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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145712/cartilage-microrna-dysregulation-during-the-onset-and-progression-of-mouse-osteoarthritis-is-independent-of-aggrecanolysis-and-overlaps-with-candidates-from-end-stage-human-disease
#1
Louise H W Kung, Varshini Ravi, Lynn Rowley, Constanza Angelucci, Amanda J Fosang, Katrina M Bell, Christopher B Little, John F Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate microRNAs that potentially regulate the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced in 10-12 week old male wild-type C57BL6 mice and in mice resistant to aggrecanase cleavage (Acan p.374ALGS→374NVYS) by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Osteoarthritis pathology was scored histologically. RNA from cartilage and subchondral bone were harvested in parallel by laser micro-dissection at 1 and 6 weeks post-surgery...
November 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144510/characterizing-reduced-coverage-regions-through-comparison-of-exome-and-genome-sequencing-data-across-10-centers
#2
Rashesh V Sanghvi, Christian J Buhay, Bradford C Powell, Ellen A Tsai, Michael O Dorschner, Celine S Hong, Matthew S Lebo, Ariella Sasson, David S Hanna, Sean McGee, Kevin M Bowling, Gregory M Cooper, David E Gray, Robert J Lonigro, Andrew Dunford, Christine A Brennan, Carrie Cibulskis, Kimberly Walker, Mauricio O Carneiro, Joshua Sailsbery, Lucia A Hindorff, Dan R Robinson, Avni Santani, Mahdi Sarmady, Heidi L Rehm, Leslie G Biesecker, Deborah A Nickerson, Carolyn M Hutter, Levi Garraway, Donna M Muzny, Nikhil Wagle
PurposeAs massively parallel sequencing is increasingly being used for clinical decision making, it has become critical to understand parameters that affect sequencing quality and to establish methods for measuring and reporting clinical sequencing standards. In this report, we propose a definition for reduced coverage regions and describe a set of standards for variant calling in clinical sequencing applications.MethodsTo enable sequencing centers to assess the regions of poor sequencing quality in their own data, we optimized and used a tool (ExCID) to identify reduced coverage loci within genes or regions of particular interest...
November 16, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144465/parallel-palaeogenomic-transects-reveal-complex-genetic-history-of-early-european-farmers
#3
Mark Lipson, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Swapan Mallick, Annamária Pósa, Balázs Stégmár, Victoria Keerl, Nadin Rohland, Kristin Stewardson, Matthew Ferry, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Eadaoin Harney, Susanne Nordenfelt, Bastien Llamas, Balázs Gusztáv Mende, Kitti Köhler, Krisztián Oross, Mária Bondár, Tibor Marton, Anett Osztás, János Jakucs, Tibor Paluch, Ferenc Horváth, Piroska Csengeri, Judit Koós, Katalin Sebők, Alexandra Anders, Pál Raczky, Judit Regenye, Judit P Barna, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Zoltán Toldi, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, János Dani, Erika Molnár, György Pálfi, László Márk, Béla Melegh, Zsolt Bánfai, László Domboróczki, Javier Fernández-Eraso, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Ruth Bollongino, Jörg Orschiedt, Kerstin Schierhold, Harald Meller, Alan Cooper, Joachim Burger, Eszter Bánffy, Kurt W Alt, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Wolfgang Haak, David Reich
Ancient DNA studies have established that Neolithic European populations were descended from Anatolian migrants who received a limited amount of admixture from resident hunter-gatherers. Many open questions remain, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of population interactions and admixture during the Neolithic period. Here we investigate the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe using a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with a total of 180 samples, of which 130 are newly reported here, from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods of Hungary (6000-2900 bc, n = 100), Germany (5500-3000 bc, n = 42) and Spain (5500-2200 bc, n = 38)...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144426/experimental-exploration-of-metal-cable-as-reinforcement-in-3d-printed-concrete
#4
Freek P Bos, Zeeshan Y Ahmed, Evgeniy R Jutinov, Theo A M Salet
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques...
