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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647288/gap-junctions-pannexins-and-pain
#1
REVIEW
David C Spray, Menachem Hanani
Enhanced expression and function of gap junctions and pannexin (Panx) channels has been associated with both peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitization. At the level of the sensory ganglia, evidence includes augmented gap junction and pannexin1 expression in glial cells and neurons in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models and increased synchrony and enhanced cross-excitation among sensory neurons by gap junction-mediated coupling. In spinal cord and in suprapinal areas, evidence is largely limited to increased expression of relevant proteins, although in several rodent pain models, hypersensitivity is reduced by treatment with gap junction/Panx1 channel blocking compounds...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646160/loss-of-g%C3%AE-i-proteins-impairs-thymocyte-development-disrupts-t-cell-trafficking-and-leads-to-an-expanded-population-of-splenic-cd4-pd-1-cxcr5-t-cells
#2
Il-Young Hwang, Kathleen Harrison, Chung Park, John H Kehrl
Thymocyte and T cell trafficking relies on signals initiated by G-protein coupled receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins Gαi2 and Gαi3 in thymocyte and T cell function, we developed several mouse models. Gαi2 deficiency in hematopoietic progenitors led to a small thymus, a double negative (DN)1/DN2 thymocyte transition block, and an accumulation of mature single positive (SP) thymocytes. Loss at the double positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development caused an increase in mature cells within the thymus...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645667/effect-of-different-restorative-crown-and-customized-abutment-materials-on-stress-distribution-in-single-implants-and-peripheral-bone-a-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis-study
#3
Necati Kaleli, Duygu Sarac, Safak Külünk, Özgür Öztürk
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: In recent years, the use of resin-matrix ceramics and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) abutments has been suggested to absorb excessive stresses on dental implants. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effect of these materials on stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone structure. PURPOSE: The purpose of this finite element analysis was to evaluate the biomechanical behaviors of resin-matrix ceramics and PEEK customized abutments in terms of stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644845/lipo-pge1-suppresses-collagen-production-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-via-the-erk-ets-1-signaling-pathway
#4
Yoolhee Yang, Hee Jung Kim, Kyong-Je Woo, Daeho Cho, Sa Ik Bang
Dysregulation of collagen production contributes to various pathological processes, including tissue fibrosis as well as impaired wound healing. Lipo-prostaglandin E1 (Lipo-PGE1), a lipid microsphere-incorporated prostaglandin E1, is used as a vasodilator for the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Lipo-PGE1 was recently shown to enhance human dermal fibroblast (HDF) migration and in vivo wound healing. No published study has characterized the role of Lipo-PGE1 in collagen regulation in HDFs. Here, we investigated the cellular signaling mechanism by which Lipo-PGE1 regulates collagen in HDFs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642997/pd-1-and-cancer-molecular-mechanisms-and-polymorphisms
#5
REVIEW
Arash Salmaninejad, Vahid Khoramshahi, Alireza Azani, Ehsan Soltaninejad, Saeed Aslani, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Masoud Zal, Abolfazl Nesaei, Sayed Mostafa Hosseini
The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is expressed by activated T cells that act as an immunoregulatory molecule, and are responsible for the negative regulation of T cell activation and peripheral tolerance. The PD-1 gene also encodes an inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of T cell functions during immune responses/tolerance. Beyond potent inhibitory effects on T cells, PD-1 also has a role in regulating B cell and monocyte responses. An overexpression of PD-1 has been reported to contribute to immune system avoidance in different cancers...
June 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642238/ager-deletion-enhances-ischemic-muscle-inflammation-neoangiogenesis-and-blood-flow-recovery-in-diabetic-mice
#6
Raquel Lopez Diez, Xiaoping Shen, Gurdip Daffu, Md Khursheed, Jiyuan Hu, Fei Song, Rosa Rosario, Yunlu Xu, Qing Li, Xiangmei Xi, Yu Shan Zou, Huilin Li, Ann Marie Schmidt, Shi Fang Yan
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic subjects are at higher risk of ischemic peripheral vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) block neoangiogenesis and blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia induced by femoral artery ligation through modulation of immune/inflammatory mechanisms. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wild-type mice rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and subjected to unilateral femoral artery ligation displayed increased accumulation and expression of AGEs and RAGE in ischemic muscle...
