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Optic nerve ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439656/-management-of-paraophthalmic-aneurysms-review-of-endovascular-treatment-strategies
#1
P Bhogal, M Aguilar Pérez, G Sauder, H Bäzner, O Ganslandt, H Henkes
BACKGROUND: Aneurysms of the cerebral vessels are relatively common and aneurysms of the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) represent approximately 10% of intradural aneurysms. ANATOMICAL ASPECTS: The ophthalmic segment of the ICA extends from the origin of the ophthalmic artery to the origin of the posterior communicating artery. Aneurysms can originate from the ophthalmic artery itself or directly from the ICA at a distance from the ophthalmic artery...
April 24, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427062/emerging-issues-for-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Luisa Pierro, Alessandro Rabiolo
Almost 25 years after its introduction, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is still a crucial test in the evaluation of patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. In this chapter, the authors provide an extensive overview of the posterior segment pathological changes induced by diabetes, characterized using OCT. OCT plays a key role in diabetic macular edema (DME) as it assesses related retinal changes both in a qualitative (i.e., DME pattern, presence and aspects of cysts, fluid localization, integrity, and reflectivity of retinal layers) and quantitative (i...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415600/the-value-of-mri-in-evaluating-the-efficacy-and-complications-with-the-treatment-of-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-retinoblastoma
#3
Shuxian Chen, Xunda Ji, Ming Liu, Zhengrong Xia, Hui Zheng, Qiufeng Yin, He Wang, Yuhua Li
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor of childhood. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) is a recently popularized technique used for the treatment of retinoblastoma, to decrease mortality, increase preservation of the eye, and prevent blindness. Along with the extensive use of IAC, it is important to apply noninvasive examination methods to assess the activity of the tumor and the risk factors for disease dissemination without histopathological confirmation. There are few studies that have assessed the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating the efficacy and complications of IAC for retinoblastoma...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365868/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-protect-oligodendrocytes-from-acute-ischemia-in-the-mouse-optic-nerve
#4
Arthur M Butt, Ilaria Vanzulli, Maria Papanikolaou, Irene Chacon De La Rocha, Virginia E Hawkins
Studies by Bruce Ransom and colleagues have made a major contribution to show that white matter is susceptible to ischemia/hypoxia. White matter contains axons and the glia that support them, notably myelinating oligodendrocytes, which are highly vulnerable to ischemic-hypoxic damage. Previous studies have shown that metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs) are cytoprotective for oligodendrocyte precursor cells and immature oligodendrocytes, but their potential role in adult white matter was unresolved. Here, we report that group 1 mGluR1/5 and group 2 mGluR3 subunits are expressed in optic nerves from mice aged postnatal day (P)8-12 and P30-35...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320183/ischemic-optic-neuropathy-as-a-model-of-neurodegenerative-disorder-a-review-of-pathogenic-mechanism-of-axonal-degeneration-and-the-role-of-neuroprotection
#5
REVIEW
Saba Khalilpour, Shahrzad Latifi, Ghazaleh Behnammanesh, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Ali Tamayol
Optic neuropathy is a neurodegenerative disease which involves optic nerve injury. It is caused by acute or intermittent insults leading to visual dysfunction. There are number of factors, responsible for optic neuropathy, and the optic nerve axon is affected in all type which causes the loss of retinal ganglion cells. In this review we will highlight various mechanisms involved in the cell loss cascades during axonal degeneration as well as ischemic optic neuropathy. These mechanisms include oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation and apoptosis following retinal ischemia...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262779/ischemic-injury-leads-to-extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-retina-and-optic-nerve
#6
Jacqueline Reinhard, Marina Renner, Susanne Wiemann, Daniel A Shakoor, Gesa Stute, H Burkhard Dick, Andreas Faissner, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia occurs in a variety of eye diseases. Restrained blood flow induces retinal damage, which leads to progressive optic nerve degeneration and vision loss. Previous studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents play an important role in complex tissues, such as retina and optic nerve. They have great impact on de- and regeneration processes and represent major candidates of central nervous system glial scar formation. Nevertheless, the importance of the ECM during ischemic retina and optic nerve neurodegeneration is not fully understood yet...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230106/longitudinal-assessments-of-normal-and-perilesional-tissues-in-focal-brain-ischemia-and-partial-optic-nerve-injury-with-manganese-enhanced-mri
#7
Kevin C Chan, Iris Y Zhou, Stanley S Liu, Yolandi van der Merwe, Shu-Juan Fan, Victor K Hung, Sookja K Chung, Wu-Tian Wu, Kwok-Fai So, Ed X Wu
