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Autism review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641213/measurement-properties-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tools-for-autism-spectrum-adults-of-mean-normal-intelligence-a-systematic-review
#1
A Baghdadli, F Russet, L Mottron
BACKGROUND: The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID...
May 17, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635106/long-noncoding-rna-and-its-contribution-to-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Jie Tang, Yizhen Yu, Wei Yang
Recent studies have indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in multiple processes, such as epigenetic regulation, gene expression regulation, development, nutrition-related and other diseases, toxic response, and response to drugs. Although the functional roles and mechanisms of several lncRNAs have been discovered, a better understanding of the vast majority of lncRNAs remains elusive. To understand the functional roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs is critical because these transcripts represent the majority of the transcriptional output of the mammalian genome...
June 20, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634468/fragile-x-syndrome-prevalence-treatment-and-prevention-in-china
#3
REVIEW
Manman Niu, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jiong Qin, Jing Zhang, Qinrui Li, Randi J Hagerman
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and the leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder. Although FXS has been studied for several decades, there is relatively little basic science or clinical research being performed on FXS in China. Indeed, there is a large gap between China and Western countries in the FXS field. China has a potentially large number of FXS patients. However, many of them are underdiagnosed or even misdiagnosed, and treatments are not always administered in the Chinese population...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632930/long-term-follow-up-of-intra-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection-conceived-offspring-compared-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-conceived-offspring-a-systematic-review-of-health-outcomes-beyond-the-neonatal-period
#4
REVIEW
S R Catford, R I McLachlan, M K O'Bryan, J L Halliday
The use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has increased significantly worldwide, often chosen instead of in vitro fertilization (IVF), yet long-term health outcomes are unknown and health differences between ICSI and IVF conceptions have not been comprehensively assessed. A systematic review of health outcomes of ICSI-conceived offspring beyond the neonatal period compared to IVF-conceived offspring was carried out. PubMed, OVID Medline/Embase, Informit, Web of Science and Proquest databases were searched on 9 November 2016 for studies reporting on health outcomes in ICSI-conceived offspring beyond 28 days after birth...
June 20, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631578/the-journey-to-autism-insights-from-neuroimaging-studies-of-infants-and-toddlers
#6
Jason J Wolff, Suma Jacob, Jed T Elison
By definition, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges during early childhood. It is during this time that infants and toddlers transition from appearing typical across multiple domains to exhibiting the behavioral phenotype of ASD. Neuroimaging studies focused on this period of development have provided crucial knowledge pertaining to this process, including possible mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disorder and offering the possibility of prodromal or presymptomatic prediction of risk...
June 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630658/evidence-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-biochemical-links-genetic-based-associations-and-non-energy-related-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Keren K Griffiths, Richard J Levy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States, represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behavior. The underlying cause of autism is unknown and therapy is currently limited to targeting behavioral abnormalities. Emerging studies suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ASD. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating this potential connection...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628841/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-clinical-features-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Fiona Hollis, Alexandros K Kanellopoulos, Claudia Bagni
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prototypic pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social interaction, and communication deficits, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behavior, and impairments in language and development. Clinical studies have identified mitochondrial disturbances at the levels of DNA, activity, complexes, oxidative stress, and metabolites in blood and urine of ASD patients. However, these observations from postmortem brains or peripheral tissues do not provide a direct link between autism and mitochondria...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625186/how-predictable-are-symptoms-in-psychopathological-networks-a-reanalysis-of-18-published-datasets
#9
J M B Haslbeck, E I Fried
BACKGROUND: Network analyses on psychopathological data focus on the network structure and its derivatives such as node centrality. One conclusion one can draw from centrality measures is that the node with the highest centrality is likely to be the node that is determined most by its neighboring nodes. However, centrality is a relative measure: knowing that a node is highly central gives no information about the extent to which it is determined by its neighbors. Here we provide an absolute measure of determination (or controllability) of a node - its predictability...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621219/manualization-of-occupational-therapy-using-ayres-sensory-integration%C3%A2-for-autism
#10
Joanne Hunt, Elke van Hooydonk, Patricia Faller, Zoe Mailloux, Roseann Schaaf
This article reports on the development of a Stage 3 manual (following pilot effectiveness study) for implementing occupational therapy using Ayres Sensory Integration® (OT/ASI) for children with autism spectrum disorders to enhance participation in daily occupations. Three stakeholder groups were surveyed to aid in translation of manual from research to practice (i.e., Stage 3 manual) and an expert consensus meeting was held to finalize recommendations. Data indicated that the manuals usability could be improved by including a section on frequently encountered problems and solutions, and by including video case examples...
July 2017: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618130/benefits-of-an-individualized-perioperative-plan-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Jo S Swartz, Karen E Amos, Mirna Brindas, Linda G Girling, M Ruth Graham
BACKGROUND: Perioperative care for children with autism spectrum disorder may be challenging. Previous investigators recommend development of an individualized perioperative management plan with caregiver involvement. AIM: The primary goal was to determine the usefulness of an individualized plan based on the decision to provide preoperative sedation stratified by autism spectrum severity level. Secondary goals were to assess the effectiveness of the plan based on subjective assessment of patient behavior at induction of anesthesia and caregiver satisfaction...
