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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#1
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#2
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160850/analgesic-mechanisms-of-antidepressants-for-neuropathic-pain
#3
REVIEW
Hideaki Obata
Tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors are used to treat chronic pain, such as neuropathic pain. Why antidepressants are effective for treatment of neuropathic pain and the precise mechanisms underlying their effects, however, remain unclear. The inhibitory effects of these antidepressants for neuropathic pain manifest more quickly than their antidepressive effects, suggesting different modes of action. Recent studies of animal models of neuropathic pain revealed that noradrenaline is extremely important for the inhibition of neuropathic pain...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160559/removable-prosthesis-hygiene-in-elders-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Giselle Rodrigues Ribeiro, Camila Heitor Campos, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia
AIM: To evaluate changes in prosthesis hygiene in elders with Parkinson's disease (PD) in response to verbal instruction and positive reinforcement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Elders with removable prostheses were divided into PD (n = 17) and control (n = 20) groups. Biofilm on prostheses was measured at baseline, and verbal instructions on prosthesis hygiene were given. After 7, 14, and 30 days, biofilm presence was re-evaluated and the results were shown to participants, with repeated cleaning instruction...
November 21, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160513/detection-of-schistosomiasis-in-an-area-directly-affected-by-the-s%C3%A3-o-francisco-river-large-scale-water-transposition-project-in-the-northeast-of-brazil
#5
José Damião da Silva, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Mariana Silva Sousa, Vivian da Silva Gomes, Issis Maria Nogueira de Castro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes Bezerra
INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160508/detection-and-genotyping-of-human-adenovirus-and-sapovirus-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-between-1990-and-1992-first-detection-of-gi-7-and-gv-2-sapoviruses-in-brazil
#6
Larissa Cristina Prado das Neves Costa, Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Thayara Morais Portal, Edivaldo Costa Sousa, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay, Hugo Reis Resque
INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children from developing countries. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and sapovirus (SaV) are among the agents that cause AGE. The present study aimed to detect and genotype HAdV and SaV in 172 fecal samples from children with AGE, collected during a surveillance study carried out in a low-income community in Belém, Pará, between 1990 and 1992. METHODS: HAdV was detected by nested PCR, using primers Hex1deg/Hex2deg and NeHex3deg/NeHex4deg...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159603/prophylactic-intraperitoneal-onlay-mesh-reinforcement-reduces-the-risk-of-incisional-hernia-two-year-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Philippe Brosi, Philippe M Glauser, Benjamin Speich, Samuel A Käser, Christoph A Maurer
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernias still are a major concern after laparotomy and are causing substantial morbidity. This study examines the feasibility, safety and incisional hernia rate of the use of a prophylactic intraperitoneal onlay mesh stripe (IPOM) to prevent incisional hernia following midline laparotomy. METHODS: This prospective, randomized controlled trial randomly allocated patients undergoing median laparotomy either to mass closure of the abdominal wall with a PDS-loop running suture reinforced by an intraperitoneal composite mesh stripe (Group A) or to the same procedure without the additional mesh stripe (Group B)...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159486/program-components-of-psychosocial-interventions-in-foster-and-kinship-care-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kemmis-Riggs, Adam Dickes, John McAloon
Foster children frequently experience early trauma that significantly impacts their neurobiological, psychological and social development. This systematic review examines the comparative effectiveness of foster and kinship care interventions. It examines the components within each intervention, exploring their potential to benefit child and carer well-being, particularly focussing on child behaviour problems, and relational functioning. Systematic searches of electronic databases included PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, the Cochrane Collaborations Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Scopus to identify randomised or quasi-randomised trials of psychosocial foster/kinship care interventions, published between 1990 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158971/the-ultimate-legs-of-chilopoda-myriapoda-a-review-on-their-morphological-disparity-and-functional-variability
#9
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158669/minor-positive-effects-of-health-promoting-senior-meetings-for-older-community-dwelling-persons-on-loneliness-social-network-and-social-support
#10
Susanne Gustafsson, Helene Berglund, Joel Faronbi, Emmelie Barenfeld, Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year effect of the health-promoting intervention "senior meetings" for older community-dwelling persons regarding loneliness, social network, and social support. Methods: Secondary analysis of data was carried out from two randomized controlled studies: Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone and Promoting Aging Migrants' Capabilities. Data from 416 participants who attended the senior meetings and the control group at baseline and the 1-year follow-up in the respective studies were included...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158532/recombinant-decorin-fusion-protein-attenuates-murine-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation-and-rupture
#11
Yue Shen, Valerio Russo, Matthew R Zeglinski, Stephanie L Sellers, Zhengguo Wu, Cameron Oram, Stephanie Santacruz, Yulia Merkulova, Christopher Turner, Keerit Tauh, Hongyan Zhao, Tatjana Bozin, Lubos Bohunek, Haishan Zeng, Michael A Seidman, R Chris Bleackley, Bruce M McManus, Erkki Ruoslahti, Tero A H Järvinen, David J Granville
Decorin (DCN) is a small-leucine rich proteoglycan that mediates collagen fibrillogenesis, organization, and tensile strength. Adventitial DCN is reduced in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) resulting in vessel wall instability thereby predisposing the vessel to rupture. Recombinant DCN fusion protein CAR-DCN was engineered with an extended C-terminus comprised of CAR homing peptide that recognizes inflamed blood vessels and penetrates deep into the vessel wall. In the present study, the role of systemically-administered CAR-DCN in AAA progression and rupture was assessed in a murine model...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158494/mrg15-stimulates-ash1-h3k36-methyltransferase-activity-and-facilitates-ash1-trithorax-group-protein-function-in-drosophila
