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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918572/spot-light-on-skeletal-muscles-optogenetic-stimulation-to-understand-and-restore-skeletal-muscle-function
#1
Tobias van Bremen, Thorsten Send, Philipp Sasse, Tobias Bruegmann
Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918549/loss-of-lhci-system-affects-lhcii-re-distribution-between-thylakoid-domains-upon-state-transitions
#2
Mauro Bressan, Roberto Bassi, Luca Dall'Osto
LHCI, the peripheral antenna system of Photosystem I, includes four light-harvesting proteins (Lhca1-Lhca4) in higher plants, all of which are devoid in the Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutant ΔLhca. PSI absorption cross-section was reduced in the mutant, thus affecting the redox balance of the photosynthetic electron chain and resulting in a more reduced PQ with respect to the wild type. ΔLhca plants developed compensatory response by enhancing LHCII binding to PSI. However, the amplitude of state transitions, as measured from changes of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo, was unexpectedly low than the high level of PSI-LHCII supercomplex established...
September 16, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918528/signaling-of-the-complement-cleavage-product-anaphylatoxin-c5a-through-c5ar-cd88-contributes-to-pharmacological-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization
#3
Kamila Bujko, Sylwia Rzeszotek, Kai Hoehlig, Jun Yan, Axel Vater, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Several mechanisms have been postulated for orchestrating the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and we previously proposed that activation of the complement cascade plays a crucial role in the initiation and execution of the egress of HSPCs from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB). In support of this notion, we demonstrated that mice deficient in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway, which activates the proximal part of the complement cascade, as well as mice deficient in the fifth component of the complement cascade (C5), which is part of the distal part of the complement cascade, are poor mobilizers...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918404/combined-caesarean-with-splenectomy-in-pregnancy-with-portal-hypertension-defining-plausibility
#4
Manjunath Maruti Pol, Latika Uniyal Chawla, Yashwant Singh Rathore, Ritesh Goel
24-year-old woman at 28 weeks gestation was referred from peripheral hospital with diagnosis of pregnancy with portal hypertension. She had received multiple transfusion for pancytopaenia in the past and had undergone endoscopic sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices. Initially, she was admitted in our hospital at 28 weeks gestation for blood transfusion and was evaluated by multispecialty team of doctors. She was advised splenectomy for transfusion-dependent pancytopaenia secondary to hypersplenism in non-cirrhotic portal hypertension...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918288/th9-cells-promote-antitumor-immunity-via-il-9-and-il-21-and-demonstrate-atypical-cytokine-expression-in-breast-cancer
#5
Fa-Ping You, Jian Zhang, Tao Cui, Rui Zhu, Chong-Qing Lv, Hai-Tao Tang, Di-Wen Sun
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in women. Antitumor T cell responses play critical therapeutic roles, including direct cytotoxicity mediated by CD8(+) T cells and immunomodulatory roles mediated by CD4(+) T cells. The IL-9-expressing Th9 cells are recently found to present antitumor immunity in melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found that IL-9 expression in the serum and in circulating CD4(+) T cells were significantly upregulated in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls...
