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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457577/space-place-and-waiting-time-reflections-on-health-policy-and-politics
#1
Sally Sheard
Health systems have repeatedly addressed concerns about efficiency and equity by employing trans-national comparisons to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of specific policy initiatives. This paper demonstrates the potential for explicit historical analysis of waiting times for hospital treatment to add value to spatial comparative methodologies. Waiting times and the size of the lists of waiting patients have become key operational indicators. In the United Kingdom, as National Health Service (NHS) financial pressures intensified from the 1970s, waiting times have become a topic for regular public and political debate...
February 19, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457238/rationing-care-through-collaboration-and-shared-values
#2
James E Sabin
Although "rationing" continues to be a dirty word for the public in health policy discourse, Nir Eyal and colleagues handle the concept exactly right in their article in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. They correctly characterize rationing as an ethical requirement, not a moral abomination. They identify the key health policy question as how rationing can best be done, not whether it should be done at all. They make a cogent defense of what they call "rationing through inconvenience" as a justifiable allocational technique...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456379/assessment-of-health-related-quality-of-life-among-asthmatic-patients-the-need-for-structured-pharmaceutical-care-delivery-system-in-pakistan
#3
Madeeha Malik, Adeela Khan, Azhar Hussain, Ayisha Hashmi
Asthma is considered as one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. As a result of serious physical, social, and psychological complications, asthma can reduce health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study was designed to assess the HRQoL including physical health, general health perception, emotional health, psychological health, and social functioning of asthmatic patients in Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Setting was public and private healthcare facilities...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455694/a-study-of-hospital-disaster-preparedness-in-south-yemen
#4
Waheeb Nasr Naser, Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Salem Aladhrae, Wegdan Ali Abdulraheem
Introduction Despite emphasis by disaster experts on the importance of disaster preparedness, disaster management in Yemen has attracted only a little attention. Most of the efforts have focused on post-disaster relief activities rather than the pre-disaster preparedness and risk reduction. Hospitals have a crucial role in emergency response and should be prepared. Thus, the aim of this study was intended to assess the hospital preparedness of Aden Capital, South Yemen against disasters. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2016...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455686/cost-utility-analysis-of-private-contracting-to-reduce-public-waiting-times-for-joint-replacement-surgery
#5
Jonathan Karnon, Bahareh Mesgarian Haghighi, Babu Sajjad, Sokunthea Yem, Anuji Gamage, Aaron Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: Earlier treatment of publicly funded patients may achieve health gains that justify the additional costs of reducing waiting times. This study reports on the cost-effectiveness of implementing a private contracting model to meet alternative maximum waiting time targets for publicly funded patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery in Australia. METHODS: A linked decision tree and cohort Markov model was developed and populated and validated using secondary data sources to represent the pathways, costs, and quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained of non-urgent patients with alternative waiting times for total knee replacement surgery to a maximum age of 100 years...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454847/bejel-in-cuba-molecular-identification-of-treponema-pallidum-subsp-endemicum-in-patients-diagnosed-with-venereal-syphilis
#6
Angel A Noda, Linda Grillová, Reto Lienhard, Orestes Blanco, Islay Rodríguez, David Šmajs
OBJECTIVES: Bejel, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN), was until now considered as a non-venereal disease endemic in areas with hot and dry climates. This study has identified TEN in clinical samples from Cuban patients previously diagnosed with syphilis. METHODS: We performed sequencing-based molecular typing on 92 samples from Cuban patients diagnosed with syphilis. Moreover, to differentiate T. pallidum subspecies, Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) was designed, and applied to suspicious samples...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454734/management-of-arthropod-vector-data-social-and-ecological-dynamics-facing-the-one-health-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454212/adsorption-of-sulfamethoxazole-by-magnetic-biochar-effects-of-ph-ionic-strength-natural-organic-matter-and-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol
#8
Febelyn Reguyal, Ajit K Sarmah
Recent studies have shown the widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment leading to increasing global concern on their potential adverse effects in the environment and public health. In this study, we evaluated the use of magnetic biochar derived from pine sawdust, one of New Zealand's major wood wastes, to remove an emerging contaminant, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), at different pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM) and a competing compound, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). In single-solute system, the sorption of SMX onto magnetic biochar was found to be highly pH-dependent and slightly increased with increase in ionic strength...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454198/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-risk-of-suicide-death-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Jin-Young Min, Hye-Jin Kim, Kyoung-Bok Min
Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide. We investigated whether long-term exposure to particulate matter of ≤10μm in diameter (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) would be associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. The study sample comprised 265,749 adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013) in South Korea...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453413/depression-and-obesity-evidence-of-shared-biological-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Yuri Milaneschi, W Kyle Simmons, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Brenda Wjh Penninx
Depression and obesity are common conditions with major public health implications that tend to co-occur within individuals. The relationship between these conditions is bidirectional: the presence of one increases the risk for developing the other. It has thus become crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the intertwined downward physiological spirals associated with both conditions. The present review focuses specifically on shared biological pathways that may mechanistically explain the depression-obesity link, including genetics, alterations in systems involved in homeostatic adjustments (HPA axis, immuno-inflammatory activation, neuroendocrine regulators of energy metabolism including leptin and insulin, and microbiome) and brain circuitries integrating homeostatic and mood regulatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452743/medication-wasted-contents-and-costs-of-medicines-ending-up-in-household-garbage
#11
Sabine Vogler, Roger H P F de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Despite potentially considerable implications for public health, the environment and public funds, medicine waste is an under-researched topic. This study aims to analyse medicines drawn from household garbage in Vienna (Austria) and to assess possible financial implications for public payers. METHODS: Four pharmaceutical waste samples collected by the Vienna Municipal Waste Department between April 2015 and January 2016 were investigated with regard to their content...
