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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110353/a-role-for-sigma-receptors-in-stimulant-self-administration-and-addiction
#1
Jonathan L Katz, Takato Hiranita, Weimin C Hong, Martin O Job, Christopher R McCurdy
Sigma receptors (σRs) are structurally unique proteins that function intracellularly as chaperones. Historically, σRs have been implicated as modulators of psychomotor stimulant effects and have at times been proposed as potential avenues for modifying stimulant abuse. However, the influence of ligands for σRs on the effects of stimulants, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, in various preclinical procedures related to drug abuse has been varied. The present paper reviews the effects of σR agonists and antagonists in three particularly relevant procedures: stimulant discrimination, place conditioning, and self-administration...
January 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110324/setting-kinetics-and-mechanical-properties-of-flax-fibre-reinforced-glass-ionomer-restorative-materials
#2
Abou Neel Ensanya Ali, Young Anne M
Regardless of the excellent properties of glass ionomer cements, their poor mechanical properties limit their applications to non-load bearing areas. This study aimed to investigate the effect of incorporated short, chopped and randomly distributed flax fibers (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 25 wt%) on setting reaction kinetics, and mechanical and morphological properties of glass ionomer cements. Addition of flax fibers did not significantly affect the setting reaction extent. According to their content, flax fibers increased the compressive (from 148 to 250 MPa) and flexure strength (from 20 to 42 MPa)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109810/thermal-mechanical-and-physical-properties-of-seaweed-sugar-palm-fibre-reinforced-thermoplastic-sugar-palm-starch-agar-hybrid-composites
#3
Ridhwan Jumaidin, Salit M Sapuan, Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamad R Ishak, Japar Sahari
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109760/effectiveness-of-constrained-liner-use-during-harrington-hip-reconstruction-in-oncology-patient
#4
Deren T Bagsby, L Daniel Wurtz
BACKGROUND: Patients with destructive acetabular lesions are at high risk for morbidity. Harrington described reinforcing acetabular diseased bone with methylmethacrylate, supplemented by metal fixation, to allow total hip reconstruction. However, all published studies using this technique report dislocations. We believe that initial use of constrained liners would help alleviate dislocation risk, without increasing component loosening or polyethylene wear. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients who underwent Harrington hip arthroplasties for metastatic cancer from August 2005 to March 2015 were identified...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109727/socioeconomic-disparities-in-adolescent-substance-use-role-of-enjoyable-alternative-substance-free-activities
#5
Nafeesa Andrabi, Rubin Khoddam, Adam M Leventhal
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether reduced substance-free enjoyable activity (i.e., 'alternative reinforcers') is a mediating mechanism linking lower socioeconomic status and adolescent substance use risk. METHOD: High school students in Los Angeles, CA (N = 2,553, 2013-2014, M age baseline = 14.1) were administered three semiannual surveys. Socioeconomic status was measured by highest parental education reported at Wave 1 (the beginning of 9th grade). Three elements of alternative reinforcement at Wave 2 (six-month follow-up) were assessed as mediators: ratings of frequency of engagement, level of enjoyment, and frequency × enjoyment product scores of substance-free typically pleasant activities (like participation in sports teams or school clubs)...
January 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109492/audiovisual-materials-are-effective-for-enhancing-the-correction-of-articulation-disorders-in-children-with-cleft-palate
#6
María Del Carmen Pamplona, Pablo Antonio Ysunza, Santiago Morales
INTRODUCTION: Children with cleft palate frequently show speech disorders known as compensatory articulation. Compensatory articulation requires a prolonged period of speech intervention that should include reinforcement at home. However, frequently relatives do not know how to work with their children at home. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of audiovisual materials especially designed for complementing speech pathology treatment in children with compensatory articulation can be effective for stimulating articulation practice at home and consequently enhancing speech normalization in children with cleft palate...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109342/developmental-lead-exposure-induces-opposite-effects-on-ethanol-intake-and-locomotion-in-response-to-central-vs-systemic-cyanamide-administration
#7
Mara Soledad Mattalloni, Romina Deza-Ponzio, Paula Alejandra Albrecht, Liliana Marina Cancela, Miriam Beatriz Virgolini
Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects...
February 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108773/effects-of-caffeine-on-alcohol-reinforcement-beverage-choice-self-administration-and-subjective-ratings
#8
Mary M Sweeney, Steven E Meredith, Daniel P Evatt, Roland R Griffiths
RATIONALE: Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVES: This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. METHODS: Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e...
