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Optic nerve ischemia

Jessica Lee, Richard Rosen
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive microvascular disease that leads to increased vessel permeability, retinal ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel angiography technique that has the capability to advance our understanding of diabetic eye disease by providing high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal microvasculature blood flow and structure. Using OCTA, the vascular changes of diabetic retinopathy including microaneurysms, retinal non-perfusion, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization can be clearly visualized...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Ling Cui, Wen-Jing He, Fan Xu, Li Jiang, Ming-Liang Lv, Hui Huang, Ji-Ping Xu, Yu Wu, Hai-Bin Zhong, Shao-Yang Zhang, Li-Fei Chen, Chao-Lan Shen, Gang Yao, Li Li, Min Li, Si-Ming Zeng
HS-1-associated protein X-1 (Hax-1) has been suggested to be expressed in various rodent and human tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Hax‑1 exerts an anti‑apoptotic effect in neurological diseases. Furthermore, it has also been reported that Hax‑1 interacts with various apoptosis‑associated proteins, including high temperature-regulated A2 (HtrA2) and caspase‑3. Previous studies have indicated that abnormal expression of Hax‑1 may be associated with the development of the nervous system and with the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, including traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zsuzsa Balogh, Márta Kasza, Julianna Várdai, Izabella Reznek, Judit Damjanovich, Adrienne Csutak, András Berta, Valéria Nagy
This study aimed to assess the relationship between the rate of nerve fiber loss in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and time delay before therapy. Total 24 patients received the same treatment within or after 2wk (early and late groups). There were significantly lower level of destruction of nerve fibers (P=0.0014) and significantly better visual field sensitivity (P=0.039) in early group. The results indicate that therapy should be started within 2wk. The degree of ischemic damage due to NAION correlates well with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the ischemia-induced decrease in visual field sensitivity...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Shyam A Patel
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) involvement of the central nervous system is relatively rare, and detection of leptomeningeal disease typically occurs only after a patient presents with neurological symptoms. The case herein describes a 48-year-old man with relapsed/refractory AML of the mixed lineage leukemia rearrangement subtype, who presents with monocular vision loss due to leukemic eye infiltration. MRI revealed right optic nerve sheath enhancement and restricted diffusion concerning for nerve ischemia and infarct from hypercellularity...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
Galina Dvoriantchikova, Steve Pappas, Xueting Luo, Marcio Ribeiro, Dagmara Danek, Daniel Pelaez, Kevin K Park, Dmitry Ivanov
Since axon damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss lead to blindness, therapies that increase RGC survival and axon regrowth have direct clinical relevance. Given that NFκB signaling is critical for neuronal survival and may regulate neurite growth, we investigated the therapeutic potential of NFκB signaling in RGC survival and axon regeneration. Although both NFκB subunits (p65 and p50) are present in RGCs, p65 exists in an inactive (unphosphorylated) state when RGCs are subjected to neurotoxic conditions...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
James D Nicholson, Yan Guo, Steven L Bernstein
Ischemia-reperfusion injury after central nervous system (CNS) injury presents a major health care challenge with few promising treatments. Recently, it has become possible to reduce edema after CNS injury by antagonizing a sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) regulated ion channel expressed after injury. SUR1 upregulation after injury is a necessary precondition for the formation of this channel, and has been implicated in white matter injury after clinical spinal cord trauma. Glibenclamide, an SUR1 antagonist, appears to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral stroke in an open-label small clinical trial and great effectiveness in reducing damage after varied experimental CNS injury models...
