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Parallel processing

Davina Gale, Andrew R J Lawson, Karen Howarth, Mikidache Madi, Bradley Durham, Sarah Smalley, John Calaway, Shannon Blais, Greg Jones, James Clark, Peter Dimitrov, Michelle Pugh, Samuel Woodhouse, Michael Epstein, Ana Fernandez-Gonzalez, Alexandra S Whale, Jim F Huggett, Carole A Foy, Gerwyn M Jones, Hadas Raveh-Amit, Karin Schmitt, Alison Devonshire, Emma Green, Tim Forshew, Vincent Plagnol, Nitzan Rosenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Detection and monitoring of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is rapidly becoming a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in cancer patient care. A growing number of gene targets have been identified as diagnostic or actionable, requiring the development of reliable technology that provides analysis of multiple genes in parallel. We have developed the InVision™ liquid biopsy platform which utilizes enhanced TAm-Seq™ (eTAm-Seq™) technology, an amplicon-based next generation sequencing method for the identification of clinically-relevant somatic alterations at low frequency in ctDNA across a panel of 35 cancer-related genes...
2018: PloS One
Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ayesha Sohail, O A Bég, Zhiwu Li, Sebahattin Celik
The mathematics of imaging is a growing field of research and is evolving rapidly parallel to evolution in the field of imaging. Imaging, which is a sub-field of biomedical engineering, considers novel approaches to visualize biological tissues with the general goal of improving health. "Medical imaging research provides improved diagnostic tools in clinical settings and supports the development of drugs and other therapies. The data acquisition and diagnostic interpretation with minimum error are the important technical aspects of medical imaging...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Serguei V Feskov, Anatoly I Ivanov
An approach to the construction of diabatic free energy surfaces (FESs) for ultrafast electron transfer (ET) in a supramolecule with an arbitrary number of electron localization centers (redox sites) is developed, supposing that the reorganization energies for the charge transfers and shifts between all these centers are known. Dimensionality of the coordinate space required for the description of multistage ET in this supramolecular system is shown to be equal to N - 1, where N is the number of the molecular centers involved in the reaction...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jianping Cao, Xu Zhang, Yinping Zhang
Dermal exposure to indoor gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) has recently received a great deal of attention, and this has included evaluating the role of clothing in this process. Several models have been developed to assess dermal exposure to SVOCs, based on the transient mass transfer of SVOCs from air to dermal capillaries. However, these models assume either that clothing completely retards SVOC transport, or that there is an air gap of constant thickness between the clothing and the surface of the skin, leading to significant errors in the model calculations...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jinbo Huang, Xu Dong, Zhou Gong, Ling-Yun Qin, Shuai Yang, Yue-Ling Zhu, Xiang Wang, Delin Zhang, Tingting Zou, Ping Yin, Chun Tang
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), a ubiquitous RNA modification, is installed by METTL3-METTL14 complex. The structure of the heterodimeric complex between the methyltransferase domains (MTDs) of METTL3 and METTL14 has been previously determined. However, the MTDs alone possess no enzymatic activity. Here we present the solution structure for the zinc finger domain (ZFD) of METTL3, the inclusion of which fulfills the methyltransferase activity of METTL3-METTL14. We show that the ZFD specifically binds to an RNA containing 5'-GGACU-3' consensus sequence, but does not to one without...
