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Williams syndrome intellectual disability

R Royston, P Howlin, J Waite, C Oliver
Individuals with specific genetic syndromes associated with intellectual disability (ID), such as Williams syndrome (WS), are at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders. A systematic literature review identified sixteen WS papers that could generate pooled prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders for WS. A meta-analysis compared these estimates with prevalence estimates for the heterogeneous ID population and the general population. Estimated rates of anxiety disorders in WS were high. WS individuals were four times more likely to experience anxiety than individuals with ID, and the risk was also heightened compared to the general population...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Matthew J Hill, Richard Killick, Katherinne Navarrete, Aleksandra Maruszak, Gemma M McLaughlin, Brenda P Williams, Nicholas J Bray
BACKGROUND: Common variants in the TCF4 gene are among the most robustly supported genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Rare TCF4 deletions and loss-of-function point mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a developmental disorder associated with severe intellectual disability. METHODS: To explore molecular and cellular mechanisms by which TCF4 perturbation could interfere with human cortical development, we experimentally reduced the endogenous expression of TCF4 in a neural progenitor cell line derived from the developing human cerebral cortex using RNA interference...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ayelet Zerem, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Dorit Lev, Lubov Blumkin, Sara Kivity, Ilan Linder, Cheryl Shoubridge, Elizabeth Emma Palmer, Michael Field, Jackie Boyle, David Chitayat, William D Gaillard, Eric H Kossoff, Marjolaine Willems, David Geneviève, Frederic Tran-Mau-Them, Orna Epstein, Eli Heyman, Sarah Dugan, Alice Masurel-Paulet, Ame'lie Piton, Tjitske Kleefstra, Rolph Pfundt, Ryo Sato, Andreas Tzschach, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu, Esther Leshinsky-Silver, Tally Lerman-Sagie
OBJECTIVE: IQSEC2 is an X-linked gene associated with intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. Herein we characterize the epilepsy/epileptic encephalopathy of patients with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with IQSEC2 variants were identified worldwide through Medline search. Two patients were recruited from our early onset epileptic encephalopathy cohort and one patient from personal communication. The 18 patients who have epilepsy in addition to ID are the subject of this study...
September 26, 2016: Epilepsia
Elizabeth Forsythe, Kathryn Sparks, Sunayna Best, Sarah Borrows, Bethan Hoskins, Ataf Sabir, Timothy Barrett, Denise Williams, Shehla Mohammed, David Goldsmith, David V Milford, Detlef Bockenhauer, Lukas Foggensteiner, Philip L Beales
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive, multisystem disease characterized by retinal dystrophy, renal malformation, obesity, intellectual disability, polydactyly, and hypogonadism. Nineteen disease-causing genes (BBS1-19) have been identified, of which mutations in BBS1 are most common in North America and Europe. A hallmark of the disease, renal malformation is heterogeneous and is a cause of morbidity and mortality through the development of CKD. We studied the prevalence and severity of CKD in 350 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-related renal disease attending the United Kingdom national Bardet-Biedl syndrome clinics to further elucidate the phenotype and identify risk indicators of CKD...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Elham Abbas, Devin M Cox, Teri Smith, Merlin G Butler
We report a 14-year-old adolescent girl with selective mutism (SM) and a 7q11.23 microduplication detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis and reviewed the literature from 18 published clinical reports. Our patient had specific phobias, SM, extreme anxiety, obesity, cutis marmorata, and a round appearing face with a short neck and over folded ears. We reviewed the published clinical, cognitive, behavioral, and cytogenetic findings grouped by speech and language delay, growth and development, craniofacial, clinical, and behavior and cognitive features due to the 7q11...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Beth A Earhart, Marian E Williams, Irina Zamora, Linda Marie Randolph, Jodie K Votava-Smith, Stephanie N Marcy
Duplication 7q11.23 syndrome is the reciprocal of Williams-Beuren deletion syndrome. Studies have reported a recognizable phenotype, including autism, intellectual disability, speech, and language delay, social anxiety, and behavioral difficulties in these individuals. Previous studies revealed a variety of craniofacial abnormalities, brain malformations, and cardiac abnormalities, including aortic dilation. This patient series evaluates five family members aged 2 months to 35 years, all with confirmed 7q11...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
William B Rizzo
INTRODUCTION: Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare neurocutaneous disease characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, intellectual disability and a distinctive retinopathy. It is caused by inactivating mutations in ALDH3A2, which codes for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) and results in abnormal metabolism of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols. The potential disease mechanisms leading to symptoms include 1) accumulation of toxic fatty aldehydes that form covalent adducts with lipids and membrane proteins; 2) physical disruption of multi-lamellar membranes in skin and brain; 3) abnormal activation of the JNK cell signaling pathway; and 4) defective farnesol metabolism resulting in abnormal PPAR-α dependent gene expression...