January 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108382/new-xanthones-and-cytotoxic-constituents-from-garcinia-mangostana-fruit-hulls-against-human-hepatocellular-breast-and-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Gamal A Mohamed, Ahmed M Al-Abd, Ali M El-Halawany, Hossam M Abdallah, Sabrin R M Ibrahim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic illnesses to be the major cause of mortality in both the developing and developed world. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, family Guttiferae) known as the queen of fruits, is one of the most popular tropical fruits. It is cultivated in Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Philippines. Traditionally, numerous parts of G. mangostana have been utilized to treat various ailments such as abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, food allergies, arthritis, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, wound infection, suppuration, and chronic ulcer...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108359/synaptic-targets-chronic-alcohol-actions
#10
REVIEW
Marisa Roberto, Florence Varodayan
Alcohol acts on numerous cellular and molecular targets to regulate neuronal communication within the brain. Chronic alcohol exposure and acute withdrawal generate prominent neuroadaptations at synapses, including compensatory effects on the expression, localization and function of synaptic proteins, channels and receptors. The present article reviews the literature describing the synaptic effects of chronic alcohol exposure and their relevance for synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This review is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather to highlight the effects that have been observed most consistently and that are thought to contribute to the development of alcohol dependence and the negative aspects of withdrawal...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#11
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108345/reinstatement-after-human-feature-positive-discrimination-learning
#12
REVIEW
Mathijs Franssen, Nathalie Claes, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers, Dirk Hermans, Frank Baeyens
In two experiments, using an online conditioned suppression task, we investigated the possibility of reinstatement of extinguished feature-target compound presentations after sequential feature-positive discrimination training in humans. Furthermore, given a hierarchical account of Pavlovian modulation (e.g., Bonardi, 1998; Bonardi and Jennings, 2009), we predicted A-US reinstatement to be stronger than US-only reinstatement. In Experiment 1, participants learned a sequential feature-positive discrimination (X→A(+)|A(-)), which was subsequently extinguished (X→A(-))...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107796/social-and-structural-factors-related-to-hiv-risk-among-truck-drivers-passing-through-the-iringa-region-of-tanzania
#13
Anjalee Kohli, Deanna Kerrigan, Heena Brahmbhatt, Samuel Likindikoki, Justin Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Jessie Mbwambo, Caitlin E Kennedy
Truck drivers and their assistants have been identified as groups at higher risk for HIV infection. We sought to identify and describe the social and structural factors that may contribute to HIV risk among truck drivers who visit rest stops in Iringa, Tanzania, a region characterized by high levels of migration and mobility. This analysis was part of a comprehensive strategic assessment to examine HIV risk factors in Iringa. This analysis focuses on 11 in-depth interviews with truck drivers and a transport owner...
January 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107772/a-preliminary-randomized-controlled-trial-of-contingency-management-for-alcohol-use-reduction-using-a-transdermal-alcohol-sensor
#14
Nancy P Barnett, Mark A Celio, Jennifer W Tidey, James G Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift
AIMS: We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) noncontingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled design with one baseline week, three intervention weeks, and one-month follow up. SETTING: New England, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Heavy drinking adults (47% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to 1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n =15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or 2) yoked NR (n =15)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107637/survival-predictions-of-ceramic-crowns-using-statistical-fracture-mechanics
#15
S Nasrin, N Katsube, R R Seghi, S I Rokhlin
This work establishes a survival probability methodology for interface-initiated fatigue failures of monolithic ceramic crowns under simulated masticatory loading. A complete 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis model of a minimally reduced molar crown was developed using commercially available hardware and software. Estimates of material surface flaw distributions and fatigue parameters for 3 reinforced glass-ceramics (fluormica [FM], leucite [LR], and lithium disilicate [LD]) and a dense sintered yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YZ) were obtained from the literature and incorporated into the model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107511/environmental-enrichment-blunts-ethanol-consumption-after-restraint-stress-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Priscila Marianno, Karina Possa Abrahao, Rosana Camarini
Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107453/stress-marker-signatures-in-lesion-mimic-single-and-double-mutants-identify-a-crucial-leaf-age-dependent-salicylic-acid-related-defense-signal
#17
Eve Kaurilind, Mikael Brosché
Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107342/seroprevalence-of-chikungunya-virus-in-a-rural-community-in-brazil
#18
Rivaldo V Cunha, Karen S Trinta, Camila A Montalbano, Michel V F Sucupira, Maricelia M de Lima, Erenilde Marques, Izilyanne H Romanholi, Julio Croda
BACKGROUND: The emergence of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently expanding. In 2015, 38,332 cases of Chikungunya were reported to the Brazilian epidemiological surveillance system. Eighteen months after notification of the first case in the city of Feira de Santana, we conducted the first serosurvey to define the magnitude of transmission in a rural community in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: The serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 450 residences in the Chapada district, located 100 kilometers from Feira de Santana...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107315/weight-management-perception-interest-and-preferences-in-adult-cancer-survivors%C3%A2
#19
Fang Fang Zhang, Susan Meagher, Susan Koch-Weser, Mary Singer, Geetika Dhaundiyal, John Erban, Edward Saltzman
BACKGROUND: Obesity in cancer survivors has been recognized as a growing crisis in cancer care, but cancer survivors may not perceive weight status as important and may not be motivated to manage weight. 
. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate survivors' perception, interest, and preferences for weight management and to identify characteristics that may affect attitudes toward weight management. 
. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey assessed cancer survivors' attitudes toward weight management with patients attending oncology outpatient clinics at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107056/selfing-local-mate-competition-and-reinforcement
#20
Mark D Rausher
Reinforcement can contribute to speciation by increasing the strength of prezygotic isolating mechanisms. Theoretical analyses over the past two decades have demonstrated that conditions for reinforcement are not unduly restrictive, and empirical investigations have documented over a dozen likely cases, indicating that it may be a reasonably common phenomenon in nature. Largely uncharacterized, however, is the diversity of biological scenarios that can create the reduced hybrid fitness that drives reinforcement...
February 2017: American Naturalist
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