Although manganese (Mn) can enhance brain tissues for improving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments, the underlying neural mechanisms of Mn detection remain unclear. In this study, we used Mn-enhanced MRI to test the hypothesis that different Mn entry routes and spatiotemporal Mn distributions can reflect different mechanisms of neural circuitry and neurodegeneration in normal and injured brains. Upon systemic administration, exogenous Mn exhibited varying transport rates and continuous redistribution across healthy rodent brain nuclei over a 2-week timeframe, whereas in rodents following photothrombotic cortical injury, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, Mn preferentially accumulated in perilesional tissues expressing gliosis or oxidative stress within days...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165428/proteomic-analysis-of-various-rat-ocular-tissues-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-possible-relevance-to-acute-glaucoma
#8
Hsin-Yi Chen, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Shing-Jyh Chang, En-Chi Liao, Yi-Ting Tsai, Yu-Shan Wei, Ji-Min Li, Li-Hsun Lin, Meng-Wei Lin, Ying-Jen Chen, Yu-Sheng Chen, Chih-Chun Lin, Yi-Shiuan Wang, Mei-Lan Ko, Hong-Lin Chan
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera) during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, this study performed a proteomic analysis to qualitatively investigate such alterations resulting from acute glaucoma. The IR injury model combined with the proteomic analysis approach of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to monitor the protein expression alterations in two groups of specimens (an IR injury group and a control group)...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922461/ipsilateral-ophthalmic-and-cerebral-infarctions-after-cosmetic-polylactic-acid-injection-into-the-forehead
#9
Ashwinee Ragam, Steven A Agemy, Sarita B Dave, Azita S Khorsandi, Rudrani Banik
A 55-year-old woman developed no light perception vision in her right eye 5 days after an injection of polylactic acid cosmetic filler into her right forehead. Diffuse corneal edema and anterior chamber inflammation prohibited any view to the posterior segment to identify the cause of her profound vision loss. MRI of the orbits with diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the right optic nerve with signal reduction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping, consistent with ischemia. Our patient also was found to have acute infarctions in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery on MRI of the brain despite having no permanent focal neurologic deficits aside from vision loss...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914988/imaging-of-macrophage-dynamics-with-optical-coherence-tomography-in-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#10
Despina Kokona, Nathanael U Häner, Andreas Ebneter, Martin S Zinkernagel
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is a relatively common cause of visual loss and results from hypoperfusion of the small arteries of the anterior portion of the optic nerve. AION is the leading cause of sudden optic nerve related vision loss with approximately 10 cases per 100'000 in the population over 50 years. To date there is no established treatment for AION and therefore a better understanding of the events occurring at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) would be important to design future therapeutic strategies...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911358/the-rodent-model-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-rnaion
#11
Yan Guo, Zara Mehrabian, Steven L Bernstein
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a focal ischemic lesion of the optic nerve that affects 1/700 individuals throughout their lifetime. NAION results in optic nerve edema, selective loss of the retinal ganglion cell neurons (RGCs) and atrophy of the optic nerve. A rodent model of NAION that expresses most NAION features and sequelae has been developed, which is applicable to both rats and mice. This model utilizes a focal laser application of 532 nm wavelength to illuminate a photoactive dye, Rose Bengal (RB), to cause capillary damage and leakage at the targeted anterior optic nerve (the laminar region)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886260/mtor-regulates-neuroprotective-effect-of-immunized-cd4-foxp3-t-cells-in-optic-nerve-ischemia
#12
Guochun Chen, Luosheng Tang, Wei Wei, Zhuo Li, Yunping Li, Xuanchu Duan, Huihui Chen
The therapeutic potential of targeting CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial under the condition of neuroinflammation. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective role of Tregs in optic nerve ischemia (ONI) and evaluate the therapeutic strategy of Tregs transfer with a focus on targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Intraocular pressure was transiently increased in adult C57BL/6 mice to induce ONI. Mucosal tolerance of myelin basic protein (MBP) markedly increased retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after ONI through enhanced Tregs suppression...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843231/anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-following-dengue-fever
#13
Reshma Ramakrishnan, Saurabh Shrivastava, Shrikant Deshpande, Priyanka Patkar
Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829055/a-novel-approach-for-studying-the-physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-myelinated-and-non-myelinated-axons-in-the-cns-white-matter
#14
Lijun Li, Alexander A Velumian, Marina Samoilova, Michael G Fehlings
