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Pancreas anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203311/portal-annular-pancreas-a-rare-and-overlooked-anomaly
#1
Puneet Mittal, Ranjana Gupta, Amit Mittal, Arshad Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic developmental anomaly which is often overlooked at imaging, and often diagnosed retrospectively when it is detected incidentally at the time of surgery. Although the anomaly itself is asymptomatic, it becomes important in cases where pancreatic resection/anastomosis is planned, because of varying ductal anatomy, risk of ductal injury and increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula formation. CASE REPORT: We present imaging findings in a case of portal annular pancreas in a 45-year-old male patient...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149833/assessment-of-the-link-between-in-utero-exposure-to-2-aminoanthracene-2aa-and-type-1-diabetes-t1d
#2
Christopher A Mays, Daniel A Hunter, Wilson Yau, Worlanyo E Gato
BACKGROUND: A recent diabetes report revealed an increased incidence in diabetes including type 1-diabetes (T1D). The increase in the numbers of T1D incidences are thought to be related to environmental reasons such as the exposure to environmental chemicals including arylamine 2-aminoanthracene (2AA). T1D is an autoimmune disease of the pancreatic islet in which insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by auto-reactive T-cells and monocytic cells. METHODS: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which 2AA exposure contributes to T1D...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089481/recommendations-for-mri-based-contouring-of-gross-tumor-volume-and-organs-at-risk-for-radiation-therapy-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
H D Heerkens, W A Hall, X A Li, P Knechtges, E Dalah, E S Paulson, C A T van den Berg, G J Meijer, E J Koay, C H Crane, K Aitken, M van Vulpen, B A Erickson
PURPOSE: Local recurrence is a common and morbid event in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A more conformal and targeted radiation dose to the macroscopic tumor in nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer is likely to reduce acute toxicity and improve local control. Optimal soft tissue contrast is required to facilitate delineation of a target and creation of a planning target volume with margin reduction and motion management. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers considerable advantages in optimizing soft tissue delineation and is an ideal modality for imaging and delineating a gross tumor volume (GTV) within the pancreas, particularly as it relates to conformal radiation planning...
October 17, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048258/su-f-r-47-quantitative-shape-relationship-analysis-of-ptv-modification-for-critical-anatomy-sparing-and-its-impact-on-pathologic-response-for-neoadjuvant-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Z Cheng, L Rosati, L Chen, S Robertson, J Moore, L Peng, O Mian, A Narang, A Hacker-Prietz, J Herman, T McNutt
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be used to increase surgery candidacy in borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer. However, the planning target volume (PTV) may need to be limited to avoid toxicity when the gross tumor volume (GTV) is anatomically involved with surrounding critical structures. Our study aims to characterize the coverage of GTV and investigate the association between modified PTV and pathologic (pCR) or near pathologic (npCR) complete response rates determined from the surgical specimen...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913913/improved-image-quality-in-abdominal-ct-in-patients-who-underwent-treatment-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-small-metal-implants-using-a-raw-data-based-metal-artifact-reduction-algorithm
#5
Keitaro Sofue, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yoshiharu Ohno, Noriyuki Negi, Hiroyasu Inokawa, Naoki Sugihara, Kazuro Sugimura
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated...
