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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906585/medical-concept-normalization-in-social-media-posts-with-recurrent-neural-networks
#1
Elena Tutubalina, Zulfat Miftahutdinov, Sergey Nikolenko, Valentin Malykh
Text mining of scientific libraries and social media has already proven itself as a reliable tool for drug repurposing and hypothesis generation. The task of mapping a disease mention to a concept in a controlled vocabulary, typically to the standard thesaurus in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), is known as medical concept normalization. This task is challenging due to the differences in the use of medical terminology between health care professionals and social media texts coming from the lay public...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906479/evaluating-several-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-aortic-stiffness-in-young-and-older-africans-not-consuming-alcohol-based-on-self-report
#2
Melissa Maritz, Carla Mt Fourie, Johannes M VAN Rooyen, Aletta E Schutte
AIMS: Black populations from sub-Saharan Africa have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which places significant strain on public health systems. Aortic stiffness is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. We reported earlier that excessive alcohol use predicts aortic stiffness. However, we require a better understanding of other biomarkers involved in stiffness development, beyond alcohol use. Therefore, we determined which biomarkers (metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial activation and oxidative stress) relate to aortic stiffness in young and older black South Africans, self-reporting no alcohol-use...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906291/a-real-time-medical-cartography-of-epidemic-disease-nodding-syndrome-using-village-based-lay-mhealth-reporters
#3
Raquel Valdes Angues, Austen Suits, Valerie S Palmer, Caesar Okot, Robert A Okot, Concy Atonywalo, Suzanne K Gazda, David L Kitara, Moka Lantum, Spencer S Peter
BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance in rural regions of many countries is poor, such that prolonged delays (months) may intervene between appearance of disease and its recognition by public health authorities. For infectious disorders, delayed recognition and intervention enables uncontrolled disease spread. We tested the feasibility in northern Uganda of developing real-time, village-based health surveillance of an epidemic of Nodding syndrome (NS) using software-programmed smartphones operated by minimally trained lay mHealth reporters...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906286/nonmechanistic-forecasts-of-seasonal-influenza-with-iterative-one-week-ahead-distributions
#4
Logan C Brooks, David C Farrow, Sangwon Hyun, Ryan J Tibshirani, Roni Rosenfeld
Accurate and reliable forecasts of seasonal epidemics of infectious disease can assist in the design of countermeasures and increase public awareness and preparedness. This article describes two main contributions we made recently toward this goal: a novel approach to probabilistic modeling of surveillance time series based on "delta densities", and an optimization scheme for combining output from multiple forecasting methods into an adaptively weighted ensemble. Delta densities describe the probability distribution of the change between one observation and the next, conditioned on available data; chaining together nonparametric estimates of these distributions yields a model for an entire trajectory...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906217/toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-bulk-tank-milk-samples-of-caprine-dairy-herds
#5
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Katia Stradiotto, Emanuela Olivieri, Luca Villa, Maria Teresa Manfredi
A major public health issue, Toxoplasma gondii infection can affect humans mainly via the consumption of animal products from certain species, including small ruminants. Therefore, a regular monitoring of the infection in ovine and caprine populations is advisable for the control of human and animal toxoplasmosis. Antibody detection in individual and bulk tank milk may represent a valid alternative to serological analysis, being its collection easy and not affecting animal welfare. Many serological tools for milk analysis have already been validated for several parasites, including Apicomplexa...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905918/ocular-symptoms-and-signs-of-chikungunya-fever-in-puerto-rico
#6
Jan P Ulloa-Padilla, Pedro J Dávila, Natalio J Izquierdo, Omar García-Rodríguez, Ivonne Z Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: To determine what ocular symptoms and signs are most common and if there are any associations with comorbid conditions in patients with Chikungunya fever. METHODS: A retrospective data review and analysis of the ocular symptomatology of 139 patients with Chikungunya fever who visited a local emergency room from August through September 2014. Frequencies were calculated, and Pearson's chisquare test employed. All the patients were confirmed as having Chikungunya with IgM (ELISA) before admittance into the study...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905916/epidemiological-trends-of-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-in-puerto-rico-from-november-10th-2006-through-may-24th-2011
#7
Ricardo H Brau, Yaritza Acevedo-Salas, Katya Giovannetti