September 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918157/differential-proteomic-profiling-of-endometrium-and-plasma-indicate-the-importance-of-hydrolysis-in-bovine-endometritis
#6
Shi-Dong Zhang, Shu-Wei Dong, Dong-Sheng Wang, Chike F Oguejiofor, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta, Zhi-Qiang Yang, Zuo-Ting Yan
Endometritis is an important disease of dairy cows that leads to significant economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. To investigate the alteration of proteins associated with endometritis in the dairy cow, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique was applied to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in the endometrium and peripheral plasma of Chinese Holstein cows with endometritis. Compared with the normal (control) group, 159 DEP in the endometrium and 137 DEP in the plasma were identified in cows with endometritis...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918104/peripheral-blood-lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-at-relapse-predicts-outcome-for-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-the-rituximab-era
#7
Daisuke Katoh, Yotaro Ochi, Tomohiro Yabushita, Yuichiro Ono, Nobuhiro Hiramoto, Satoshi Yoshioka, Noboru Yonetani, Akiko Matsushita, Hisako Hashimoto, Shuichiro Kaji, Yukihiro Imai, Takayuki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have a poor prognosis, even in the rituximab era. Several studies have reported the clinical importance of the peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in various malignancies, including lymphoma. However, the prognostic value of the LMR in relapsed/refractory DLBCL has not been well evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the LMR at relapse can predict clinical outcomes for relapsed/refractory DLBCL patients treated with rituximab...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918072/development-of-a-duplex-semi-nested-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-classical-goose-parvovirus-and-novel-goose-parvovirus-related-virus-in-sick-or-dead-ducks-with-short-beak-and-dwarfism-syndrome
#8
Pengfei Li, Ruihua Zhang, Junhao Chen, Dapeng Sun, Jingjing Lan, Shaoli Lin, Shasha Song, Zhijing Xie, Shijin Jiang
Duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) in China. Until now, it remains uncertain whether the Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS are co-infected with classical goose parvovirus (GPV) and NGPV. In this study, a duplex semi-nested PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity was developed for detection of the two viruses. Using the duplex PCR assay, NGPV was tested positive in all the 15 duck flocks with SBDS, whereas classical GPV was not detected in all the 133 sick and dead ducks collected from East China...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918051/lrrk2-antisense-oligonucleotides-ameliorate-%C3%AE-synuclein-inclusion-formation-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#9
Hien Tran Zhao, Neena John, Vedad Delic, Karli Ikeda-Lee, Aneeza Kim, Andreas Weihofen, Eric E Swayze, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Andrew B West, Laura A Volpicelli-Daley
No treatments exist to slow or halt Parkinson's disease (PD) progression; however, inhibition of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) activity represents one of the most promising therapeutic strategies. Genetic ablation and pharmacological LRRK2 inhibition have demonstrated promise in blocking α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology. However, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors may reduce LRRK2 activity in several tissues and induce systemic phenotypes in the kidney and lung that are undesirable. Here, we test whether antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) provide an alternative therapeutic strategy, as they can be restricted to the CNS and provide a stable, long-lasting reduction of protein throughout the brain...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917998/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-in-polyarticular-septic-arthritis
#10
Sarah B Lieber, Mary Louise Fowler, Clara Zhu, Andrew Moore, Robert H Shmerling, Ziv Paz
OBJECTIVES: Septic polyarthritis is rarer than septic monoarthritis, but associated with higher mortality. Septic polyarthritis may be difficult to distinguish clinically from noninfectious inflammatory arthritis. We describe one of the largest samples of septic polyarthritis with the aim of distinguishing septic monoarthritis from polyarthritis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adults admitted to tertiary care with septic monoarthritis and polyarthritis...
September 13, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917976/low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-ameliorates-hindlimb-ischemic-injury-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#11
Zhiqiang Wang, Tiantian Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Hongjie You, Quanbin Zhang, Jingyi Xue, Yuanyuan Zheng, Dali Luo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), extracted from Laminaria japonica Areschoug, is a traditional Chinese medicine, commonly used to alleviate edema, particularly for feet with numbness and pain. AIM OF THE STUDY: Diabetic mellitus (DM) patients are at high risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Individuals with DM and PAD co-morbidity have a much higher risk of critical limb ischemia. LMWF showed several beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-thrombosis, and enhancing revascularization...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917723/increased-innate-type-2-immune-response-in-house-dust-mite-allergic-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis
#12