2016: PloS One
Michael Ertl, Wilma Schierling, Piotr M Kasprzak, Reinhard Kopp, Corinna Brückl, Felix Schlachetzki, Karin Pfister
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantification of changes in optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) using ocular sonography (OS) constitutes an elegant technique for estimating intracranial and intraspinal pressure. Aortic aneurysm repair (AAR) is associated with a reasonable risk of increased spinal fluid pressure, which is largely dependent on the extent of aneurysm repair (supra- vs. infrarenal). The aim of this study was to compare ONSD measurements in patients with suprarenal AAR (sAAR) or infrarenal AAR (iAAR)...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Shu-Wei Sun, Christopher Nishioka, Chen-Fang Chung, JoAnn Park, Hsiao-Fang Liang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the temporospatial profile of axonal degeneration and its relation to blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal DTI was performed in Wallerian degeneration slow (WldS) mice following retinal ischemia. In parallel, gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1 -weighted imaging (Gd-T1 WI) was performed to evaluate BBB permeability in white matter during axonal degeneration...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Hyoung Won Bae, Naeun Lee, Gong Je Seong, Seungsoo Rho, Samin Hong, Chan Yun Kim
BACKGROUND: To assess the neuroprotective effect of etanercept (Enbrel®) which is a commercialized Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor on axonal injury in an animal model of acute ischemia. METHODS: Acute ischemia was induced by intraocular pressure elevation in 36 rats. The treatment groups underwent subcutaneous injection of etanercept (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) three times per week up to 4 weeks. The control groups were treated in the same manner using the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Bozho Todorich, Paul Hahn
INTRODUCTION: We aim to describe a mechanism of vision loss following vitrectomy surgery with retrobulbar block (RBB) associated with severe vascular stasis of the optic nerve and macula in order to improve safety of local anesthesia for ophthalmic surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: We report three cases of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with retrobulbar anesthesia with no retrobulbar hemorrhage or elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). At the beginning, in each case, hypoperfusion of optic nerve and macula was noted...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Yan Guo, Mary A Johnson, Zara Mehrabian, Manoj K Mishra, Rangaramanujam Kannan, Neil R Miller, Steven L Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Polyamidoamine dendrimer nanoparticles (~ 4 nanometers) are inert polymers that can be linked to biologically active compounds. These dendrimers selectively target and accumulate in inflammatory cells upon systemic administration. Dendrimer-linked compounds enable sustained release of therapeutic compounds directly at the site of damage. The purpose of this study was to determine if dendrimers can be used to target the optic nerve (ON) ischemic lesion in our rodent and nonhuman primate models of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a disease affecting >10,000 individuals in the US annually, and for which there currently is no effective treatment...
2016: PloS One
Krishnapriya Kalyam, Shaheen C Kavoussi, Michael Ehrlich, Christopher C Teng, Nisha Chadha, Sarah Khodadadeh, Ji Liu
A 49-year-old woman developed acute visual loss in the right eye following bilateral cosmetic platelet-rich plasma injections to rhytids in the glabellar region. External exam showed skin necrosis in the region over the right rhytids and restricted right ocular motility. Dilated fundus exam was significant for ophthalmic artery occlusion. Imaging revealed right eye extraocular muscle ischemia and optic nerve infarction, along with right frontal, parietal, and occipital lobe infarction. Work-up for thromboembolic and vascular etiologies were negative...
March 24, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
N N N Arfuzir, L Lambuk, A J A Jafri, R Agarwal, I Iezhitsa, S Sidek, P Agarwal, N S Bakar, M K Kutty, A P Md Yusof, A Krasilnikova, A Spasov, A Ozerov, N Mohd Ismail
Vascular dysregulation has long been recognized as an important pathophysiological factor underlying the development of glaucomatous neuropathy. Endothelin-1 (ET1) has been shown to be a key player due to its potent vasoconstrictive properties that result in retinal ischemia and oxidative stress leading to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and optic nerve (ON) damage. In this study we investigated the protective effects of magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) against retinal cell apoptosis and ON damage. MgAT was administered intravitreally prior to, along with or after administration of ET1...
