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Autism review

Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Shian Cheng, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Paul Whiteley, Andre F Carvalho, Dian-Jeng Li, Tien-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chia-Hung Tang, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Pao-Yen Lin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, and nutritional deficiency may play a role in the development of ASD. A relationship between ASD and iron levels/iron deficiency (ID) has been reported; however, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to examine the relationship between ASD and ID following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Rebecca J Landa
With advances in the field's ability to identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at younger ages, the need for information about the evidence-base for early intervention continues to rise. This review of the ASD early intervention (EI) literature focuses on efficacy studies published within the past 15 years. The neurodevelopmental context for early intervention, timing of initiating intervention, primary intervention approaches, and predictors of treatment outcomes are discussed. The evidence indicates that young children with ASD benefit from EI, and their parents learn to implement child-responsive engagement strategies when a parent-coaching intervention is provided...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Daniel P Sheppard, Jelle P Bruineberg, Anett Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Mareike Altgassen
OBJECTIVE: The current article set out to review all research conducted to date investigating prospective memory (PM) in autism. METHOD: All studies on PM in autism are first described, followed by a critical review and discussion of experimental findings within the multiprocess framework. PM in autism is then considered through an embodied predictive-coding account of autism. RESULTS: Overall, despite somewhat inconsistent methodologies, a general deficit in PM in autism is observed, with evidence mostly in line with the multiprocess framework...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Cally Kent, Reinie Cordier, Annette Joosten, Sarah Wilkes-Gillan, Anita Bundy
BACKGROUND/AIM: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate impaired play skills and poor quality social interactions compared to typically developing peers. Complex interventions to improve play skills should be investigated with randomised control trials (RCT) where possible to support evidence-based practice for occupational therapists. Prior to a RCT, multiple feasibility studies are recommended to identify barriers to the trial. The aim of this study is to adapt a complex intervention to improve play skills in children with ASD and investigate the feasibility of conducting a RCT...
March 11, 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Thomas Parr, Geraint Rees, Karl J Friston
Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine 'prior' beliefs with a generative (predictive) model to explain the causes of sensations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alexander N Yatsenko, Paul J Turek
PURPOSE: To examine current evidence of the known effects of advanced paternal age on sperm genetic and epigenetic changes and associated birth defects and diseases in offspring. METHODS: Review of published PubMed literature. RESULTS: Advanced paternal age (> 40 years) is associated with accumulated damage to sperm DNA and mitotic and meiotic quality control mechanisms (mismatch repair) during spermatogenesis. This in turn causes well-delineated abnormalities in sperm chromosomes, both numerical and structural, and increased sperm DNA fragmentation (3%/year of age) and single gene mutations (relative risk, RR 10)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Juan C Stagnaro
Since the late 19th century, Argentinean psychiatrists have been developing classifcations of psychiatric disorders. Their work has had local originality and fruitful exchange with international controversies on the subject. The thinking of some Argentinean psychiatrists transcended the borders of the country and was adopted in the South American region, as was the case with the classifcation proposed by José T. Borda. There were also historical anticipations of concepts that were not known in other latitudes: "oligotimia", a category created by Enrique Pichon-Rivière, preceded the characterization of early childhood autism by Leo Kanner...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
F Mulas, P Roca
INTRODUCTION: The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. AIM: To review the current advances in these common aspects. DEVELOPMENT: Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
A Hervas, I Rueda
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social communication and present stereotypic behaviours. Comorbidity associated to conduct disorders is frequent, starts in infancy and, in general, continues into adulthood. It is sometimes associated with aggressiveness, negativism, self-harm and breaking social norms. It causes a high degree of dysfunctionality in persons with ASD, their family, professionals and those around them, and is the main cause of pharmacological treatment, hospitalisation and special education...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Julie Sadino, Zoe Donaldson
Over a lifetime, humans build relationships with family, friends, and partners that are critically important for our mental and physical health. Unlike commonly used laboratory mice and rats, Microtine rodents provide a unique model to study the neurobiology underlying pair bonding and the selective attachments that form between adults. Comparisons between monogamous prairie voles and the closely related, but non-monogamous meadow and montane voles, have revealed that brain-region-specific neuropeptide receptor patterning modulates social behavior between and within species...
