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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232708/elimination-of-trachoma-as-a-public-health-problem-in-ghana-providing-evidence-through-a-pre-validation-survey
#1
Oscar Debrah, Ernest O Mensah, Laura Senyonjo, Dziedzom K de Souza, Tei E Hervie, David Agyemang, Didier Bakajika, Benjamin Marfo, Felix Ahorsu, Seth Wanye, Robin Bailey, Joseph B Koroma, Agatha Aboe, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232466/real-world-evidence-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#2
E A Eisenhauer
Introduction: 'Real-world evidence (RWE)' refers to information on the utilization and outcome of new therapies and technologies in clinical practice. RWE may include single institution cohort studies, population-based health services studies, or (inter)national data on survival and mortality. This paper reviews RWE on the impact of treatment in ovarian cancer. Materials and methods: A literature review of publications addressing population level survival outcomes of new surgical and systemic treatment interventions in ovarian cancer was undertaken...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231897/assessment-of-a-salt-reduction-intervention-on-adult-population-salt-intake-in-fiji
#3
Arti Pillay, Kathy Trieu, Joseph Alvin Santos, Arleen Sukhu, Jimaima Schultz, Jillian Wate, Colin Bell, Marj Moodie, Wendy Snowdon, Gary Ma, Kris Rogers, Jacqui Webster
Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231596/-current-situation-of-acupuncture-in-new-zealand
#4
Xiaoji Li, Youping Hu
The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229650/improving-contraceptive-access-use-and-method-mix-by-task-sharing-implanon-insertion-to-frontline-health-workers-the-experience-of-the-integrated-family-health-program-in-ethiopia
#5
Yewondwossen Tilahun, Candace Lew, Bekele Belayihun, Kidest Lulu Hagos, Mengistu Asnake
In 2009, the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health launched an Implanon scale-up program with the goal of improving the availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods at the community level. The Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP) supported the ministry to train Health Extension Workers (HEWs), a cadre of frontline health workers, on Implanon insertion. Prior to this task-sharing initiative, HEWs were only permitted to provide short-acting contraceptive methods; Implanon insertion services were only available at higher-level health facilities, such as health centers and above...
December 8, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229570/medicinal-plants-used-for-hypertension-treatment-by-folk-healers-in-songkhla-province-thailand
#6
Oratai Neamsuvan, Panadda Komonhiran, Kamonvadee Boonming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229436/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-allostatic-load-among-a-multi-ethnic-sample-of-midlife-women-findings-from-the-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation
#7
Laura Chyu, Dawn M Upchurch
OBJECTIVES: We examined longitudinal patterns and sociodemographic correlates of allostatic load (AL), a measure of cumulative biological risk and aging, in a sample of midlife women consisting of non-Hispanic White, African American, Chinese, and Japanese women. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation were used to examine AL patterns in midlife women ages 42-53 (n = 1,932). AL measures were created using 10 biomarkers representing cardiovascular, inflammatory, neuroendocrine, and metabolic system functioning...
December 8, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229427/cost-effectiveness-of-dengue-vaccination-in-ten-endemic-countries
#8
Wu Zeng, Yara A Halasa-Rappel, Nicolas Baurin, Laurent Coudeville, Donald S Shepard
Following publication of results from two phase-3 clinical trials in 10 countries or territories, endemic countries began licensing the first dengue vaccine in 2015. Using a published mathematical model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination in populations similar to those at the trial sites in those same Latin American and Asian countries. Our main scenarios (30-year horizon, 80% coverage) entailed 3-dose routine vaccinations costing US$20/dose beginning at age 9, potentially supplemented by catch-up programs of 4- or 8-year cohorts...
December 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229274/team-approach-to-manage-difficult-to-treat-tb-cases-experiences-in-europe-and-beyond
#9
L D'Ambrosio, G Bothamley, J A Caminero Luna, R Duarte, L Guglielmetti, M Muñoz Torrico, M C Payen, N Saavedra Herrera, M A Salazar Lezama, A Skrahina, M Tadolini, S Tiberi, N Veziris, G B Migliori
As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), optimal management of MDR-TB cases can be ensured by a multi-speciality consultation body known as 'TB Consilium'. This body usually includes different medical specialities, competences and perspectives (e.g., clinical expertise both for adults and children; surgical, radiological and public health expertise; psychological background and nursing experience, among others), thus lowering the risk of making mistakes - or managing the patients inappropriately, in order to improve their clinical outcomes...