February 10, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452563/code-red-the-essential-yet-neglected-role-of-emergency-care-in-health-law-reform
#12
Shaun Ossei-Owusu
The United States' health care system is mired in uncertainty. Public opinion on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") is undeniably mixed and politicized. The individual mandate, tax subsidies, and Medicaid expansion dominate the discussion. This Article argues that the ACA and reform discourse have given short shrift to a more static problem: the law of emergency care. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1986 ("EMTALA") requires most hospitals to screen patients for emergency medical conditions and provide stabilizing treatment regardless of patients' insurance status or ability to pay...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452365/indigenous-medicine-and-biomedical-health-care-in-fragile-settings-insights-from-burundi
#13
Jean-Benoît Falisse, Serena Masino, Raymond Ngenzebuhoro
This study contributes to the health policy debate on medical systems integration by describing and analysing the interactions between health-care users, indigenous healers, and the biomedical public health system, in the so far rarely documented case of post-conflict Burundi. We adopt a mixed-methods approach combining (1) data from an existing survey on access to health-care, with 6,690 individuals, and (2) original interviews and focus groups conducted in 2014 with 121 respondents, including indigenous healers, biomedical staff, and health-care users...
February 14, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452113/technological-innovation-strategies-for-the-specific-treatment-of-chagas-disease-based-on-benznidazole
#14
REVIEW
Leslie Raphael de Moura Ferraz, Alinne Élida Gonçalves Alves, Débora Dolores Souza da Silva Nascimento, Isabela Araújo E Amariz, Aline Silva Ferreira, Salvana Priscylla Manso Costa, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease is responsible for public health problems greater in magnitude than those attributed to malaria, schistosomiasis, or leishmaniasis. A factor in the socioeconomic development of poor countries, Chagas disease can cause death due to a high parasitic burden during its acute phase due and irreversible damage in organs such as the heart, esophagus, and colon during its chronic phase, even when the number of parasites is minimal. For treating Chagas disease, benznidazole (BNZ) remains the drug of choice and, in Latin America, the only drug on the market for treating the disease...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452043/citizens-jury-and-elder-care-public-participation-and-deliberation-in-long-term-care-policy-in-thailand
#15
Komatra Chuengsatiansup, Kanisorn Tengrang, Tipicha Posayanonda, Siranee Sihapark
Health care policies for the elderly are complex, multi-dimensional and contextually circumscribed. While engagement of health experts, economists, healthcare administrators and political leaders is generally viewed as instrumental to the success and sustainability of elder care programs, the elders themselves are often viewed as passive recipients of care and not included in the policy processes. Experiences and expectations from users' perspectives can be invaluable information for policy formulation and systems design...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451833/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-text-message-vaccine-reminder-system-for-use-during-an-influenza-pandemic
#16
Jonathan D Lehnert, Alex Shevach, Sydney Walker, Rose Wang, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Samuel B Graitcer
In an influenza pandemic, two vaccine doses administered 21 days apart may be needed for individuals of all ages to achieve seroprotection. Achieving dose-series completion can be challenging even for routinely recommended vaccines. To prepare for a two-dose influenza pandemic vaccine campaign and promote dose-series completion and correct dosing intervals, CDC and its partners developed a text message-based vaccine reminder system to remind persons who receive a first dose of pandemic influenza vaccine to receive the second dose...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451660/economic-assessment-of-postoperative-pain-control-strategies-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-cancer
#17
Rafael Freitas Dos Santos, Fernando Bliacheriene, Flavia Mori Sarti
OBJECTIVE: The authors performed an economic assessment of opioids currently being used for control of postoperative pain relating to the surgical treatment of cancer (fentanyl and sufentanil) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym). METHOD: The assessment was based on the perspective of the government, in order to collaborate with the promotion of effectiveness in public policies of health, and to optimize the allocation of public resources into health...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451634/-varicella-and-herpes-zoster-challenges-for-public-health
#18
Mirella Vázquez, Patricia Cravioto, Fernando Galván, Diana Guarneros, Víctor Hugo Pastor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) to determine the need of health policies to diminish prevalence and avoid complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess frequency, we analyzed data from the National Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance (SUIVE) from 2000 to 2013; to assess the discharge data of varicella and HZ, we evaluated information from the National System of health information (Sinais)...
November 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451008/utilization-of-patient-navigators-in-an-urban-academic-pediatric-primary-care-practice
#19
Eli Sprecher, Kathleen Conroy, Jenny Chan, Paul R Lakin, Joanne Cox
Navigating health care systems can be a challenge for families. A retrospective descriptive cohort analysis was conducted assessing referrals to patient navigators (PNs) in one urban academic pediatric primary care practice. PNs tracked referral processes and a subset of PN referrals was assessed for markers of successful referrals. The most common reasons for referral were assistance overcoming barriers to care (46%), developmental concerns (38%), and adherence/care coordination concerns (14%). Significant predictors of referral were younger age, medical complexity, public insurance, male sex, and higher rates of no-show to visits in primary or subspecialist care...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450701/burden-characteristics-and-process-of-care-among-the-pediatric-and-adult-trauma-patients-in-botswana-s-main-hospitals
#20
Michael B Mwandri, Timothy C Hardcastle
BACKGROUND: Botswana is notable among countries with high rates of Road Traffic Collisions (RTC); like many other lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), it lacks trauma systems. The World Health Organization recommends 'Essential Trauma Care' in countries with no formal trauma systems. The proportion of injuries in Emergency Departments and the care process were investigated to gain an overview for enabling the design of a relevant LMICs trauma system. METHOD: Blunt and penetrating trauma patients were included from three major hospitals, examining the proportion of injuries, patient characteristics, the care process and comparing these between pediatrics and adults...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
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