April 2016: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
E Van Den Heuvel, E Manders, A Swillen, I Zink
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. METHOD: Twelve monolingual Dutch-speaking children with WS aged 5.10 to 13.3 years were assessed by means of standardised structural language tests measuring receptive and expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension and production...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Elisabeth M Lodder, Pasquelena De Nittis, Charlotte D Koopman, Wojciech Wiszniewski, Carolina Fischinger Moura de Souza, Najim Lahrouchi, Nicolas Guex, Valerio Napolioni, Federico Tessadori, Leander Beekman, Eline A Nannenberg, Lamiae Boualla, Nico A Blom, Wim de Graaff, Maarten Kamermans, Dario Cocciadiferro, Natascia Malerba, Barbara Mandriani, Zeynep Hande Coban Akdemir, Richard J Fish, Mohammad K Eldomery, Ilham Ratbi, Arthur A M Wilde, Teun de Boer, William F Simonds, Marguerite Neerman-Arbez, V Reid Sutton, Fernando Kok, James R Lupski, Alexandre Reymond, Connie R Bezzina, Jeroen Bakkers, Giuseppe Merla
GNB5 encodes the G protein β subunit 5 and is involved in inhibitory G protein signaling. Here, we report mutations in GNB5 that are associated with heart-rate disturbance, eye disease, intellectual disability, gastric problems, hypotonia, and seizures in nine individuals from six families. We observed an association between the nature of the variants and clinical severity; individuals with loss-of-function alleles had more severe symptoms, including substantial developmental delay, speech defects, severe hypotonia, pathological gastro-esophageal reflux, retinal disease, and sinus-node dysfunction, whereas related heterozygotes harboring missense variants presented with a clinically milder phenotype...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
G Glover, R Williams, P Heslop, J Oyinola, J Grey
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) die at younger ages than the general population, but nationally representative and internationally comparable mortality data about people with ID, quantifying the extent and pattern of the excess, have not previously been reported for England. METHOD: We used data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database for April 2010 to March 2014 (CPRD GOLD September 2015). This source covered several hundred participating general practices comprising roughly 5% of the population of England in the period studied...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Mark J Hamilton, Ruth Newbury-Ecob, Muriel Holder-Espinasse, Shu Yau, Suzanne Lillis, Jane A Hurst, Emma Clement, William Reardon, Shelagh Joss, Emma Hobson, Moira Blyth, Maryam Al-Shehhi, Sally A Lynch, Mohnish Suri
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth deficiency, broad thumbs and great toes, intellectual disability and characteristic craniofacial appearance. Mutations in CREBBP account for around 55% of cases, with a further 8% attributed to the paralogous gene EP300. Comparatively few reports exist describing the phenotype of Rubinstein-Taybi because of EP300 mutations. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from nine patients from the UK and Ireland with pathogenic EP300 mutations, identified either by targeted testing or by exome sequencing...
October 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
Eliseo Diez-Itza, Verónica Martínez, Aránzazu Antón
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability and characterised by displaying an atypical neuropsychological profile, with peaks and valleys, where language skills seem better preserved than non-verbal intelligence. METHOD: This study researches the narrative competence of nine Spanish-speaking adults with WS. Oral narratives were elicited from a silent film, and narrative coherence was analysed as a function of sequential order of the events narrated at three structure levels, while narrative cohesion was assessed through the frequency of use and type of discourse markers...