June 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617938/fragile-x-syndrome-an-overview-and-update-of-the-fmr1-gene
#12
REVIEW
Montserrat Mila, Maria Isabel Alvarez-Mora, Irene Madrigal, Laia Rodriguez-Revenga
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and the leading form of the monogenic cause of autism. FMR1 premutation is the first single-gene cause of primary ovarian failure (FXPOI) and one of the most common causes of ataxia (FXTAS), multiple additional phenotypes such as fibromyalgia, hypothyroidism, migraine headaches, sleep disturbances, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, central pain syndrome, neuropathy and neuropsychiatric alterations has been described. Clinical involvement in men and women carrying the FMR1 premutation currently constitutes a real health problem in the society that should be taken into account...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617074/autism-symptoms-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#13
Manman Niu, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jiong Qin, Jing Zhang, Qinrui Li, Randi J Hagerman
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is recognized as the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although symptoms of ASD are frequently observed in patients with FXS, researchers have not yet clearly determined whether the symptoms in patients with FXS differ from the symptoms in patients without ASD or nonsyndromic ASD. Behavioral similarities and differences between FXS and ASD are important to improve our understanding of the causes and correlations of ASD with FXS...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616097/updated-report-on-tools-to-measure-outcomes-of-clinical-trials-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Dejan B Budimirovic, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Craig A Erickson, Scott S Hall, David Hessl, Allan L Reiss, Margaret K King, Leonard Abbeduto, Walter E Kaufmann
OBJECTIVE: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) has been the neurodevelopmental disorder with the most active translation of preclinical breakthroughs into clinical trials. This process has led to a critical assessment of outcome measures, which resulted in a comprehensive review published in 2013. Nevertheless, the disappointing outcome of several recent phase III drug trials in FXS, and parallel efforts at evaluating behavioral endpoints for trials in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has emphasized the need for re-assessing outcome measures and revising recommendations for FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612953/eye-movements-sensori-motor-adaptation-and-cerebellar-dependent-learning-in-autism-towards-potential-biomarkers-and-sub-phenotypes
#15
Edward G Freedman, John J Foxe
Because of the wide range of symptoms expressed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their idiosyncratic severity it is unlikely that a single remedial approach will be universally effective. Resolution of this dilemma requires identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum, based on symptom set and severity, on an underlying neuro-structural difference, and on specific behavioral dysfunction. This will provide critical insight into the disorder and may lead to better diagnoses, and more targeted remediation in these subphenotypes of people with ASD...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612113/gluten-and-casein-free-diet-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Anna Piwowarczyk, Andrea Horvath, Jan Łukasik, Ewa Pisula, Hania Szajewska
PURPOSE: Effective treatments for core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lacking. We systematically updated evidence on the effectiveness of a gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet as a treatment for ASD in children. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched up until August 2016, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs); additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. RESULTS: Six RCTs (214 participants) were included...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606411/can-parasitic-worms-cure-the-modern-world-s-ills
#17
REVIEW
Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
There has been increasing recognition that the alarming surge in allergy and autoimmunity in the industrialised and developing worlds shadows the rapid eradication of pathogens, such as parasitic helminths. Appreciation of this has fuelled an explosion in research investigating the therapeutic potential of these worms. This review considers the current state-of-play with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that can be exploited therapeutically...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604149/risk-of-second-seizure-in-pediatric-patients-with-idiopathic-autism
#18
Asad A Qadir, Emily Obringer, Joseph Hageman, Charles Marcuccilli
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a comorbidity of idiopathic autism spectrum disorder. The aim was to characterize the risk and time of second seizure in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed at the University of Chicago and NorthShore University HealthSystem. Patients with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder, ≥1 seizure, and age 2 to 23 years were included. RESULTS: 153 patients were included; 141 (92%) had a second seizure...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600643/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-parent-training-for-disruptive-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Karen Bearss, T Lindsey Burrell, A Nichole Evans, Lawrence Scahill
Parent training (PT) has emerged as a promising treatment for disruptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review summarizes the essential elements of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD and evaluates the available evidence for PT using both descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (1980-2016) in peer-reviewed journals for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD. The systematic search of 2023 publications yielded eight RCTs involving a total of 653 participants...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592982/herbal-medicine-treatment-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Miran Bang, Sun Haeng Lee, Seung-Hun Cho, Sun-Ae Yu, Kibong Kim, Hsu Yuan Lu, Gyu Tae Chang, Sang Yeon Min
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. METHODS: Thirteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to November 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of herbal medicines alone or in combination with other Traditional Chinese Medicine treatments for ASD in children were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used and other data analyses were performed using RevMan (Version 5...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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