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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#1
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911299/chronotropic-response-and-cognitive-function-in-a-cohort-at-risk-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Lena L Law, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Jean A Einerson, Ryan J Dougherty, Jennifer M Oh, Claudia E Korcarz, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Barbara B Bendlin, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, James H Stein, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery- two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test- with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety participants (age = 63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911184/clinical-practice-in-portuguese-sexology
#3
Violeta Alarcão, Sofia Ribeiro, Joana Almeida, Alain Giami
Few studies explore the clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality, despite their role in the sexual health socialization process. This study focuses on Portuguese sexologists engaged into clinical practice. It aims to characterize sexologists' sex education and training and their clinical practices, including diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This research followed the methodology of a survey undertaken in France as a part of the Euro-Sexo study. From the 91 obtained questionnaires, 51 (56%) were active in clinical practice...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910997/service-user-satisfaction-with-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-associations-with-therapy-outcomes-and-perceptions-of-the-therapist
#4
Caroline Lawlor, Bina Sharma, Mizanur Khondoker, Emmanuelle Peters, Elizabeth Kuipers, Louise Johns
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated service user satisfaction with cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). This study explored its associations with clinical presentation and outcomes, retrospective expectations of progress, perceptions of the therapist, and demographic variables. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-five service users completed self-report questionnaires pre- and post-CBTp in relation to the constructs of interest. Regression analyses explored associations with (1) overall satisfaction with therapy and (2) perceived progress, skills, and knowledge gained...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910927/novel-chemoimmunotherapeutic-strategy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-a-genome-wide-association-study
#5
Kaku Goto, Dorcas A Annan, Tomoko Morita, Wenwen Li, Ryosuke Muroyama, Yasuo Matsubara, Sayaka Ito, Ryo Nakagawa, Yasushi Tanoue, Masahisa Jinushi, Naoya Kato
Pharmacotherapeutic options are limited for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, we identified the anti-tumor ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) gene as a susceptibility gene for hepatitis C virus-induced HCC in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). To prove the concept of HCC immunotherapy based on the results of a GWAS, in the present study, we searched for drugs that could restore MICA expression. A screen of the FDA-approved drug library identified the anti-cancer agent vorinostat as the strongest hit, suggesting histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) as potent candidates...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910796/reinforcement-of-emergency-department-reduces-acute-admissions-to-medical-department
#6
Mansoor Ahmed Dawood, Gideon Ertner, Jacob Hansen-Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: The medical decision capacity of emergency departments (ED) may rest within the department itself or depend on external consultation. The stepwise development of the ED at Zealand University Hospital, Køge, was used to analyse the influence of medical organisation in the ED on the hospital admission pattern. METHODS: Data were recorded for the month of September of 2009, 2012 and 2014. These periods corresponded to the establishment of the department in 2009 and the 2012-period before organisational change was initiated in 2013, with a substantial increase in the number of senior physicians directly in charge of clinical decisions and the establishment of a limited bedding capacity...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910668/compact-and-lightweight-support-platform-with-electromagnetic-disturbance-elimination-for-interferometer-on-reversed-field-pinch-keda-torus-experiment
#7
Wenzhe Mao, Peng Yuan, Jian Zheng, Weixing Ding, Hong Li, Tao Lan, Adi Liu, Wandong Liu, Jinlin Xie
A compact and lightweight support platform has been used as a holder for the interferometer system on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX), which is a reversed field pinch device. The vibration caused by the interaction between the time-varying magnetic field and the induced current driven in the metal optical components has been measured and, following comparison with the mechanical vibration of the KTX device and the refraction effect of the ambient turbulent air flow, has been identified as the primary vibration source in this case...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#8
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910035/self-care-as-a-professional-imperative-physician-burnout-depression-and-suicide
#9
Catherine M Kuhn, Ellen M Flanagan
PURPOSE: Burnout has been identified in approximately half of all practicing physicians, including anesthesiologists. In this narrative review, the relationship between burnout, depression, and suicide is explored, with particular attention to the anesthesiologist. Throughout this review, we highlight our professional imperative regarding this epidemic. SOURCE: The authors searched the existing English language literature via PubMed from 1986 until present using the search terms physician burnout, depression, and suicide, with particular attention to studies regarding anesthesiologists and strategies to address these problems...
December 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909799/thyroid-gland-visualization-with-3d-4d-ultrasound-integrated-hands-on-imaging-in-anatomical-dissection-laboratory
#10
John L Carter, Ankura Patel, Gabriel Hocum, Brion Benninger
PURPOSE: In teaching anatomy, clinical imaging has been utilized to supplement the traditional dissection laboratory promoting education through visualization of spatial relationships of anatomical structures. Viewing the thyroid gland using 3D/4D ultrasound can be valuable to physicians as well as students learning anatomy. The objective of this study was to investigate the perceptions of first-year medical students regarding the integration of 3D/4D ultrasound visualization of spatial anatomy during anatomical education...
