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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789705/the-short-term-effect-of-ultrasound-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulator-guided-femoral-nerve-block-with-phenol-on-the-outcomes-of-patients-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Yasin Demir, Ayça Uran Şan, Serdar Kesikburun, Evren Yaşar, Bilge Yılmaz
STUDY DESIGN: A pre-post descriptive study. OBJECTIVES: To examine the immediate effects of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with phenol (UGFNBwP) in managing the lower limb spasticity of individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Ankara, Turkey. METHODS: Nineteen patients with traumatic SCI presenting with lower extremity spasticity were treated with UGFNBwP. Modified Ashworth Scale of hip flexion and knee extension, functional independence measure motor subscale, difficulty of catheterization, hygiene score, spasm frequency, sleep quality, and patient satisfaction (PS) were measured in all patients prior to treatment, in the first week and second month...
May 22, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789615/il-37-isoform-d-downregulates-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-expression-in-a-smad3-dependent-manner
#2
Mingsheng Zhao, Yulan Li, Chun Guo, Liyang Wang, Hongxia Chu, Faliang Zhu, Yan Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Qun Wang, Wei Zhao, Yongyu Shi, WanJun Chen, Lining Zhang
IL-37 is a new member of IL-1 family and possesses five different isoforms (named as IL-37 a-e). IL-37b has been demonstrated as a physiological suppressor of immune responses. However, the function of other isoforms remains unknown. Here, we show that IL-37d possesses anti-inflammatory roles both in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, IL-37d is expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and umbilical cords-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Secondly, IL-37d overexpression markedly inhibits IL-1β-induced IL-6 production in A549 cells...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787389/liposomal-bupivacaine-does-not-reduce-inpatient-opioid-prescription-or-related-complications-after-knee-arthroplasty-a-database-analysis
#3
Lukas Pichler, Jashvant Poeran, Nicole Zubizarreta, Crispiana Cozowicz, Eric C Sun, Madhu Mazumdar, Stavros G Memtsoudis
BACKGROUND: Although some trials suggest benefits of liposomal bupivacaine, data on real-world use and effectiveness is lacking. This study analyzed the impact of liposomal bupivacaine use (regardless of administration route) on inpatient opioid prescription, resource utilization, and opioid-related complications among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasties with a peripheral nerve block. It was hypothesized that liposomal bupivacaine has limited clinical influence on the studied outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#4
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786105/cannabinoid-win-55-212-2-mesylate-inhibits-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#5
Rong Tan, Lijun Cao
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an established pain modulator in the peripheral nervous system. Elevated levels of TNF-α in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons reportedly is critical for neuropathic pain processing. It has been shown that the production of nitric oxide, a key player in the development and maintenance of nociception, depends on the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and their activities. Accumulating evidence also supports an important role of cannabinoids in modulating neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777732/antinociceptive-effect-of-tadalafil-in-various-pain-models-involvement-of-opioid-receptors-and-nitric-oxide-cyclic-gmp-pathways
#6
Mohammad M Mehanna, Souraya Domiati, Hania Nakkash Chmaisse, Ahmed El Mallah
Nitric oxide has been proven to play an important role in nociception, accordingly, its promoters, phosphodiesterase inhibitors have been investigated as pain response modulators. Aiming to evaluate the central effect of tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, and to determine its EC50, tail flick and hot plate tests were utilized. On the other hand, its nociceptive peripheral analgesic effect was assessed through acetic-acid induced writhing model. Formalin test was used to appraise both non-inflammatory and inflammatory pain responses...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776352/surgical-peripheral-iridectomy-via-a-clear-cornea-phacoemulsification-incision-for-pupillary-block-following-cataract-surgery-in-acute-angle-closure
#7
Aiwu Fang, Peijuan Wang, Rui He, Jia Qu
BACKGROUND: To describe a technique of surgical peripheral iridectomy via a clear-cornea tunnel incision to prevent or treat pupillary block following phacoemulsification. METHODS: Description of technique and retrospective description results in 20 eyes of 20 patients with acute angle closure with coexisting visually significant cataract undergoing phacoemulsification considered at risk of postoperative papillary block as well as two pseudo-phakic eyes with acute postoperative pupillary-block...