OBJECTIVE: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), injury to the central nervous system (CNS) continues to be a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US today. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed to determine the incidence of all traumatic CNS injuries. Descriptive variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Quantitative variables were expressed as means and averages (plus/minus standard deviation); bivariate cross-tabulation and multiple regression analyses were employed to identify risk factors and compare epidemiological patterns of injury related variables...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905885/moderate-egg-consumption-and-all-cause-and-specific-cause-mortality-in-the-spanish-european-prospective-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-spain-study
#8
Raul Zamora-Ros, Valerie Cayssials, Ramón Cleries, María Luisa Redondo, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Jose-Juan Sánchez-Cruz, Olatz Mokoroa, Leire Gil, Pilar Amiano, Carmen Navarro, María Dolores Chirlaque, José María Huerta, Aurelio Barricarte, Eva Ardanaz, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Antonio Agudo
PURPOSE: Dietary guidelines for egg consumption for general population differ among public health agencies. Our aim was to investigate the association between egg intake and both all-cause and specific-cause of mortality in a Mediterranean population. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort included 40,621 men and women aged 29-69 years old in the nineties from 5 Spanish regions. After a mean of 18 years of follow-up, 3,561 deaths were recorded, of which 1,694 were from cancer, 761 from CVD, and 870 from other causes...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905855/public-private-partnerships-in-practice-collaborating-to-improve-health-finance-policy-in-ghana-and-kenya
#9
Lauren Suchman, Elizabeth Hart, Dominic Montagu
Social health insurance (SHI), one mechanism for achieving universal health coverage, has become increasingly important in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as they work to achieve this goal. Although small private providers supply a significant proportion of healthcare in LMICs, integrating these providers into SHI systems is often challenging. Public-private partnerships in health are one way to address these challenges, but we know little about how these collaborations work, how effectively, and why...
June 13, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904805/economic-evaluation-of-patient-navigation-programs-in-colorectal-cancer-care-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Chloé Gervès-Pinquié, Anne Girault, Serena Phillips, Sarah Raskin, Mandi Pratt-Chapman
Patient navigation has expanded as a promising approach to improve cancer care coordination and patient adherence. This paper addresses the need to identify the evidence on the economic impact of patient navigation in colorectal cancer, following the Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines. Articles indexed in Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Web of Science between January 2000 and March 2017 were analyzed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
June 14, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904370/vitamin-d-supplementation-guidelines-for-general-population-and-groups-at-risk-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-poland-recommendations-of-the-polish-society-of-pediatric-endocrinology-and-diabetes-and-the-expert-panel-with-participation-of-national-specialist-consultants
#11
REVIEW
Agnieszka Rusińska, Paweł Płudowski, Mieczysław Walczak, Maria K Borszewska-Kornacka, Artur Bossowski, Danuta Chlebna-Sokół, Justyna Czech-Kowalska, Anna Dobrzańska, Edward Franek, Ewa Helwich, Teresa Jackowska, Maria A Kalina, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Janusz Książyk, Andrzej Lewiński, Jacek Łukaszkiewicz, Ewa Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Artur Mazur, Izabela Michałus, Jarosław Peregud-Pogorzelski, Hanna Romanowska, Marek Ruchała, Piotr Socha, Mieczysław Szalecki, Mirosław Wielgoś, Danuta Zwolińska, Arkadiusz Zygmunt
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency confers a significant risk for both skeletal and non-skeletal disorders and a number of lifelong negative health outcomes. The objectives of this evidence-based guidelines document are to provide health care professionals in Poland, an updated recommendation for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: A systematic literature search examining the prevention and treatment strategies for vitamin D deficiency was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903795/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-hospital-related-outcomes-a-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Lianping Ti, Michelle Ng, Lindila Awendila, Patrizia Maria Carrieri
INTRODUCTION: People living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are disproportionately over-represented in the healthcare system due to various individual and contextual circumstances, including comorbidities and socioeconomic marginalisation. With growing trends in morbidity and mortality related to HCV infection, HCV is becoming a significant health and financial burden on the healthcare system, particularly in acute hospital settings. It is noteworthy that with the advent of direct-acting antiviral therapy the increasing number of patients who are cured of HCV could potentially result in different patterns of hospital-related outcomes over time...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903046/innovative-health-financing-for-refugees
#13
Paul Spiegel, Rebecca Chanis, Antonio Trujillo
BACKGROUND: More than 65 million persons are currently forcibly displaced, of whom more than 22 million are refugees. Conflicts are increasing, and existing ones are becoming more protracted; a refugee remains a refugee for more than 10 years. Funding for refugee assistance comes primarily from high-income countries after an emergency has occurred. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees spent approximately 12% of its budget on health, nutrition, food security, water, and sanitation in 2016...