Advances in brain connectomics set the need for detailed knowledge of functional properties of myelinated and non-myelinated (if present) axons in specific white matter pathways. The corpus callosum (CC), a major white matter structure interconnecting brain hemispheres, is extensively used for studying CNS axonal function. Unlike another widely used CNS white matter preparation, the optic nerve where all axons are myelinated, the CC contains also a large population of non-myelinated axons, making it particularly useful for studying both types of axons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766583/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-diabetes
#15
Jessica Lee, Richard Rosen
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive microvascular disease that leads to increased vessel permeability, retinal ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel angiography technique that has the capability to advance our understanding of diabetic eye disease by providing high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal microvasculature blood flow and structure. Using OCTA, the vascular changes of diabetic retinopathy including microaneurysms, retinal non-perfusion, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization can be clearly visualized...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748880/alterations-in-the-expression-of-hs1-associated-protein-x-1-in-the-rat-retina-after-optic-nerve-crush
#16
Ling Cui, Wen-Jing He, Fan Xu, Li Jiang, Ming-Liang Lv, Hui Huang, Ji-Ping Xu, Yu Wu, Hai-Bin Zhong, Shao-Yang Zhang, Li-Fei Chen, Chao-Lan Shen, Gang Yao, Li Li, Min Li, Si-Ming Zeng
HS-1-associated protein X-1 (Hax-1) has been suggested to be expressed in various rodent and human tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Hax‑1 exerts an anti‑apoptotic effect in neurological diseases. Furthermore, it has also been reported that Hax‑1 interacts with various apoptosis‑associated proteins, including high temperature-regulated A2 (HtrA2) and caspase‑3. Previous studies have indicated that abnormal expression of Hax‑1 may be associated with the development of the nervous system and with the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, including traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672604/analysis-of-optic-disc-damage-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-terms-of-therapy-in-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#17
Zsuzsa Balogh, Márta Kasza, Julianna Várdai, Izabella Reznek, Judit Damjanovich, Adrienne Csutak, András Berta, Valéria Nagy
This study aimed to assess the relationship between the rate of nerve fiber loss in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and time delay before therapy. Total 24 patients received the same treatment within or after 2wk (early and late groups). There were significantly lower level of destruction of nerve fibers (P=0.0014) and significantly better visual field sensitivity (P=0.039) in early group. The results indicate that therapy should be started within 2wk. The degree of ischemic damage due to NAION correlates well with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the ischemia-induced decrease in visual field sensitivity...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668104/acute-myeloid-leukemia-relapse-presenting-as-complete-monocular-vision-loss-due-to-optic-nerve-involvement
#18
Shyam A Patel
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) involvement of the central nervous system is relatively rare, and detection of leptomeningeal disease typically occurs only after a patient presents with neurological symptoms. The case herein describes a 48-year-old man with relapsed/refractory AML of the mixed lineage leukemia rearrangement subtype, who presents with monocular vision loss due to leukemic eye infiltration. MRI revealed right optic nerve sheath enhancement and restricted diffusion concerning for nerve ischemia and infarct from hypercellularity...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564592/virally-delivered-constitutively-active-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-improves-survival-of-injured-retinal-ganglion-cells
#19
Galina Dvoriantchikova, Steve Pappas, Xueting Luo, Marcio Ribeiro, Dagmara Danek, Daniel Pelaez, Kevin K Park, Dmitry Ivanov
As axon damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss lead to blindness, therapies that increase RGC survival and axon regrowth have direct clinical relevance. Given that NFκB signaling is critical for neuronal survival and may regulate neurite growth, we investigated the therapeutic potential of NFκB signaling in RGC survival and axon regeneration. Although both NFκB subunits (p65 and p50) are present in RGCs, p65 exists in an inactive (unphosphorylated) state when RGCs are subjected to neurotoxic conditions...
December 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560494/sur1-associated-mechanisms-are-not-involved-in-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-1-day-post-injury
#20
James D Nicholson, Yan Guo, Steven L Bernstein
Ischemia-reperfusion injury after central nervous system (CNS) injury presents a major health care challenge with few promising treatments. Recently, it has become possible to reduce edema after CNS injury by antagonizing a sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) regulated ion channel expressed after injury. SUR1 upregulation after injury is a necessary precondition for the formation of this channel, and has been implicated in white matter injury after clinical spinal cord trauma. Glibenclamide, an SUR1 antagonist, appears to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral stroke in an open-label small clinical trial and great effectiveness in reducing damage after varied experimental CNS injury models...
2016: PloS One
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