November 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144307/reduction-of-chromium-vi-from-aqueous-solution-by-biomass-of-cladosporium-cladosporioides
#5
María Teresa Garza-González, Jonathan Eduardo Ramírez-Vázquez, María de Los Ángeles García-Hernández, María Elena Cantú-Cárdenas, Adriana Liñan-Montes, Juan Francisco Villarreal-Chiu
The capacity of Cladosporium cladosporioides biomass for removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions was evaluated. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment design was used to study the effects of pH and biomass doses. Lower pH values and larger biomass doses increased the capacity of C. cladosporioides biomass for removal of Cr(VI), reaching a reduction capacity of 492.85 mg g(-1), a significantly higher value compared to other biomass reported. Cr(VI) removal kinetic rates followed a pseudo-second order model, like other fungal biomass reported previously...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143257/environmental-characteristics-and-changes-of-sediment-pore-water-dissolved-organic-matter-in-four-chinese-lakes
#6
Khan M G Mostofa, Wen Li, Fengchang Wu, Cong-Qiang Liu, Haiqing Liao, Li Zeng, Min Xiao
Sediment pore waters were examined in four Chinese lakes (Bosten, Qinghai, Chenghai and Dianchi) to characterise the sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and their microbial changes in the sediment depth profiles. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) modelling on the sample fluorescence spectra confirmed that the pore water DOM was mostly composed of two components with a mixture of both allochthonous and autochthonous fulvic acid-like substances in three lakes, except Lake Dianchi, and protein-like components in Lake Bosten...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143250/cliques-and-cavities-in-the-human-connectome
#7
Ann E Sizemore, Chad Giusti, Ari Kahn, Jean M Vettel, Richard F Betzel, Danielle S Bassett
Encoding brain regions and their connections as a network of nodes and edges captures many of the possible paths along which information can be transmitted as humans process and perform complex behaviors. Because cognitive processes involve large, distributed networks of brain areas, principled examinations of multi-node routes within larger connection patterns can offer fundamental insights into the complexities of brain function. Here, we investigate both densely connected groups of nodes that could perform local computations as well as larger patterns of interactions that would allow for parallel processing...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143194/the-role-of-crowding-in-parallel-search-peripheral-pooling-is-not-responsible-for-logarithmic-efficiency-in-parallel-search
#8
Anna Madison, Alejandro Lleras, Simona Buetti
Recent results from our laboratory showed that, in fixed-target parallel search tasks, reaction times increase in a logarithmic fashion with set size, and the slope of this logarithmic function is modulated by lure-target similarity. These results were interpreted as being consistent with a processing architecture where early vision (stage one) processes elements in the display in exhaustive fashion with unlimited capacity and with a limitation in resolution. Here, we evaluate the contribution of crowding to our recent logarithmic search slope findings, considering the possibility that peripheral pooling of features (as observed in crowding) may be responsible for logarithmic efficiency...
November 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143137/segmental-biventricular-analysis-of-myocardial-function-using-high-temporal-and-spatial-resolution-tissue-phase-mapping
#9
Marius Menza, Daniela Föll, Jürgen Hennig, Bernd Jung
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) is an important indicator of RV diseases, e.g. RV infarction or pulmonary hypertension. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) has been widely used to determine function of the left ventricle (LV) by analyzing myocardial velocities. The analysis of RV motion is more complicated due to the different geometry and smaller wall thickness. The aim of this work was to adapt and optimize TPM to the demands of the RV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TPM measurements were acquired in 25 healthy volunteers using a velocity-encoded phase-contrast sequence and kt-accelerated parallel imaging in combination with optimized navigator strategy and blood saturation...