May 18, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775120/successful-improvement-of-pain-symptomatology-in-a-suspected-case-of-cramp-fasciculation-syndrome-via-interventional-pain-treatment
#8
Anita Gupta, Lucas First, Celeste A Swain
Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) syndromes are a rare set of neuromuscular disorders that include cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) and Isaacs syndrome (IS). Successful treatment of these diseases has been achieved with antiepileptic medications; however, chronic pain symptoms can persist. We provide a case report of a 25-year-old female who has suffered from painful severe muscle spasms and fasciculations since childhood. With CFS as our working diagnosis, a treatment regimen using interventional pain techniques, including sympathetic chain blocks, ketamine infusions, and trigger point injections, resulted in a significant decrease in the patient's chronic pain symptoms...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771804/preemptive-analgesia-decreases-pain-following-anorectal-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Justin T Van Backer, Matthew R Jordan, Danielle T Leahy, Jesse S Moore, Peter Callas, Timothy Dominick, Peter A Cataldo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a frequent cause for delayed discharge following outpatient procedures, including anorectal surgery. Both central and peripheral pain receptor sensitization are thought to contribute to postoperative pain. Blocking these receptors and preempting sensitization prevents hyperalgesia leading to lower pain medication requirements. Studies in the orthopedic, urologic, and gynecologic literature support this practice, but the use of preemptive analgesia in anorectal surgery is understudied...
May 15, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763654/obturator-neuromodulation-with-laparoscopic-placement-of-an-obturator-lead-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-opioid-dependent-chronic-pelvic-pain-due-to-obturator-neuralgia
#10
Richard P Marvel
Chronic pelvic pain(CPP) is a common condition in women that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Some of the most severe forms of CPP are related to peripheral nerve injuries causing persistent neuropathic pain. This is a case of a young woman with severe opioid dependent chronic pelvic and right groin pain due to obturator neuralgia. She had failed a multitude of treatments including multiple medications, manual physical therapy, nerve blocks, surgical neurolysis and spinal cord stimulation without significant benefit...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761860/hypermethylation-of-cpg-islands-is-associated-with-increasing-chromosomal-damage-in-chinese-lead-exposed-workers
#11
Li-Bo Yu, Yu-Ting Tu, Jing-Wen Huang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Guo-Qiao Zheng, Xiao-Wen Xu, Jin-Wei Wang, Jean Qin Xiao, David C Christiani, Zhao-Lin Xia
Lead is a widely existing environmental pollutant with potential carcinogenicity. To investigate the association of blood lead level (B-Pb) with potential chromosomal damage and cancer, we analyzed micronucleus (MN) frequency of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and the methylation status of six human tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) post lead exposure. In the study, 147 lead-exposed workers were divided into two groups according to their B-Pb P50 value, with other 50 lead-unexposed workers as a control group...
May 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758104/restricted-speciation-and-supramolecular-assembly-in-the-5f-block
#12
Korey P Carter, Robert G Surbella Iii, Mark Kalaj, Christopher L Cahill
Hybrid materials bearing elements from the 5f block display a rich diversity of coordination geometries, connectivities, and assembly motifs. Exemplary in this regard have been the uranyl coordination polymers, which feature a wide range of secondary building units resulting from hydrolysis and oligomerization of the [UO2]2+ cation. An alternative approach to novel materials, however, suppresses hydrolysis and relies on non-covalent interactions (e.g. hydrogen or halogen bonding) to direct assembly of a more limited suite of species or building units...
May 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754819/blocking-neuronal-signaling-to-immune-cells-treats-streptococcal-invasive-infection
#13
Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Buket Baddal, Rianne Haarsma, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Nicole J Yang, Kimbria J Blake, Makayla Portley, Waldiceu A Verri, James B Dale, Michael R Wessels, Isaac M Chiu
The nervous system, the immune system, and microbial pathogens interact closely at barrier tissues. Here, we find that a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, hijacks pain and neuronal regulation of the immune response to promote bacterial survival. Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft tissue infection in which "pain is out of proportion" to early physical manifestations. We find that S. pyogenes, the leading cause of necrotizing fasciitis, secretes streptolysin S (SLS) to directly activate nociceptor neurons and produce pain during infection...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753264/perineural-dexamethasone-successfully-prolongs-adductor-canal-block-when-assessed-by-objective-pinprick-sensory-testing-a-prospective-randomized-dose-dependent-placebo-controlled-equivalency-trial
#14