March 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Zohreh Talebizadeh, Ayten Shah
BACKGROUND: Concerns over the need to improve translational aspects of genetics research studies and engaging community members in the research process have been noted in the literature and raised by patient advocates. In addition to the work done by patient advocacy groups, organizations such as the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute advocate for a change in the culture of research from being researcher-driven to becoming more patient-driven. OBJECTIVE: Our project, Autism Genetics and Outcomes (AutGO), consists of two phases...
March 5, 2018: Patient
Irene Tuffrey-Wijne, Leopold Curfs, Ilora Finlay, Sheila Hollins
BACKGROUND: Euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) have been legally possible in the Netherlands since 2001, provided that statutory due care criteria are met, including: (a) voluntary and well-considered request; (b) unbearable suffering without prospect of improvement; (c) informing the patient; (d) lack of a reasonable alternative; (e) independent second physician's opinion. 'Unbearable suffering' must have a medical basis, either somatic or psychiatric, but there is no requirement of limited life expectancy...
March 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Sanne Tops, Ute Habel, Sina Radke
Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a large variety of social behaviors. The oxytocinergic system interacts with environmental cues and is highly dependent on interindividual factors. Deficits in this system have been linked to mental disorders associated with social impairments, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review focuses on the modulation of social behavior by alterations in two domains of the oxytocinergic system. We discuss genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and alterations in these mechanisms that were found to have clinical implications for ASD...
March 2, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Sarah L Ferri, Ted Abel, Edward S Brodkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurodevelopmental disorders disproportionately affect males. The mechanisms underlying male vulnerability or female protection are not known and remain understudied. Determining the processes involved is crucial to understanding the etiology and advancing treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we review current findings and theories that contribute to male preponderance of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on autism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the biological basis of the male preponderance of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders includes discussion of a higher genetic burden in females and sex-specific gene mutations or epigenetic changes that differentially confer risk to males or protection to females...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Transgender or gender dysphoria has been defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as distress resulting from the incongruence between one's experienced gender and one's assigned gender, along with a persistent and strong desire to be of another gender, and accompanied by clinically significant distress. Adolescents referred for evaluation often want hormonal therapy and several among them also express a desire for gender reassignment surgery. Furthermore, evidence shows that adolescents and adults with gender dysphoria without a sex development disorder, before gender reassignments, are at increased risk for suicide...
December 24, 2017: Curēus
Keesha L Roach, Patricia E Hershberger, Julienne N Rutherford, Robert E Molokie, Zaijie Jim Wang, Diana J Wilkie
Pain is the quintessential symptom for individuals suffering from sickle cell disease (SCD). Although the degree of suffering and the cost of treatment are staggering, SCD continues to be grossly understudied, including a lack of data for pain-related genes and prevalence of polymorphisms in this population. This lack of data adds to the inadequacy of pain therapy in this population. Pain genetics investigators have recently examined allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from candidate genes in people who have SCD...
March 1, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Chloe C Hudson, Layla Hall, Kate L Harkness
Substantial uncertainty exists about the prevalence of depressive disorders in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analysis quantitatively summarized studies that assessed the lifetime and current prevalence of unipolar depressive disorders in children, adolescents, and adults with ASD. We also examined demographic, methodological, and study moderators. This meta-analysis adhered to PRISMA guidelines. A total of 7857 articles were identified through 5 databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PYSCInfo, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), forward searches, and backward searches...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jacqui Rodgers, A Ofield
Purpose of Review: Autistic people are at increased risk of anxiety, with around 50% of autistic adults and children experiencing this debilitating mental health condition. The purpose of this review is to consider some contemporary ideas about underlying mechanisms for anxiety in autism, explore issues in the identification and assessment of anxiety and discuss emerging trends in anxiety interventions for autistic people, before identifying some important next steps in the field. Recent Findings: Emerging evidence suggests that anxiety may present differently in autism compared to the general population and that whilst CBT holds promise, there may be important differences in neurobiological, affective and cognitive responses to stressors for autistic people, which warrant tailored anxiety models, assessments and interventions...
2018: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Benjamin John Miller, Raj Lakhani, Arif Rashid, Philipa Tostevin
An 11-year-old boy with a history of autism spectrum disorder attended the emergency department with his mother 8 days after an adenotonsillectomy reporting postoperative bleeding. Detailed physical examination revealed no active bleeding, but a rigid neck posture was noted. A head and neck CT scan demonstrated unilateral rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation and possible damage to the anterior spinal ligament. He was reviewed by neurosurgeons who performed manipulation under anaesthetic and successfully realigned the occipital cervical tract...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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