June 14, 2016: Neuroscience
M M Nentwich, J Maertz, G Rudolph
Optic disc drusen are an important differential diagnosis in the diagnostic evaluation of a prominent optic nerve head. Drusen of the optic disc occur in 0.34 to 2.4 % of human individuals and manifest themselves bilaterally in three of four cases. Drusen are found six times more often within histological sections than on funduscopic examination. It is known that optic disc drusen can occur in familial clusters without any other pathological ophthalmic findings. They can also be associated with retinitis pigmentosa, or with the Joubert or Alagille syndromes...
March 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Takeo Sato, Hiromasa Matsuno, Shusaku Omoto, Kenichi Sakuta, Yuka Terasawa, Yasuyuki Iguchi
A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of repeated transient visual obscurations of greying vision. The transient visual obscurations were caused by rotating his neck or the Valsalva manoeuver, and they recovered in about 30 seconds. A few weeks later, pulsatile tinnitus of the right ear and a dull headache developed. Both ocular fundi showed papilledema, and there was significant intracranial hypertension on cerebrospinal fluid examination. He was diagnosed as having right sigmoid sinus thrombosis and a dural arteriovenous fistula with a rapid arteriovenous shunt from the right ascending pharyngeal artery and the right occipital artery to the right transverse sinus...
April 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Sokjoong Chung, Seungsoo Rho, Gijin Kim, So-Ra Kim, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Myungseo Kang, Helen Lew
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell therapy in regenerative medicine has great potential, particularly in the treatment of nerve injury. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) reportedly contains stem cells, which have been widely used as a hematopoietic source and may have therapeutic potential for neurological impairment. Although ongoing research is dedicated to the management of traumatic optic nerve injury using various measures, novel therapeutic strategies based on the complex underlying mechanisms responsible for optic nerve injury, such as inflammation and/or ischemia, are required...
May 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Khalid Al Rubaie, Augusto V Cruz, Mizher Al Ghamdi, Arif O Khan, Igor Kozak
PURPOSE: To report a novel intraocular complication of endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS: Retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 44-year-old otherwise-healthy man underwent endoscopic right ethmoid sinus surgery and immediately developed loss of vision in his right eye. Postoperatively, patient had ipsilateral light perception vision, proptosis, periorbital ecchymosis, and large angle exotropia with virtually no adduction. Orbital computed tomography confirmed violation of the right medial rectus muscle and optic nerve...
March 2, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Peng Liu, Xianli Lv, Youxiang Li, Ming Lv
Anterior communicating artery (AComA) aneurysm accompanied by visual symptoms is rarely reported. The first case is an asymptomatic 65-year-old woman who presented with an AComA aneurysm, and the pre-procedure high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an AComA aneurysm compressed the left optic nerve and the chiasma with a size of 8.3 × 9.2 mm. She suffered a sudden onset of left eye visual loss and the temporal hemianopia of the right eye after endovascular embolization. She had a light sensation of the left eye and minor enlargement of the visual field in the right eye at the six-month follow-up...
June 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Masayuki Niwa, Hitomi Aoki, Akihiro Hirata, Hiroyuki Tomita, Paul G Green, Akira Hara
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of various retinal cell degeneration models in animal induced by chemicals (N-methyl-D-aspartate- and CoCl2-induced), autoimmune (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), mechanical stress (optic nerve crush-induced, light-induced) and ischemia (transient retinal ischemia-induced). The target regions, pathology and proposed mechanism of each model are described in a comparative fashion. Animal models of retinal cell degeneration provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of the disease, and will facilitate the development of novel effective therapeutic drugs to treat retinal cell damage...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachel Nolan, Kannan Narayana, Shin C Beh, Janet C Rucker, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta
We report four patients with monocular visual loss for whom optical coherence tomography (OCT) was helpful in distinguishing the sequelae of retinal artery occlusion from those of primary optic neuropathy. Determinations of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as well as macular retinal layer thicknesses and architecture were used. The major findings in our patients show that changes in the inner retinal layers (including ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer) with disruption of normal macular architecture supports a diagnosis of retinal artery occlusion...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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