November 15, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142344/investigating-the-role-of-global-histogram-equalization-technique-for-99m-technetium-methylene-diphosphonate-bone-scan-image-enhancement
#10
Anil Kumar Pandey, Param Dev Sharma, Pankaj Dheer, Girish Kumar Parida, Harish Goyal, Chetan Patel, Chandrashekhar Bal, Rakesh Kumar
Purpose of the Study: (99m)Technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan images have limited number of counts per pixel, and hence, they have inferior image quality compared to X-rays. Theoretically, global histogram equalization (GHE) technique can improve the contrast of a given image though practical benefits of doing so have only limited acceptance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of GHE technique for (99m)Tc-MDP-bone scan images. Materials and Methods: A set of 89 low contrast (99m)Tc-MDP whole-body bone scan images were included in this study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141887/apoptosis-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induces-in-vivo-recipient-mediated-immunomodulation
#11
Antonio Galleu, Yanira Riffo-Vasquez, Cristina Trento, Cara Lomas, Luigi Dolcetti, Tik Shing Cheung, Malte von Bonin, Laura Barbieri, Krishma Halai, Sophie Ward, Ling Weng, Ronjon Chakraverty, Giovanna Lombardi, Fiona M Watt, Kim Orchard, David I Marks, Jane Apperley, Martin Bornhauser, Henning Walczak, Clare Bennett, Francesco Dazzi
The immunosuppressive activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is well documented. However, the therapeutic benefit is completely unpredictable, thus raising concerns about MSC efficacy. One of the affecting factors is the unresolved conundrum that, despite being immunosuppressive, MSCs are undetectable after administration. Therefore, understanding the fate of infused MSCs could help predict clinical responses. Using a murine model of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), we demonstrate that MSCs are actively induced to undergo perforin-dependent apoptosis by recipient cytotoxic cells and that this process is essential to initiate MSC-induced immunosuppression...
November 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141686/anisotropic-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-scaffolding-supports-a-multiplex-lattice-mosaic-of-photoreceptors-in-zebrafish-retina
#12
Mikiko Nagashima, Jeremy Hadidjojo, Linda K Barthel, David K Lubensky, Pamela A Raymond
BACKGROUND: The multiplex, lattice mosaic of cone photoreceptors in the adult fish retina is a compelling example of a highly ordered epithelial cell pattern, with single cell width rows and columns of cones and precisely defined neighbor relationships among different cone types. Cellular mechanisms patterning this multiplex mosaic are not understood. Physical models can provide new insights into fundamental mechanisms of biological patterning. In earlier work, we developed a mathematical model of photoreceptor cell packing in the zebrafish retina, which predicted that anisotropic mechanical tension in the retinal epithelium orients planar polarized adhesive interfaces to align the columns as cone photoreceptors are generated at the retinal margin during post-embryonic growth...
November 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138008/g-quadruplex-structure-at-intron-2-of-tfe3-and-its-role-in-xp11-2-translocation-and-splicing
#13
Shiv Prakash Verma, Parimal Das
Transcription Factor E3 (TFE3) translocation is found in a group of different type of cancers and most of the translocations are located in the 5' region of TFE3 which may be considered as Breakpoint Region (BR). In our In silico study by QGRS mapper and non BdB web servers we found a Potential G-quadruplex forming Sequence (PQS) in the intron 2 of TFE3 gene. In vitro G-quadruplex formation was shown by native PAGE in presence of Pyridostatin(PDS), which with inter molecular secondary structure caused reduced mobility to migrate slower...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137679/trial-of-acute-femoral-fracture-fixation-traffix-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#14
Xavier L Griffin, Matthew L Costa, Juul Achten, Melina Dritsaki, Janis Baird, Nicholas Parsons
BACKGROUND: Distal femoral fractures are a source of considerable morbidity and best treatment is currently uncertain. The Trial of Acute Femoral Fracture Fixation (TrAFFix) is a randomised, parallel-group feasibility study designed to inform the design of a later, definitive clinical trial comparing intramedullary nails and locking plates for the treatment of distal femoral fractures. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients aged 50 years and older with a femoral fracture within the distal two Müller squares are potentially eligible for inclusion...