December 1, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#11
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909251/-in-principle-we-have-agreement-but-in-practice-it-is-a-bit-more-difficult-obtaining-organizational-buy-in-to-patient-centered-medical-home-transformation
#12
Janelle Applequist, Michelle Miller-Day, Peter F Cronholm, Robert A Gabbay, Deborah S Bowen
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a model of care that emphasizes the coordination of patient treatment among health care providers. Practice transformation to this model, however, presents a number of challenges. One of these challenges is getting the buy-in of all personnel to commit to making organizational changes in the journey to becoming a nationally recognized medical home. This study investigated internal messages of buy-in as communicated by practices transitioning to this type of care. Grounding itself in stakeholder theory, this study analyzed interviews with staff, administration, and practitioners from 20 medical practices in a mid-Atlantic state...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909102/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#13
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE)-in the absence of choice-violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908974/effects-of-a-humor-therapy-program-on-stress-levels-in-pediatric-inpatients
#14
Julio C Sánchez, Luis F Echeverri, Manuel J Londoño, Sergio A Ochoa, Andrés F Quiroz, César R Romero, Joaquín O Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. METHODS: In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy...
December 1, 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908715/development-and-characterization-of-bacterial-cellulose-reinforced-biocomposite-films-based-on-protein-from-buckwheat-distiller-s-dried-grains
#15
Xuejiao Wang, Niamat Ullah, Xuchun Sun, Yan Guo, Lin Chen, Zhixi Li, Xianchao Feng
Biocomposite films were manufactured by combining protein extracted from buckwheat distiller's dried grains with bacterial cellulose (BC). The film microstructures showed that BC is compatible with protein matrix and endows the film with high rigidity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that BC can promote thermal stability of the composite films. BC promoted the transition from a Newtonian to a non-Newtonian fluid and the shear thinning behavior of protein-BC solution. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the main functional groups' absorption peaks shifted to lower wavenumbers...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908251/effects-of-an-outpatient-service-rehabilitation-programme-in-patients-affected-by-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-an-observational-study
#16
Maurizio Bussotti, Paola Gremigni, Roberto Fe Pedretti, Patrycja Kransinska, Silvia Di Marco, Paola Corbo, Giovanni Marchese, Paolo Totaro, Marinella Sommaruga
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterised by a severe impairment of functional status and quality of life (QoL). Use of rehabilitative programmes may help to improve outcomes. The aim of this pre/post test case series was to evaluate the impact of a training program, including sessions of aerobic and resistance exercise, inspiratory muscle reinforcement, slow breathing, relaxation, and psychological support, on functional outcomes. METHODS: Fifteen patients affected by PAH, in World Health Organization (WHO) Functional Class (FC) II or III and in stable clinical condition, were included in a 4-week cardiorespiratory training programme conducted in outpatient service...
November 30, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907920/aneuploidy-detection-and-mtdna-quantification-in-bovine-embryos-with-different-cleavage-onset-using-a-next-generation-sequencing-based-protocol
#17
Miroslav Hornak, David Kubicek, Petr Broz, Pavlina Hulinska, Katerina Hanzalova, Darren Griffin, Marie Machatkova, Jiri Rubes
Bovine embryos are now routinely used in agricultural systems as a means of disseminating superior genetics worldwide, ultimately with the aim of feeding an ever-growing population. Further investigations, common for human IVF embryos, thus have priority to improve cattle IVF, as has screening for aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome number). Although the incidence and consequences of aneuploidy are well documented in human preimplantation embryos, they are less well known for the embryos of other animals. To address this, we assessed aneuploidy levels in thirty-one 2-cell bovine embryos derived from early- and late-cleaving zygotes...
December 2, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907261/fitting-state-space-integral-projection-models-to-size-structured-time-series-data-to-estimate-unknown-parameters
#18
J Wilson White, Kerry J Nickols, Daniel Malone, Mark H Carr, Richard M Starr, Flora Cordoleani, Marissa L Baskett, Alan Hastings, Louis W Botsford
Integral projection models (IPMs) have a number of advantages over matrix-model approaches for analyzing size-structured population dynamics, because the latter require parameter estimates for each age or stage transition. However, IPMs still require appropriate data. Typically they are parameterized using individual-scale relationships between body size and demographic rates, but these are not always available. We present an alternative approach for estimating demographic parameters from time series of size-structured survey data using a Bayesian state-space IPM (SSIPM)...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907134/reward-contingencies-improve-goal-directed-behavior-by-enhancing-posterior-brain-attentional-regions-and-increasing-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-cocaine-addicts
#19
Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan-Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Víctor Costumero, Juan-José Llopis-Llacer, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907100/patterns-of-fish-connectivity-between-a-marine-protected-area-and-surrounding-fished-areas
#20
Rita Sahyoun, Paolo Guidetti, Antonio Di Franco, Serge Planes
Patterns of connectivity and self-recruitment are recognized as key factors shaping the dynamics of marine populations. Connectivity is also essential for maintaining and restoring natural ecological processes with genetic diversity contributing to the adaptation and persistence of any species in the face of global disturbances. Estimates of connectivity are crucial to inform the design of both marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. Among several approaches, genetic structure is frequently used as a proxy for patterns of connectivity...
2016: PloS One
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