December 2, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813710/usefulness-of-three-dimensional-modeling-in-surgical-planning-resident-training-and-patient-education
#6
Ciro Andolfi, Alejandro Plana, Patrick Kania, P Pat Banerjee, Stephen Small
BACKGROUND: Imaging has a critical impact on surgical decision making and three-dimensional (3D) digital models of patient pathology can now be made commercially. We developed a 3D digital model of a cancer of the head of the pancreas by integrating actual CT data with 3D modeling process. After this process, the virtual pancreatic model was also produced using a high-quality 3D printer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 56-year-old female with pancreatic head adenocarcinoma presented with biliary obstruction and jaundice...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797245/pancreaticobiliary-ductal-anatomy-in-the-normal-population
#7
Jakrapan Jirasiritham, Chumpon Wilasrusmee, Napaphat Poprom, Noppadol Larbcharoensub
BACKGROUND: The complex anatomy of the pancreaticobiliary duct was crucial in management of pancreatic and biliary tract disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh specimens of pancreas, common bile duct (CBD), and duodenum were obtained en bloc from autopsies of 160 patients. RESULTS: Ninety-three male and 67 female patients were included. The length of the pancreas ranged from 9.8-20 cm (mean, 16.20 +/- 1.70 cm). The intrapancreatic portion of the CBD showed patterns of three types: most common (85...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789228/vascular-development-in-the-vertebrate-pancreas
#8
D Berfin Azizoglu, Diana C Chong, Alethia Villasenor, Judith Magenheim, David M Barry, Simon Lee, Leilani Marty-Santos, Stephen Fu, Yuval Dor, Ondine Cleaver
The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788285/trend-toward-individualization-of-the-endocrine-and-exocrine-portions-of-the-giant-anteater-pancreas-myrmecophaga-tridactyla-xenarthra
#9
Luciana Pedrosa Iglesias, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Jéssica Borghesi, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Maria Angelica Miglino, Alan Perez Ferraz de Melo
Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660206/intrahepatic-biliary-duct-branching-patterns-cystic-duct-anomalies-and-pancreas-divisum-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-a-magnetic-resonance-cholangiopancreaticographic-study
#10
Ankur Gupta, Praveer Rai, Vivek Singh, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Vivek Anand Saraswat
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about anatomic variations in intrahepatic biliary ducts (IHBD) is relevant for performing biliary drainage and for avoiding bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and liver resections. Low insertion of cystic duct (LICD) is a common anatomic variant. Pancreas divisum is the commonest congenital anomaly of pancreas; it has been causally linked with recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP). METHODS: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) images of 500 consecutive patients were reviewed for anatomic variants of IHBD, cystic duct, and pancreatic duct...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651917/case-report-of-eus-guided-endoscopic-transduodenal-necrosectomy-in-a-patient-with-sleeve-gastrectomy
#11
Avik Sarkar, Ragui Sadek, Matthew Lissauer, Swati Pawa
BACKGROUND: After an acute attack of pancreatitis, walled-off pancreatic fluid collections (PFC) occur in approximately 10 % of cases. Drainage of the cavity is recommended when specific indications are met. Endoscopic drainage has been adopted as the main intervention for symptomatic walled-off PFC. Altered gastric anatomy in these patients poses an interesting challenge. We present the first case of a patient with sleeve gastrectomy who underwent successful endoscopic transduodenal necrosectomy (TDN)...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563735/the-discovery-of-the-lymphatic-system-in-the-seventeenth-century-part-ii-the-discovery-of-chyle-vessels
#12
Raphael Suy, Sarah Thomis, Inge Fourneau
In the seventeenth century, opportunities to discover chyle came about through the revival of vivisection. Gaspare Aselli discovered chyle vessels in a living well-fed dog in 1622. He introduced the term 'lacteals' or milky veins. According to Aselli, the lacteals passed through a mesenteric gland which he called 'pancreas'. The 1627 edition of Aselli's booklet was the start of a 'lymphomania', which led to the dissection and vivisection of hundreds of animals, with the University of Leiden being the clear leader in this field...
October 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559239/a-comparison-of-the-anatomical-structure-of-the-pancreas-in-experimental-animals
#13
REVIEW
Minoru Tsuchitani, Junko Sato, Hiroko Kokoshima
As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures were compared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs. In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact and similar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment, but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, the islet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of α- versus β-cells...
July 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555344/the-dorsal-pancreatic-artery-in-pancreas-procurement-and-transplantation-anatomical-considerations-and-potential-implications
#14
André G Baranski, Hwai-Ding Lam, Andries E Braat, Alexander F Schaapherder
AIM: Organ procurement errors account for almost 20% of discarded pancreatic allografts. For this reason, the anatomical significance of the dorsal pancreatic artery (DPA) was reviewed. METHODS: A strategy on dealing with an often overlooked DPA is evaluated. RESULTS: The DPA provides together with the splenic artery the main blood supply to the pancreatic tail. Three different arterial variations have been described. In the rare instances when the DPA arises from the common hepatic artery or the celiac trunk, instead of the splenic origin, the DPA can easily be overlooked by surgeons not familiar with this artery...
