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Autism review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#1
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346136/interdisciplinary-team-evaluation-an-effective-method-for-the-diagnostic-assessment-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Jennifer Gerdts, James Mancini, Emily Fox, Candace Rhoads, Tracey Ward, Erin Easley, Raphael A Bernier
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to assess the feasibility of an interdisciplinary team diagnostic assessment model for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: Medical records from 366 patients evaluated for ASD at the Seattle Children's Autism Center (SCAC) were reviewed. ASD diagnostic outcomes, provider satisfaction, engagement in follow-up care, billed time, and reimbursement amounts were compared in patients evaluated through an interdisciplinary team approach (n = 91) with those seen in multidisciplinary evaluations led by either a psychologist (n = 165) or a physician (n = 110)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341895/prenatal-paracetamol-exposure-and-child-neurodevelopment-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Ann Z Bauer, David Kriebel, Martha R Herbert, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, Shanna H Swan
BACKGROUND: The non-prescription medication paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is currently recommended as a safe pain and fever treatment during pregnancy. However, recent studies suggest a possible association between APAP use in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a review of publications reporting associations between prenatal APAP use and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: Relevant sources were identified through a key word search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, OVID and TOXNET) in September 2016...
January 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341240/a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-paediatric-chronic-pain
#4
Camilla Wiwe Lipsker, Margareta von Heijne, Sven Bölte, Rikard K Wicksell
Psychiatric disorders are common in paediatric patients with chronic pain, but the overall prevalence of comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders is unclear. We report on a case of severe chronic pain in a child with undiagnosed comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where significant improvements in pain and function occurred following methylphenidate medication and parental behavioural training. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of behavioural assessment and screening for neurodevelopmental comorbidity may be essential in addressing complex paediatric chronic pain...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#5
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334526/airborne-particulate-matter-human-exposure-health-effects
#6
Jonathan E Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is estimated to cause millions of premature deaths annually. This work conveys known routes of exposure to PM and resultant health effects. METHODS: Review of available literature. RESULTS: Estimates for daily PM exposure are provided. Known mechanisms by which insoluble particles are transported and removed from the body are discussed. Biological effects of PM, including immune response, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity are reported...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332605/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-systematic-review-of-observational-studies-and-methodological-considerations
#7
Daniel R Morales, Jim Slattery, Stephen Evans, Xavier Kurz
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in several observational studies. We performed a systematic review of these studies to highlight the effect that important methodological limitations have on such analyses and to consider approaches to the conduct, reporting and interpretation of future studies. METHODS: A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified case-control, cohort and sibling studies assessing the risk of ASD and ADHD with antidepressant use during pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325621/genetics-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Gokul Ramaswami, Daniel H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and stereotyped behaviors. ASD has a strong and complex genetic component, with multiple familial inheritance patterns and an estimate of up to 1000 genes potentially implicated. Over the past decade, genomic technologies have enabled rapid progress in the identification of risk genes for ASD. In this chapter, we review the delineation of ASD disease genes starting from traditional genetic studies such as linkage and association, and then focusing on more recent studies utilizing genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping and exome sequencing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325223/maternal-thyroid-hormone-insufficiency-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-offspring-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
William Thompson, Ginny Russell, Genevieve Baragwanath, Justin Matthews, Bijay Vaidya, Jo Thompson-Coon
BACKGROUND: In the last two decades, several studies have examined the association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and shown conflicting results. AIM: This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for an association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. We also sought to assess whether levothyroxine treatment for maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency improves child neurodevelopment outcomes...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323426/vision-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Julie-Anne Little
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition with approximately 1-2 per cent prevalence in the population. The condition has lifelong effects for the individual and family, and early intervention and management helps maximise quality of life and outcomes. Many studies of vision in ASD have attempted to link the behavioural and sensory deficits in ASD with underlying visual processing. From this work, it is clear that individuals with ASD 'see' and process the world differently, but there remain gaps in our understanding...