August 2016: Psicothema
M H Fisher, M D Lense, E M Dykens
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with a distinct cognitive-behavioural phenotype including mild to moderate intellectual disability, visual-spatial deficits, hypersociability, inattention and anxiety. Researchers typically characterise samples of individuals with WS by their intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. Because of the low prevalence of the syndrome, researchers often include participants with WS across a broad age range throughout childhood and adulthood and assume participants demonstrate consistent cognitive development across ages...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Valerie Maduro, Barbara N Pusey, Praveen F Cherukuri, Paul Atkins, Christèle du Souich, Rosemarie Rupps, Marjolaine Limbos, David R Adams, Samarth S Bhatt, Patrice Eydoux, Amanda E Links, Anna Lehman, May C Malicdan, Christopher E Mason, Marie Morimoto, James C Mullikin, Andrew Sear, Clara Van Karnebeek, Pawel Stankiewicz, William A Gahl, Camilo Toro, Cornelius F Boerkoel
BACKGROUND: Mutations of TCF4, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) via multiple genetic mechanisms. TCF4 is a complex locus expressing multiple transcripts by alternative splicing and use of multiple promoters. To address the relationship between mutation of these transcripts and phenotype, we report a three-generation family segregating mild intellectual disability with a chromosomal translocation disrupting TCF4. RESULTS: Using whole genome sequencing, we detected a complex unbalanced karyotype disrupting TCF4 (46,XY,del(14)(q23...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
E Lough, M H Fisher
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) increasingly have access to the Internet. Whilst Internet access increases opportunities for social connection for individuals with IDD, it also may increase risk of victimisation. Adults with Williams syndrome (WS), who display an extreme pro-social drive to engage with both familiar and unfamiliar people, might be especially vulnerable to online victimisation. This study first explores how often and why individuals with WS use the Internet and social networking sites...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Barbara Barter, Richard Patrick Hastings, Rebecca Williams, Jaci C Huws
BACKGROUND: The perceptions of individuals with Down syndrome are conspicuously absent in discussions about the use of prenatal testing. METHOD: Eight individuals with Down syndrome were interviewed about their views and experience of the topic of prenatal testing. RESULTS: Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed two major themes with subthemes: (1) a devalued condition and a valued life and (2) a question of 'want?' Foucauldian discourse analysis highlighted two main discursive practices: (i) social deviance and (ii) tragedy and catastrophe of the birth of a baby with Down syndrome...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Morad Ansari, Jacqueline Rainger, Isabel M Hanson, Kathleen A Williamson, Freddie Sharkey, Louise Harewood, Angela Sandilands, Jill Clayton-Smith, Helene Dollfus, Pierre Bitoun, Francoise Meire, Judy Fantes, Brunella Franco, Birgit Lorenz, David S Taylor, Fiona Stewart, Colin E Willoughby, Meriel McEntagart, Peng Tee Khaw, Carol Clericuzio, Lionel Van Maldergem, Denise Williams, Ruth Newbury-Ecob, Elias I Traboulsi, Eduardo D Silva, Mukhlis M Madlom, David R Goudie, Brian W Fleck, Dagmar Wieczorek, Juergen Kohlhase, Alice D McTrusty, Carol Gardiner, Christopher Yale, Anthony T Moore, Isabelle Russell-Eggitt, Lily Islam, Melissa Lees, Philip L Beales, Stephen J Tuft, Juan B Solano, Miranda Splitt, Jens Michael Hertz, Trine E Prescott, Deborah J Shears, Ken K Nischal, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Fabienne Prieur, I Karen Temple, Katherine L Lachlan, Giuseppe Damante, Danny A Morrison, Veronica van Heyningen, David R FitzPatrick
We report molecular genetic analysis of 42 affected individuals referred with a diagnosis of aniridia who previously screened as negative for intragenic PAX6 mutations. Of these 42, the diagnoses were 31 individuals with aniridia and 11 individuals referred with a diagnosis of Gillespie syndrome (iris hypoplasia, ataxia and mild to moderate developmental delay). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identified six whole gene deletions: four encompassing PAX6 and two encompassing FOXC1. Six deletions with plausible cis-regulatory effects were identified: five that were 3' (telomeric) to PAX6 and one within a gene desert 5' (telomeric) to PITX2...
2016: PloS One
William V Dube, Rachel S Farber, Marlana R Mueller, Eileen Grant, Lucy Lorin, Curtis K Deutsch
Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms...
May 2016: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Shruthi Mohan, Sheela Nampoothiri, Dhanya Yesodharan, Vettriselvi Venkatesan, Teena Koshy, Solomon F D Paul, Venkatachalam Perumal
BACKGROUND: Microdeletions of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosome region (WBSCR) are reported with a frequency of 1 in 10,000, whereas microduplications of the region, although expected to occur at the same frequency, are not widely reported. METHOD: We evaluated a 9-year old Omani boy for idiopathic intellectual disability using genetic methods, including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), for detection of microdeletions (P064-B3)...
May 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Celeste Leung, Zhengping Jia
Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
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