June 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903000/assessing-out-of-pocket-expenditures-for-primary-health-care-how-responsive-is-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-health-system-to-providing-financial-risk-protection
#14
Samia Laokri, Rieza Soelaeman, David R Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: The goal of universal health coverage is challenging for chronically under-resourced health systems. Although household out-of-pocket payments are the most important source of health financing in low-income countries, relatively little is known about the drivers of primary health care expenditure and the predictability of the burden associated with high fee-for-service payments. This study describes out-of-pocket health expenditure and investigates demand- and supply-side drivers of excessive costs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a central African country in the midst of a process of reforming its health financing system towards universal health coverage...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902591/from-cause-to-care-triple-surveillance-for-better-outcomes-in-birth-defects-and-rare-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Lorenzo D Botto, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo
Better outcomes are a priority for all those who care about birth defects and rare diseases. Public health surveillance and epidemiologic data tracking historically have provided good data on disease occurrence but at most uncertain value in promoting better outcomes, be these in terms of supporting primary prevention or better care. We propose three enhancements to improve the value of surveillance. First, merge: eliminate the largely artificial separation between birth defects and rare diseases in surveillance...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902216/timeliness-of-notification-systems-for-infectious-diseases-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Corien Swaan, Anouk van den Broek, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Jan Hendrik Richardus
INTRODUCTION: Timely notification of infectious diseases is crucial for prompt response by public health services. Adequate notification systems facilitate timely notification. A systematic literature review was performed to assess outcomes of studies on notification timeliness and to determine which aspects of notification systems are associated with timely notification. METHODOLOGY: Articles reviewing timeliness of notifications published between 2000 and 2017 were searched in Pubmed and Scopus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902162/youth-risk-behavior-surveillance-united-states-2017
#17
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902071/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-melatonin-a-mechanistic-review
#18
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Janbo Xiao, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Samira Shirooie, Ana Sanches Silva, Alessandra Baldi, Haroon Khan, Maria Daglia
N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine (melatonin) is a natural substance produced both by plants, as a secondary metabolite, and animals, by the pineal gland and other tissues. In humans, melatonin participates in numerous functions including the regulation of mood, sleep, reproduction, promotion of immunomodulation, antioxidant defense and as an anti-inflammatory agent. The anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin could yield beneficial effects on intake, particularly against the chronic inflammation which underlies many chronic diseases...
June 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901975/mgit-and-other-methods-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-a-private-hospital-system-with-low-incidence
#19
Claudia Elena Guajardo-Lara, Martha Idalia Saldaña-Ramírez, Nayelly Nohemí Hernández-Galván, Miguel Adrián Dimas-Adame, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytán, Salvador Bruno Valdovinos-Chávez
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a threat to public health; in 2014 caused 1.5 million deaths worldwide; in hospitals where the prevalence of TB is low, it is appropriate to evaluate the effectiveness of tests to diagnose it. Methods: We reviewed reports of airway clinical specimens sent for studies of tuberculosis to the microbiology laboratory from Tec Salud System private hospitals (400 beds) in the metropolitan area of ​​Monterrey, NL, from May 2012 to December 2015...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901745/patient-features-and-survival-of-pediatric-aplastic-anemia-in-the-usa-a-large-institution-experience
#20
M J Hossain, S Xie
Background: We performed the first epidemiologic investigation to examine association of demographics and clinical characteristics at diagnosis, as well as health care expense coverage, with survival of US children with aplastic anemia (AA). Methods: We obtained electronic medical record data of 1140 children aged 0-19 years diagnosed with AA followed at a pediatric health system between 2004 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox proportional hazards regressions were used...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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