June 22, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#7
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638381/anti-bovine-programmed-death-1-rat-bovine-chimeric-antibody-for-immunotherapy-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection-in-cattle
#8
Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shinya Goto, Chie Nakajima, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638353/the-effects-of-spatial-endogenous-pre-cueing-across-eccentricities
#9
Jing Feng, Ian Spence
Frequently, we use expectations about likely locations of a target to guide the allocation of our attention. Despite the importance of this attentional process in everyday tasks, examination of pre-cueing effects on attention, particularly endogenous pre-cueing effects, has been relatively little explored outside an eccentricity of 20°. Given the visual field has functional subdivisions that attentional processes can differ significantly among the foveal, perifoveal, and more peripheral areas, how endogenous pre-cues that carry spatial information of targets influence our allocation of attention across a large visual field (especially in the more peripheral areas) remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637878/cd4-t-cell-and-nk-cell-interplay-key-to-regression-of-mhc-class-i-low-tumors-upon-tlr7-8-agonist-therapy
#10
Elien M Doorduijn, Marjolein Sluijter, Daniela C Salvatori, Serenella Silvestri, Saskia Maas, Ramon Arens, Ferry Ossendorp, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Thorbald van Hall
One of the next challenges in cancer immunotherapy is the resistance of tumors to T cell-based treatments through loss of MHC class I. Here, we show that under these circumstances, the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/8 ligand imiquimod, but not the TLR3 ligand poly I:C or TLR9 ligand CpG, mediated an effective antitumor response. The rejection of these immune-escaped cancers was mediated by NK cells and CD4(+) T cells, whereas activated CD8(+) T cells were dispensable. Application of the innate immune stimulator at a distant site activated NK cells and thereby elicited tumor-specific T-cell responses in tumor-bearing mice...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637396/modulation-of-mir29a-improves-impaired-post-ischemic-angiogenesis-in-hyperglycemia
#11
Lingdan Chen, Emmanuel Okeke, Dawit Ayalew, Danny Wang, Lyeba Shahid, Ayotunde O Dokun
Individuals with diabetes mellitus suffer from impaired angiogenesis and this contributes to poorer peripheral arterial disease outcomes. In experimental peripheral arterial disease, angiogenesis and perfusion recovery are impaired in mice with diabetes. We recently showed that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 12 (ADAM12) is upregulated in ischemic endothelial cells and plays a key role in post-ischemic angiogenesis and perfusion recovery following experimental peripheral arterial disease...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636994/a-novel-ampk-activator-hernandezine-inhibits-lps-induced-tnf%C3%AE-production
#12
Ping Li, Xiaofang Li, Yonghong Wu, Manxiang Li, Xiaochuang Wang
Here, we found that hernandezine, a novel AMPK activator, inhibited LPS-induced TNFα expression/production in human macrophage cells (THP-1 and U937 lines). Activation of AMPK is required for hernandezine-induced anti-LPS response. AMPKα shRNA or dominant negative mutation (T172A) blocked hernandezine-induced AMPK activation, which almost completely reversed anti-LPS activity by hernandezine. Exogenous expression of the constitutively activate AMPKα (T172D, caAMPKα) also suppressed TNFα production by LPS...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635548/th-17-regulatory-cytokines-il-21-il-23-and-il-6-enhance-neutrophil-production-of-il-17-cytokines-during-asthma
#13
Rabih Halwani, Asma Sultana, Alejandro Vazquez-Tello, Amer Jamhawi, Abeer A Al-Masri, Saleh Al-Muhsen
BACKGROUND: In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634283/phase-ib-study-of-utomilumab-pf-05082566-a-4-1bb-cd137-agonist-in-combination-with-pembrolizumab-mk-3475-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#14
Anthony W Tolcher, Mario Sznol, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Kyriakos P Papadopoulos, Amita Patnaik, Drew Rasco, Donna Di Gravio, Bo Huang, Dhiraj Gambhire, Ying Chen, Aron Thall, Nuzhat Pathan, Emmett V Schmidt, Laura Q M Chow
Purpose:  This phase Ib study (NCT02179918) evaluated the safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of utomilumab, a fully human IgG2 mAb agonist of the T-cell costimulatory receptor 4-1BB/CD137 in combination with the humanized, PD-1-blocking IgG4 mAb pembrolizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. <p>Experimental Design:  Utomilumab (0.45-5.0 mg/kg) and pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg) were administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Utomilumab dose escalation was conducted using the time-to-event-continual reassessment method...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633155/regional-anesthesia-and-pain-medicine-us-anesthesiology-resident-training-the-year-2015
#15
Joseph M Neal, Anne Gravel Sullivan, Richard W Rosenquist, Dan J Kopacz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Anesthesiology Review Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets core requirements for residency program accreditation. We periodically report and analyze the US anesthesiology residents' training experience in regional anesthesia and pain medicine. METHODS: Resident caseload, procedure, and pain medicine evaluation data were aggregated for the resident cohort who graduated in 2015. These data were analyzed for present-day experience and compared with previous reports from years 1980, 1990, and 2000 graduates...
