated sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and the synergistic interaction between these two factors act together to reduce microvascular flow, promoting regional vaso-occlusions, setting the stage for VOC. We previously found that SCD subjects had stronger vasoconstriction response to pulses of heat-induced pain compared to controls but the relative degrees to which autonomic dysregulation, peripheral vascular dysfunction and their interaction are present in SCD remain unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542334/flight-initiation-by-ferruginous-hawks-depends-on-disturbance-type-experience-and-the-anthropogenic-landscape
#14
Cameron J Nordell, Troy I Wellicome, Erin M Bayne
The expansion of humans and their related infrastructure is increasing the likelihood that wildlife will interact with humans. When disturbed by humans, animals often change their behaviour, which can result in time and energetic costs to that animal. An animal's decision to change behaviour is likely related to the type of disturbance, the individual's past experience with disturbance, and the landscape in which the disturbance occurs. In southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, we quantified probability of flight initiation from the nest by Ferruginous Hawks (Buteo regalis) during approaches to nests by investigators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542326/the-murine-cytomegalovirus-m35-protein-antagonizes-type-i-ifn-induction-downstream-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-transcription
#15
Baca Chan, Vladimir Gonçalves Magalhães, Niels A W Lemmermann, Vanda Juranić Lisnić, Markus Stempel, Kendra A Bussey, Elisa Reimer, Jürgen Podlech, Stefan Lienenklaus, Matthias J Reddehase, Stipan Jonjić, Melanie M Brinkmann
The type I interferon (IFN) response is imperative for the establishment of the early antiviral immune response. Here we report the identification of the first type I IFN antagonist encoded by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) that shuts down signaling following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) sensing. Screening of an MCMV open reading frame (ORF) library identified M35 as a novel and strong negative modulator of IFNβ promoter induction following activation of both RNA and DNA cytoplasmic PRR. Additionally, M35 inhibits the proinflammatory cytokine response downstream of Toll-like receptors (TLR)...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542149/jak-stat-signaling-is-necessary-for-cell-monosis-prior-to-epithelial-cell-apoptotic-extrusion
#16
Alba Y Torres, Marianne Malartre, Anne-Marie Pret, François Agnès
Epithelial cell extrusion is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. High-resolution 3D reconstruction and 4D imaging, combined with genetic analyis, have allowed us to reveal the highly-sterotyped morphogenetic events controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in a developmentally-programmed case of epithelial cell extrusion. Specialized somatic cells, Polar Cells (PCs), are produced in excess and then undergo apoptotic elimination from the follicular epithelium in the Drosophila ovary. We show that supernumerary PCs are first systematically enveloped by PC neighbors on all sides, first laterally, then apically in conjunction with highly-reinforced adherens junctions, and finally basally...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542012/trends-of-training-courses-conducted-in-the-human-resources-development-center-of-the-national-institute-for-quantum-and-radiological-science-and-technology-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#17
Yuko Shimizu, Haruzo Iida, Mitsuru Nenoi
Environmental contamination with radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 2011 raised a serious health concern among residents in Japan, and the demand for radiation experts who can handle the radiation-associated problems has increased. The Human Resources Development Center (HRDC) of the National Institute of for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology in Japan has offered a variety of training programs covering a wide range of technologies associated with radiation since 1959...
July 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541865/multipoint-suture-fixation-technique-for-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-with-component-separation-and-onlay-biological-mesh-placement
#18
Brad Denney, Jorge I de la Torre
Component separation with mesh reinforcement has become the primary modality for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. However, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, such as whether underlay versus overlay mesh placement is superior, and what is the best means of suture fixation technique for mesh placement? This study presents the senior author's technique for onlay biologic mesh placement with multipoint suture fixation in combination with component separation and its subsequent low recurrence rates...
May 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541680/regulatory-mechanisms-and-novel-therapeutic-targeting-strategies-for-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases
#19
Zhi-Hong Yu, Zhong-Yin Zhang
An appropriate level of protein phosphorylation on tyrosine is essential for cells to react to extracellular stimuli and maintain cellular homeostasis. Faulty operation of signal pathways mediated by protein tyrosine phosphorylation causes numerous human diseases, which presents enormous opportunities for therapeutic intervention. While the importance of protein tyrosine kinases in orchestrating the tyrosine phosphorylation networks and in target-based drug discovery has long been recognized, the significance of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in cellular signaling and disease biology has historically been underappreciated, due to a large extent to an erroneous assumption that they are largely constitutive and housekeeping enzymes...
May 25, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541435/lessons-from-singapore-s-national-weight-management-program-lose-to-win
#20
Kathryn Vasquez, Rahul Malhotra, Truls Østbye, Wilson Low, Mei Fen Chan, Ling Chew, Annie Ling
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Singapore is lower than in most countries, but it is increasing. There is evidence health complications may appear at lower weights among Asians. We describe the evolution of a national weight management program [Lose To Win (LTW)] organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board from 2009 to 2013. LTW is a 12-week program comprising nutrition education, physical activity and mental wellbeing sessions and interim assessments. Individuals aged 18-69 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 23 and 37...
May 24, 2017: Health Promotion International
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