October 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504816/specialized-imaging-and-procedures-in-pediatric-pancreatology-a-naspghan-clinical-report
#15
Tom K Lin, David M Troendle, Daniel B Wallihan, Bradley Barth, Victor L Fox, Douglas S Fishman, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children are being diagnosed with pancreatitis and other pancreatic abnormalities. Dissemination of the information regarding existing imaging techniques and endoscopic modalities to diagnose and manage pancreatic disorders in children is sorely needed. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature on the use of the following imaging and procedural modalities in pediatric pancreatology: transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376210/resection-reconstruction-of-aberrant-right-hepatic-artery-during-whipple-procedure-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#16
Raza Sayyed, Iffat Rehman, Imran Khalid Niazi, Muhammed Aasim Yusuf, Aamir Ali Syed, Faisal V
Aberrant hepatic arterial anatomy poses a challenge for the surgeon during Whipple procedure. Intraoperative injury to the aberrant vasculature results in hemorrhagic or ischemic complications involving the liver and biliary tree. We report a case of replaced right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery in a patient with periampullary carcinoma of the pancreas, undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. The aberrant artery was found to be coursing through the pancreatic parenchyma. This is a rare vascular anomaly...
June 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366114/laparoscopic-spleen-preserving-hilar-lymph-node-dissection-through-pre-pancreatic-and-retro-pancreatic-approach-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#17
Liansheng Zheng, Ce Zhang, Da Wang, Qi Xue, Xiaoping Liu, Ke-Jian Zhou, Hao Liu, Guoxin Li
BACKGROUND: The conventional radical resection of proximal gastric cancer is even more risky when performed laparoscopically, though this technique is widely used in gastrointestinal surgery and is accepted as the superior method. This paper explores the feasibility of laparoscopic spleen-preserving hilar lymph node dissection using a retro-pancreatic approach for the treatment of proximal gastric cancer. METHODS: Two cadavers were dissected for examination of and the pre-pancreatic and retro-pancreatic spaces...
2016: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240285/temporal-trends-in-the-use-of-diagnostic-imaging-for-inpatients-with-pancreatic-conditions-how-much-ionizing-radiation-are-we-using
#18
Alexsander K Bressan, Jean-Francois Ouellet, Divine Tanyingoh, Elijah Dixon, Gilaad G Kaplan, Sean C Grondin, Robert P Myers, Rachid Mohamed, Chad G Ball
BACKGROUND: Low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging has been indirectly linked with subsequent cancer and increased costs. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for defining pancreatic anatomy and complications. Our primary goal was to identify the temporal trends associated with diagnostic imaging for inpatients with pancreatic diseases. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2000 to 2008...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186047/culinary-medicine-jalebi-adhesions
#19
Vinay K Kapoor
Culinary terms have been used to describe anatomy (bean-shaped kidneys), pathology (strawberry gall bladder), clinical signs (café-au-lait spots), radiological images (sausage-shaped pancreas), etc. While Indian cuisine is popular all over the world, no Indian dish finds mention in medical terminology. In intra-abdominal adhesions, sometimes, the intestinal loops are so densely adherent that it is difficult to make out proximal from distal and it is impossible to separate them without injuring the bowel resulting in spill of contents-resection is the only option (Fig...
February 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163589/fat-containing-retroperitoneal-lesions-imaging-characteristics-localization-and-differential-diagnosis
#20
Akram M Shaaban, Maryam Rezvani, Marc Tubay, Khaled M Elsayes, Paula J Woodward, Christine O Menias
The complex anatomy of the retroperitoneum is reflected in the spectrum of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions that can occur in the retroperitoneum and appear as soft-tissue masses. The presence of fat within a retroperitoneal lesion is helpful in refining the differential diagnosis. Fat is easily recognized because of its characteristic imaging appearance. It typically is hyperechoic at ultrasonography and demonstrates low attenuation at computed tomography (-10 to -100 HU). Magnetic resonance imaging is a more ideal imaging modality because it has better soft-tissue image contrast and higher sensitivity for depicting (a) microscopic fat by using chemical shift imaging and (b) macroscopic fat by using fat-suppression techniques...
May 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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