March 14, 2018: Protein & Cell
Homa Torabizadeh, Asieh Mahmoudi
Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it using glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Bin Deng, Mats Lundqvist, Qianqian Fang, Stefan A Carp
Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (NIR-DOT) is an emerging technology that offers hemoglobin based, functional imaging tumor biomarkers for breast cancer management. The most promising clinical translation opportunities are in the differential diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions, and in early response assessment and guidance for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accurate quantification of the tissue oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration across the field of view, as well as repeatability during longitudinal imaging in the context of therapy guidance, are essential for the successful translation of NIR-DOT to clinical practice...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Shuping Yang, Xin Li, Xinfeng Liu, Xiangbin Ding, Xiangbo Xin, Congfei Jin, Sheng Zhang, Guangpeng Li, Hong Guo
MSTN -encoded myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Here, we utilized the gluteus tissues from MSTN gene editing and wild type Luxi beef cattle which are native breed of cattle in China, performed tandem mass tag (TMT) -based comparative proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses to investigate the regulatory mechanism of MSTN related to cellular metabolism and signaling pathway in muscle development. Out of 1,315 proteins, 69 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in global proteomics analysis...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hidenori Takeshima, Kanako Saitoh, Shuhei Nitta, Taichiro Shiodera, Tomoyuki Takeguchi, Shuhei Bannae, Shigehide Kuhara
PURPOSE: Dynamic MR techniques, such as cardiac cine imaging, benefit from shorter acquisition times. The goal of the present study was to develop a method that achieves short acquisition times, while maintaining a cost-effective reconstruction, for dynamic MRI. k - t sensitivity encoding (SENSE) was identified as the base method to be enhanced meeting these two requirements. METHODS: The proposed method achieves a reduction in acquisition time by estimating the spatiotemporal (x - f) sensitivity without requiring the acquisition of the alias-free signals, typical of the k - t SENSE technique...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Maelle Sevellec, Nicolas Derome, Louis Bernatchez
BACKGROUND: It is well established that symbionts have considerable impact on their host, yet the investigation of the possible role of the holobiont in the host's speciation process is still in its infancy. In this study, we compared the intestinal microbiota among five sympatric pairs of dwarf (limnetic) and normal (benthic) lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis representing a continuum in the early stage of ecological speciation. We sequenced the 16s rRNA gene V3-V4 regions of the intestinal microbiota present in a total of 108 wild sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish as well as the water bacterial community from five lakes to (i) test for differences between the whitefish intestinal microbiota and the water bacterial community and (ii) test for parallelism in the intestinal microbiota of dwarf and normal whitefish...
March 14, 2018: Microbiome
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
R W W Brouwer, M C G N van den Hout, C E M Kockx, E Brosens, B Eussen, A de Klein, F Sleutels, W F J van IJcken
Motivation: PCR-based DNA enrichment followed by massively parallel sequencing is a straightforward and cost effective method to sequence genes up to high depth. The full potential of amplicon based sequencing assays is currently not achieved as analysis methods do not take into account the source amplicons of the detected variants. Tracking the source amplicons has the potential to identify systematic biases, enhance variant calling and improve the designs of future assays. Results: We present Nimbus, a software suite for the analysis of amplicon based sequencing data...
March 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
Carl D Stevens
The sudden, dramatic collapse of the seven-year struggle in Congress to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act holds important lessons for all would-be reformers, including those advocating fundamental changes in medical education. In this Invited Commentary, the author draws parallels between reform initiatives in health policy and those in medical education, highlighting that, in both settings, stakeholders rarely support "repeal" in the absence of a superior replacement, even when they view the status quo as deeply flawed...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sanne L N Brouns, Johanna P van Geffen, Johan W M Heemskerk
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in platelet activation during hemostasis and thrombosis. Parallel-plate flow chambers and other microfluidic devices have markedly contributed to this insight. Conversely, such flow devices are now increasingly used to monitor the combined processes of platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and coagulation in human blood. Currently, by combining microspotting and multi-color fluorescence microscopy, this technology offers the capability of high-throughput measurement of platelet activation processes, even in small blood samples...
March 14, 2018: Platelets
Akiko Iizuka-Kogo
The organ of Corti, an acoustic sensory organ, is a specifically differentiated epithelium of the cochlear duct, which is a part of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Cells in the organ of Corti are generally classified into two kinds; hair cells, which transduce the mechanical stimuli of sound to the cell membrane electrical potential differences, and supporting cells. These cells emerge from homogeneous prosensory epithelium through cell fate determination and differentiation. In the organ of Corti organogenesis, cell differentiation and the rearrangement of their position proceed in parallel, resulting in a characteristic alignment of mature hair cells and supporting cells...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
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