Hua Zhong, Xing-Liang Fan, Qiu-Ning Yu, Zi-Li Qin, Dong Chen, Rui Xu, De-Hua Chen, Zhi-Bin Lin, Weiping Wen, Qing-Ling Fu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are essential in initiating and driving allergic immune responses. However, there were inconsistent findings of the ILC2 levels in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. This study investigated the ILC2 levels in the peripheral blood of house dust mite (HDM)-allergic AR patients and their ability to secrete type 2 cytokines. The levels of ILC2s with phenotypic ILC2 characteristics were increased in the HDM-AR patients. The AR patients' symptom score and IL-13 levels were positively associated with the ILC2s in HDM-AR patients...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917705/long-term-retention-of-ecm-hydrogel-after-implantation-into-a-sub-acute-stroke-cavity-reduces-lesion-volume
#13
Harmanvir Ghuman, Madeline Gerwig, Francesca J Nicholls, Jessie Liu, Julia Donnelly, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8 mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24 hours and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12 weeks...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917698/introducing-axonal-myelination-in-connectomics-a-preliminary-analysis-of-g-ratio-distribution-in-healthy-subjects
#14
REVIEW
Matteo Mancini, Giovanni Giulietti, Nicholas Dowell, Barbara Spanò, Neil Harrison, Marco Bozzali, Mara Cercignani
Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917539/hemagglutinin-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-following-2009-ph1n1-inactivated-split-vaccine-inoculation-in-humans
#15
Shuguang Tan, Shihong Zhang, Bin Wu, Yingze Zhao, Wei Zhang, Min Han, Ying Wu, Guoli Shi, Yingxia Liu, Jinghua Yan, Guizhen Wu, Hua Wang, George F Gao, Fengcai Zhu, William J Liu
Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccine's protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917435/measurement-of-micronuclei-and-internal-dose-in-mice-demonstrates-that-3-monochloropropane-1-2-diol-3-mcpd-has-no-genotoxic-potency-in-vivo
#16
Jenny Aasa, Margareta Törnqvist, Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg
In this study 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a compound that appears as contaminant in refined cooking oils, has been studied with regard to genotoxicity in vivo (mice) with simultaneous measurement of internal dose using state-of-the-art methodologies. Genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations) was measured by flow cytometry with dual lasers as the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes in peripheral blood from BalbC mice intraperitoneally exposed to 3-MCPD (0, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg). The internal doses of 3-MCPD in the mice were calculated from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine adducts to hemoglobin (Hb), quantified at very low levels by high-resolution mass spectrometry...
September 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917290/intraoperative-ultrasound-for-peripheral-nerve-applications
#17
REVIEW
Matthew Willsey, Thomas J Wilson, Phillip Troy Henning, Lynda J-S Yang
Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917258/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-historical-developments-and-future-strategies
#18
Kevin L M Chua, Iris Sin, Kam W Fong, Melvin L K Chua, Hiroshi Onishi
The application of radiosurgery dose escalation extra-cranially in a moving target, surrounded by critical normal tissue, presents unique dosimetric and clinical challenges. Building on a strong foundation of robust technological advancements and well-planned clinical studies, lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has firmly established its place in the management of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, favourable outcomes and long-term survival still evade a substantial proportion of patients, especially for central and larger peripheral lung tumours...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917218/erythema-elevatum-diutinum-in-crohn-s-disease-associated-spondyloarthritis-a-rare-vasculitis-an-unusual-association
#19
Maria João Gonçalves, Vasco C Romão, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, Helena Canhão, José Carlos Romeu, Heinz Kutzner, José Alberto Pereira-da-Silva
Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare neutrophilic dermatoses with vasculitis, which presents as persistent, symmetrical, purple or brownish papules and nodules, mainly in the extensor surface of the limbs. We describe a case of erythema elevatum diutinum and polyarthritis as initial manifestations of Crohn's disease associated spondyloarthritis. A 51-year-old man, from São Tomé e Príncipe, with previous history of treated tuberculosis and chronic hepatitis B infection, was admitted due to 4 months history of polyarthritis, hyperpigmented papules on the extensor surfaces, occasional episodes of bloody mucous diarrhea and significant weight loss...
September 14, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917024/decreased-percentage-of-peripheral-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-is-independently-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#20
Rongyi Chen, Jiachang Hu, Fangfang Xiang, Xiao Tan, Bo Shen, Zhonghua Liu, Wenlv Lv, Xiaoqiang Ding, Xuesen Cao, Jianzhou Zou
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular complications, including ischemic stroke, account for poor outcomes in patients on hemodialysis. T cell responses may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. We aimed to evaluate the role of naïve T cells in development of ischemic stroke in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 156 patients on hemodialysis in our blood purification center were included. These patients were divided into the ischemic stroke (IS) group (61 cases) and non-ischemic stroke (non-IS) group (95 cases) according to a new diagnosis after initiation of hemodialysis...
September 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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