James D Turner, Daryl S Henshaw, Robert S Weller, J Douglas Jaffe, Christopher J Edwards, J Wells Reynolds, Gregory B Russell, Sean W Dobson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perineural dexamethasone prolongs peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) when measured objectively; and to determine if a 1 mg and 4 mg dose provide equivalent PNB prolongation compared to PNB without dexamethasone. SETTING: Multiple studies have reported that perineural dexamethasone added to local anesthetics (LA) can prolong PNB. However, these studies have relied on subjective end-points to quantify PNB duration. The optimal dose remains unknown...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752218/elevated-international-normalized-ratio-is-not-associated-with-increased-perioperative-morbidity-in-podiatric-limb-salvage-surgery-a-retrospective-analysis
#15
Nalini Vadivelu, Alice M Kai, Feng Dai, Hosni Mikhael, Rima Aouad, Peter Blume
The risk of hemorrhage always exists in anticoagulated patients with an elevated international normalized ratio (INR), a risk that must be measured against the necessity for surgical procedures. The objective of the present retrospective medical record study was to assess the safety with which limb salvage procedures can be conducted in patients with an INR >1.4. The medical records of 231 patients who had undergone limb salvage procedures by 1 surgeon at the Yale New Haven Health System from November 2008 through July 2014 were reviewed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749407/peripheral-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-localization-and-role-in-gastric-acid-secretion-regulation-immunofluorescence-and-pharmacological-studies
#16
Iuliia Golovynska, Tatiana V Beregova, Tatiana M Falalyeyeva, Ludmila I Stepanova, Sergii Golovynskyi, Junle Qu, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy
The enteric nervous system (ENS) and a glutamate receptor (GluR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), participate in gastric acid secretion (GAS) regulation. NMDARs are localized in different stomach cells; however, knowledge of NMDAR expression and function in the ENS is limited. In the present study, we clarified the types of stomach cells that express the NMDARs that are involved in GAS regulation. The pharmacological method of isolated stomach perfusion by Ghosh and Shild combined with direct mapping of NMDARs by fluorescence microscopy in the rat stomach was employed...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748256/structure-mechanism-and-regulation-of-the-chloroplast-atp-synthase
#17
Alexander Hahn, Janet Vonck, Deryck J Mills, Thomas Meier, Werner Kühlbrandt
The chloroplast adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase uses the electrochemical proton gradient generated by photosynthesis to produce ATP, the energy currency of all cells. Protons conducted through the membrane-embedded Fo motor drive ATP synthesis in the F1 head by rotary catalysis. We determined the high-resolution structure of the complete cF1 Fo complex by cryo-electron microscopy, resolving side chains of all 26 protein subunits, the five nucleotides in the F1 head, and the proton pathway to and from the rotor ring...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747078/mechanisms-of-acetylcholinesterase-protection-against-sarin-and-soman-by-adenosine-a-1-receptor-agonist-n-6-cyclopentyladenosine
#18
Ariana Beste, DeCarlos E Taylor, Tsung-Ming Shih, Thaddeus P Thomas
Organophosphorus nerve agents (NAs) irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The over accumulation of ACh after NA exposure leads to cholinergic toxicity, seizure, and death. Current medical countermeasures effectively mitigate peripheral symptoms, however; the brain is often unprotected. Alternative acute treatment with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6 -cyclopentyladensosine (CPA) has previously been demonstrated to prevent AChE inhibition as well as to suppress neuronal activity...
May 7, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746989/increased-expression-of-transcription-factor-sry-box-containing-gene-11-sox11-enhances-neurite-growth-by-regulating-neurotrophic-factor-responsiveness
#19
Michael P Jankowski, Lauren Miller, H Richard Koerber
The peripherally projecting axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons readily regenerate after damage while their centrally projecting branches do not regenerate to the same degree after injury. One important reason for this inconsistency is the lack of pro-regeneration gene expression that occurs in DRG neurons after central injury relative to peripheral damage. The transcription factor SRY-Box containing gene 11 (Sox11) may be a crucial player in the regenerative capacity of axons as previous evidence has shown that it is highly upregulated after peripheral axon damage but not after central injury...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746929/trastuzumab-upregulates-pd-l1-as-a-potential-mechanism-of-trastuzumab-resistance-through-engagement-of-immune-effector-cells-and-stimulation-of-ifn%C3%AE-secretion
#20
Bharat K R Chaganty, Songbo Qiu, Anneliese Gest, Yang Lu, Cristina Ivan, George A Calin, Louis M Weiner, Zhen Fan
Here, we report that treatment of syngeneic mouse tumors transduced to overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) with the anti-human HER2 antibody trastuzumab upregulated the level of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), an important negative regulator of T-cell response, in a transgenic mouse model immune-tolerant to human HER2. We further found that trastuzumab alone had no detectable effect on the level of PD-L1 expression in monocultures of HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells but upregulated PD-L1 in the same panel of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells when they were co-cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the upregulation of PD-L1 could be blocked by an IFNγ-neutralizing antibody...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Letters
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