January 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321841/reversed-gender-ratio-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-smith-magenis-syndrome
#11
Heidi Elisabeth Nag, Ann Nordgren, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Terje Nærland
Background: A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318938/pitt-hopkins-syndrome-a-review-of-current-literature-clinical-approach-and-23-patient-case-series
#12
Kimberly Goodspeed, Cassandra Newsom, Mary Ann Morris, Craig Powell, Patricia Evans, Sailaja Golla
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare, genetic disorder caused by a molecular variant of TCF4 which is involved in embryologic neuronal differentiation. PTHS is characterized by syndromic facies, psychomotor delay, and intellectual disability. Other associated features include early-onset myopia, seizures, constipation, and hyperventilation-apneic spells. Many also meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Here the authors present a series of 23 PTHS patients with molecularly confirmed TCF4 variants and describe 3 unique individuals...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317608/epigenetics-and-cerebral-organoids-promising-directions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sheena Louise Forsberg, Mirolyuba Ilieva, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 68 children in the US according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, and interests. Owing to disease complexity, only a limited number of treatment options are available mainly for children that alleviate but do not cure the debilitating symptoms. Studies confirm a genetic link, but environmental factors, such as medications, toxins, and maternal infection during pregnancy, as well as birth complications also play a role...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317216/multisensory-temporal-binding-window-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Han-Yu Zhou, Xin-Lu Cai, Michael Weigl, Peter Bang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and comparable in both patients with SSD (Hedges' g = 0.91, 95%CI[0.62-1.19]; Z = 6...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317182/a-collective-perspective-shared-attention-and-the-mind
#15
REVIEW
Garriy Shteynberg
I review the recent literature on shared attention, instances in which one's personal perspective is also another's. As described by Shteynberg [6••], shared attention involves the activation of a psychological perspective that is personal and plural and irreducibly collective-a perspective in which the world is experienced from 'our attention'. When shared attention is perceived, information under shared attention receives deeper cognitive processing. By updating mutual knowledge, shared attention facilitates communication and, quite possibly, the creation of shared attitudes and beliefs...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316490/local-and-long-range-circuit-elements-for-cerebellar-function
#16
REVIEW
Le Xiao, Peter Scheiffele
The view of cerebellar functions has been extended from controlling sensorimotor processes to processing 'contextual' information and generating predictions for a diverse range of behaviors. These functions rely on the computation of the local cerebellar microcircuits and long-range connectivity that relays cerebellar output to various brain areas. In this review, we discuss recent work on two of the circuit elements, which are thought to be fundamental for a wide range of non-sensorimotor behaviors: The role for cerebellar granule cells in multimodal integration in the cerebellar cortex and the long-range connectivity between the deep cerebellar nuclei and the basal ganglia...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316489/mglu5-mediated-signalling-in-developing-astrocyte-and-the-pathogenesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Petrelli, Paola Bezzi
Astrocytes, the largest glial population in human and murine brains, are crucial to the regulation of synaptic connectivity. During the first three weeks of postnatal development, immature astrocytes express mGlu5 and expands several fold while undergoing a transition towards their mature phase. Although mGlu5-mediated signalling in astrocyte functions has been extensively studied in the last decades, whether this signalling is implicated in the mechanisms governing their development, as well as the effects of dysregulated astrocytic development on neurodevelopmental disorders, are still unclear...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314180/what-s-new-in-atopic-eczema-an-analysis-of-systematic-reviews-published-in-2015-part-1-epidemiology-and-methodology
#18
REVIEW
E Davies, N K Rogers, A Lloyd-Lavery, D J C Grindlay, K S Thomas
This review forms part of a series of annual updates that summarize the evidence base for atopic eczema (AE), providing a succinct guide for clinicians and patients. It provides a summary of key findings from 15 systematic reviews that were published during 2015, and focuses on the epidemiology and methodology issues of AE. For systematic reviews on the prevention and treatment of AE, see Part 2 of this update. The worldwide prevalence of AE during childhood has been calculated to be 7.89% (95% CI 7.88-7.89), based on studies of 1 430 329 children from 102 countries...
January 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307081/immune-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-could-they-hold-promise-for-causative-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Dominika Gładysz, Amanda Krzywdzińska, Kamil K Hozyasz
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in language and communication development, social behavior, and the occurrence of stereotypic patterns of behavior and interests. Despite substantial speculation about causes of ASD, its exact etiology remains unknown. Recent studies highlight a link between immune dysfunction and behavioral traits. Various immune anomalies, including humoral and cellular immunity along with abnormalities at the molecular level, have been reported. There is evidence of altered immune function both in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#20
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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