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630022/lamprey-metamorphosis-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-a-basal-vertebrate
#16
REVIEW
Richard G Manzon, Lori A Manzon
As one of the most basal living vertebrates, lampreys represent an excellent model system to study the evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. The lamprey hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and reproductive axes overlap functionally. Lampreys have 3 gonadotropin releasing hormones and a single glycoprotein hormone from the hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively, that regulate both the reproductive and thyroid axes. TH synthesis in larval lampreys takes place in an endostyle that transforms into typical vertebrate thyroid tissue during metamorphosis; both the endostyle and follicular tissue have all the typical TH synthetic components found in other vertebrates...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627724/comparative-echogenicity-of-an-epidural-catheter-and-2-new-catheters-designed-for-ultrasound-guided-continuous-peripheral-nerve-blocks
#17
Daniel M Moy, T Edward Kim, T Kyle Harrison, Jody C Leng, Brendan Carvalho, Steven K Howard, Cynthia Shum, Alex Kou, Edward R Mariano
Visualization of the catheter during ultrasound-guided continuous nerve block performance may be difficult but is an essential skill for regional anesthesiologists. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate 2 newer catheters designed for enhanced echogenicity and compare them to a widely used catheter not purposely designed for ultrasound guidance. Outcomes were the numbers of first-place rankings among all 3 catheters and scores on individual echogenicity criteria as assessed by 2 blinded reviewers...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623351/regulation-of-angiopoietin-signalling-by-soluble-tie2-ectodomain-and-engineered-ligand-trap
#18
Deborah O A Alawo, Tariq A Tahir, Marlies Fischer, Declan G Bates, Svetlana R Amirova, Nicholas P J Brindle
Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) is a glycoprotein ligand important for maintaining the vascular system. It signals via a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on the surface on endothelial cells, Tie2. This receptor can undergo regulated ectodomain cleavage that releases the ligand-binding domain (sTie2) into the circulation. The concentration of sTie2 is increased in a range of conditions, including peripheral arterial disease and myocardial infarction, where it has been suggested to bind and block Angpt1 resulting in vascular dysfunction...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623266/design-of-a-peripheral-building-block-for-h-bonded-dendritic-frameworks-and-analysis-of-the-void-space-in-the-bulk-dendrimers
#19
Cheng-Hua Lee, Dmitriy V Soldatov, Chung-Hao Tzeng, Long-Li Lai, Kuang-Lieh Lu
Three dendrimers, (t-Bu-G 2 N) 2 , CC(t-Bu-G 1 N) 3 and (t-Bu-G 1 N) 2 , with 3,5-di-tert-butyl amidobenzene as a common peripheral moiety were prepared in 64-83% yields and characterized. The bulk solids had high BET surface areas of 136-138 m(2)/g, which were similar for the three dendrimers in spite of their different molecular weight (ranging from 1791 to 2890). It was concluded that the peripheral amide groups do not imbed in the interstitial space of neighbouring dendrimer molecules but rather build a supramolecular architecture through strong intermolecular H-bonds...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621630/evaluation-of-surgical-treatment-for-neuropathic-pain-from-neuroma-in-patients-with-injured-peripheral-nerves
#20
Valérie Decrouy-Duruz, Thierry Christen, Wassim Raffoul
OBJECTIVE Chronic neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury is a major clinical problem. Its management is difficult, and therapeutic approaches vary and include oral medication, neurostimulation, and surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of surgical nerve revision in a large series of patients with long-term follow-up. METHODS The authors reviewed the charts of 231 patients (335 nerve injuries) who experienced neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury and underwent surgery for nerve revision at the authors' institution between 1997 and 2012...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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