December 8, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228986/addressing-vulnerability-building-resilience-community-based-adaptation-to-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-context-of-global-change
#10
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228966/estimating-the-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-from-under-reported-age-dependent-compulsorily-notification-databases
#11
Marcos Amaku, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini, Eleazar Chaib, Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho, David Greenhalgh, Luis Fernandez Lopez, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: National or local laws, norms or regulations (sometimes and in some countries) require medical providers to report notifiable diseases to public health authorities. Reporting, however, is almost always incomplete. This is due to a variety of reasons, ranging from not recognizing the diseased to failures in the technical or administrative steps leading to the final official register in the disease notification system. The reported fraction varies from 9 to 99% and is strongly associated with the disease being reported...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228821/public-expenditures-for-mental-health-services-in-canadian-provinces
#12
Jian Wang, Philip Jacobs, Arto Ohinmaa, Anne Dezetter, Alain Lesage
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to measure provincial spending for mental health services in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and to compare these cost estimates to those of FY 2003. METHODS: This study estimated the costs of publicly funded provincial mental health services in FY 2013 and compared them to the estimates for FY 2003 from a previously published report. Our data were obtained from publicly accessible databases. The cross-year cost comparisons for provincial mental health services were restricted to general and psychiatric hospital inpatients, clinical payments to physicians and psychologists, and prescribed psychotropic medications...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227546/high-levels-of-extracellular-atp-lead-to-chronic-inflammatory-response-in-melanoma-patients
#13
Aline Manica, Alexsandra Da Silva, Andreia Machado Cardoso, Marcelo Moreno, Daniela B Leal, Anielen Dutra Da Silva, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Vera Maria Morsch, Margarete Dulce Bagatini
Skin cancer represents a serious public health problem and melanoma is considered the most significant due to its high metastasis capacity. Evasion mechanisms are the main characteristic of these tumor cells to escape of immune response. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides play an important role in inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we analyzed the expression and activity of purinergic system enzymes in platelets and lymphocytes, ATP levels quantification, as well the level of pro and anti-inflammatory interleukins in the serum of 23 patients with surgical melanoma removal (CM group) and 23 control subjects (CT group)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227430/continuing-education-meets-the-learning-organization-the-challenge-of-a-systems-approach-to-patient-safety
#14
John M Eisenberg
Since the release of the report of the Institute of Medicine on medical errors and patient safety in November 1999, health policy makers and health care leaders in several nations have sought solutions that will improve the safety of health care. This attention to patient safety has highlighted the importance of a learning approach and a systems approach to quality measurement and improvement. Balanced with the need for public disclosure of performance, confidential reporting with feedback is one of the prime ways that nations such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia have approached this challenge...
October 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227421/an-assessment-of-information-exchange-practices-challenges-and-opportunities-to-support-us-disease-surveillance-in-3-states
#15
Macarena C Garcia, Nedra Y Garrett, Vivian Singletary, Sheereen Brown, Tamara Hennessy-Burt, Gillian Haney, Kimberly Link, Jennifer Tripp, William R Mac Kenzie, Paula Yoon
BACKGROUND: State and local public health agencies collect and use surveillance data to identify outbreaks, track cases, investigate causes, and implement measures to protect the public-s health through various surveillance systems and data exchange practices. PURPOSE: The purpose of this assessment was to better understand current practices at state and local public health agencies for collecting, managing, processing, reporting, and exchanging notifiable disease surveillance information...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227419/lessons-learned-from-the-environmental-public-health-tracking-sub-county-data-pilot-project
#16
Angela K Werner, Heather Strosnider, Craig Kassinger, Mikyong Shin
OBJECTIVE: Small area data are key to better understanding the complex relationships between environmental health, health outcomes, and risk factors at a local level. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) conducted the Sub-County Data Pilot Project with grantees to consider integration of sub-county data into the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network). DESIGN: The Tracking Program and grantees developed sub-county-level data for several data sets during this pilot project, working to standardize processes for submitting data and creating required geographies...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227216/front-of-package-nutrition-references-are-positively-associated-with-food-processing
#17
Anthea Christoforou, Naomi Dachner, Rena Mendelson, Valerie Tarasuk
OBJECTIVE: Foods characterized by a high degree of processing are pervasive in the global food supply and concerns have been raised about their contribution to the escalating burden of diet-related disease. It has been suggested that the dominance of these products relates in part to their aggressive on-package marketing. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between the extent and nature of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition references on products sold in Canadian supermarkets and the level of food processing...
January 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226450/barriers-to-care-among-transgender-and-gender-nonconforming-adults
#18
Gilbert Gonzales, Carrie Henning-Smith
Policy Points: Transgender and gender nonconforming (GNC) adults may experience barriers to care for a variety of reasons, including discrimination and lack of awareness by providers in health care settings. In our analysis of a large, population-based sample, we found transgender and GNC adults were more likely to be uninsured and have unmet health care needs, and were less likely to have routine care, compared to cisgender (nontransgender) women. Our findings varied by gender identity. More research is needed on transgender and GNC populations, including on how public policy and provider awareness affects health care access and health outcomes differentially by gender identity...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226226/work-based-assessment-and-co-production-in-postgraduate-medical-training
#19
Eric S Holmboe
Assessment has always been an essential component of postgraduate medical education and for many years focused predominantly on various types of examinations. While examinations of medical knowledge and more recently of clinical skills with standardized patients can assess learner capability in controlled settings and provide a level of assurance for the public, persistent and growing concerns regarding quality of care and patient safety worldwide has raised the importance and need for better work-based assessments...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225953/what-is-health-systems-responsiveness-review-of-existing-knowledge-and-proposed-conceptual-framework
#20
Tolib Mirzoev, Sumit Kane
Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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