#12
Chang Huang, Fu Yang, Zhuqiang Zhang, Jing Zhang, Gaihong Cai, Lin Li, Yong Zheng, She Chen, Rongwen Xi, Bing Zhu
Ash1 is a Trithorax group protein that possesses H3K36-specific histone methyltransferase activity, which antagonizes Polycomb silencing. Here we report the identification of two Ash1 complex subunits, Mrg15 and Nurf55. In vitro, Mrg15 stimulates the enzymatic activity of Ash1. In vivo, Mrg15 is recruited by Ash1 to their common targets, and Mrg15 reinforces Ash1 chromatin association and facilitates the proper deposition of H3K36me2. To dissect the functional role of Mrg15 in the context of the Ash1 complex, we identify an Ash1 point mutation (Ash1-R1288A) that displays a greatly attenuated interaction with Mrg15...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158348/galectin-1-a-jack-of-all-trades-in-the-resolution-of-acute-and-chronic-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Victoria Sundblad, Luciano G Morosi, Jorge R Geffner, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Regulatory signals provide negative input to immunological networks promoting resolution of acute and chronic inflammation. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a member of a family of evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding proteins, displays broad anti-inflammatory and proresolving activities by targeting multiple immune cell types. Within the innate immune compartment, Gal-1 acts as a resolution-associated molecular pattern by counteracting the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting neutrophil trafficking, targeting eosinophil migration and survival, and suppressing mast cell degranulation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158188/experimental-use-of-an-acrolein-based-primer-as-collagen-cross-linker-for-dentine-bonding
#14
Tatjana Maravic, Lorenzo Breschi, Allegra Comba, Sandra Ribeiro Cunha, Valeria Angeloni, Cesare Nucci, Josimeri Hebling, David Pashley, Franklin Tay, Annalisa Mazzoni
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect of 0.01% acrolein (ACR) aqueous solution, employed as an additional primer, on the mechanical durability and enzymatic activity of resin-dentine interfaces created with a simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive. METHODS: Dentine surfaces were etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15sec, rinsed and blot-dried. Specimens were then assigned to: Group 1: dentine pre-treated with 0.01% ACR aqueous solution for 1min and bonded with Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1XT), a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive; Group 2: SB1XT was applied on untreated acid-etched dentine (control)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158125/sex-differences-in-nicotine-intravenous-self-administration-a-meta-analytic-review
#15
Rodolfo J Flores, Kevin P Uribe, Natashia Swalve, Laura E O'Dell
OBJECTIVE: This report reflects a meta-analysis that systematically reviewed the literature on intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of nicotine in female and male rats. The goal was to determine if sex differences in nicotine IVSA exist, estimate the magnitude of the effect, and identify potential moderators of the relationship between sex differences and nicotine consumption. METHODS: Extensive search procedures identified 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria of employing both female and male rats in nicotine IVSA procedures...
November 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158027/a-conditioned-reinforcer-did-not-help-to-maintain-an-operant-conditioning-in-the-absence-of-a-primary-reinforcer-in-horses
#16
Léa Lansade, Ludovic Calandreau
The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR)...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157195/management-of-transient-ischemic-attacks-diagnosed-by-early-career-general-practitioners-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Andrew R Davey, Daniel S Lasserson, Christopher R Levi, Amanda Tapley, Simon Morgan, Kim Henderson, Elizabeth G Holliday, Jean Ball, Mieke L van Driel, Lawrie McArthur, Neil A Spike, Parker J Magin
Background Transient ischemic attack incurs a risk of recurrent stroke that can be dramatically reduced by urgent guideline-recommended management at the point of first medical contact. Aims This study describes the prevalence and associations of new transient ischemic attack presentations to general practice registrars and the management undertaken. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training cohort study. General practice registrars from five Australian states (urban to very remote practices) collected data on 60 consecutive patient encounters during each of their three six-month training terms...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157193/effect-of-ventilation-velocity-on-hexavalent-chromium-and-isocyanate-exposures-in-aircraft-paint-spraying
#18
James Bennett, David Marlow, Fariba Nourian, James Breay, Amy Feng, Mark Methner
Exposure control system performance was evaluated during aircraft paint spraying at a military facility. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, tracer gas testing, and exposure monitoring examined contaminant exposure versus crossflow ventilation velocity. CFD modeling using the RNG k-ϵ turbulence model showed exposures to simulated methyl isobutyl ketone of 294 and 83.6 ppm, as a spatial average of five worker locations, for velocities of 0.508 and 0.381 m/s (100 and 75 fpm) respectively. In tracer gas experiments, observed supply/exhaust velocities of 0...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156851/cartilage-reinforcement-graft-versus-fascia-graft-in-tympanoplasty
#19
Emre Ocak, Süha Beton, Vedat Taş, Cem Meço
Background/aim: The purpose of this study was to compare cartilage reinforcement graft results with temporalis fascia graft alone in terms of hearing and anatomical outcomes in tympanoplasty. Materials and methods: Patients who underwent tympanoplasty with/without ossiculoplasty and/or mastoidectomy at a university hospital from 2006 through 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into those grafted with temporalis muscle fascia alone and with fascia reinforced with cartilage. The postoperative air bone gap, gain in hearing thresholds, and graft status were evaluated for each group...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156613/synthesis-and-swelling-behavior-of-ph-sensitive-semi-ipn-superabsorbent-hydrogels-based-on-poly-acrylic-acid-reinforced-with-cellulose-nanocrystals
#20
Lim Sze Lim, Noor Afizah Rosli, Ishak Ahmad, Azwan Mat Lazim, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin
pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content...
November 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
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