November 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137261/enhanced-response-of-melanoma-cells-to-mek-inhibitors-following-unbiased-igf-1r-down-regulation
#15
Naida Suleymanova, Caitrin Crudden, Claire Worrall, Anica Dricu, Ada Girnita, Leonard Girnita
Due to its ability to compensate for signals lost following therapeutic MAPK-inhibition, insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) co-targeting is a rational approach for melanoma treatment. However IGF-1R conformational changes associated with its inhibition can preferentially activate MAPK-pathway in a kinase-independent manner, through a process known as biased signaling. We explored the impact of biased IGF-1R signaling, on response to MAPK inhibition in a panel of skin melanoma cell lines with differing MAPK and p53 mutation statuses...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137148/a-miniaturized-nickel-oxide-thermistor-via-aerosol-jet-technology
#16
Chia Wang, Guan-Yi Hong, Kuan-Ming Li, Hong-Tsu Young
In this study, a miniaturized thermistor sensor was produced using the Aerosol Jet printing process for temperature sensing applications. A nickel oxide nanoparticle ink with a large temperature coefficient of resistance was fabricated. The thermistor was printed with a circular NiO thin film in between the two parallel silver conductive tracks on a cutting tool insert. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a submillimeter scale, operates over a range of 30-250 °C sensitively (B value of ~4310 K) without hysteretic effects...
November 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136806/multivariate-analysis-of-organic-acids-in-fermented-food-from-reversed-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-data
#17
Pablo Mortera, Federico A Zuljan, Christian Magni, Santiago A Bortolato, Sergio H Alarcón
Multivariate calibration coupled to RP-HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was applied to the identification and the quantitative evaluation of the short chain organic acids (malic, oxalic, formic, lactic, acetic, citric, pyruvic, succinic, tartaric, propionic and α-cetoglutaric) in fermented food. The goal of the present study was to get the successful resolution of a system in the combined occurrence of strongly coeluting peaks, of distortions in the time sensors among chromatograms, and of the presence of unexpected compounds not included in the calibration step...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136386/anisotropic-etching-of-hexagonal-boron-nitride-and-graphene-question-of-edge-terminations
#18
Yijing Stehle, Xiahan Sang, Raymond R Unocic, Dmitry Nikolaevich Voylov, Roderick Jackson, Sergei N Smirnov, Ivan Vlassiouk
Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) has been established as the most effective way to grow large area 2D materials. Direct study of the etching process can reveal subtleties of this competing with the growth reaction and thus provide the necessary details of the overall growth mechanism. Here we investigate hydrogen induced etching of hBN and graphene and compare the results with the classical kinetic Wulff construction model. Formation of the anisotropically etched holes in the center of hBN and graphene single crystals was observed along with the changes in the crystals' circumference...
November 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135966/monocular-visual-inertial-slam-continuous-preintegration-and-reliable-initialization
#19
Yi Liu, Zhong Chen, Wenjuan Zheng, Hao Wang, Jianguo Liu
In this paper, we propose a new visual-inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm. With the tightly coupled sensor fusion of a global shutter monocular camera and a low-cost Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), this algorithm is able to achieve robust and real-time estimates of the sensor poses in unknown environment. To address the real-time visual-inertial fusion problem, we present a parallel framework with a novel IMU initialization method. Our algorithm also benefits from the novel IMU factor, the continuous preintegration method, the vision factor of directional error, the separability trick and the robust initialization criterion which can efficiently output reliable estimates in real-time on modern Central Processing Unit (CPU)...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134938/short-term-incubation-of-positive-blood-cultures-in-brain-heart-infusion-broth-accelerates-identification-of-bacteria-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#20
Ignacio Torres, Estela Gimenez, Tania Pascual, Felipe Bueno, Dixie Huntley, Mireia Martínez, David Navarro
PURPOSE: Fast identification of bacteria directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be achieved either using the MALDI Sepsityper kit (protein extraction method) or after a short-term pre-cultivation step on solid medium. We developed a new method that involves short-term enrichment of positive BCs in brain-heart infusion broth (BHI) prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. METHODOLOGY: Eighty-four BCs flagged as positive were included in this study; these were processed in parallel either directly using the MALDI Sepsityper kit or following a short-term culture either in BHI or on Columbia blood agar with 5 % sheep blood (CBA)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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