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Limbic development

Yaling Yang, Shantanu H Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Laura A Baker
Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i...
October 21, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Marlene A Wilson, Jim R Fadel
Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
Akshay Nair, Mattia Veronese, Xiaohui Xu, Charles Curtis, Federico Turkheimer, Robert Howard, Suzanne Reeves
PURPOSE: In order to maximise the utility of [(11)C]-PBR28 for use in longitudinal studies and clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a need to develop non-invasive metrics of tracer binding that do not require arterial cannulation. Recent work has suggested that standardised uptake value (SUV)-based methods may be sensitive to changes in translocator protein (TSPO) levels associated with neurodegeneration. However, the test-retest reliability of these approaches in AD over a time period relevant for clinical trials is unknown...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Dubravka Aleksić, Milan Aksić, Nevena V Radonjić, Aleksandar Jovanović, Branka Marković, Nataša Petronijević, Vidosava Radonjić, Miloš Mališ, Branislav Filipović
BACKGROUND: Maternal deprivation (MD) in rodents is an important neurodevelopmental model for studying a variety of behavioral changes which closely resemble the symptoms of schizophrenia in humans. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To determine whether early-life stress leads to changes in the limbic system structures: the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens, 9-day-old Wistar rats were exposed to 24 hour MD. On P60 the rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared to the control group...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Patrick MacDonald Fisher, Camilla Camilla Larsen, Vincent Beliveau, Susanne Henningsson, Anja Pinborg, Klaus Kähler Holst, Peter Steen Jensen, Claus Svarer, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Vibe Gedsoe Frokjaer
Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by dramatic fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute to heightened risk is not fully understood but may involve intrinsic functional connectivity. We induced a biphasic ovarian sex-hormone fluctuation using the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin to determine, with a randomized placebo-controlled design, intervention effects on or GnRHa-provoked depressive symptoms associations with change in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in 58 healthy women for six seeds (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal raphe, median raphe and posterior cingulate cortex)...
September 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
M Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W Esser, Matthias Gamer, Christian Büchel, Andreas von Leupoldt
Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipation periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Diana Dow-Edwards, Ashley Frank, Wade, Jeremy Weedon, Sari Izenwasser
Recent research has demonstrated that the endogenous cannabinoid system is central to the brain's response to stress. As part of an ongoing collaboration, we sought to examine the effects of prenatal and early postnatal rearing and housing conditions on developing endocannabinoid systems. We compare brain cannabinoid receptors (CBR) in offspring of either prenatal vehicle intubated or non-treated dams (Experiment 1) or in rats derived from a vendor and shipped at weaning to a collaborating lab (Experiment 2)...
September 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Ping-Hong Yeh, Cheng Guan Koay, Binquan Wang, John Morissette, Elyssa Sham, Justin Senseney, David Joy, Alex Kubli, Chen-Haur Yeh, Victora Eskay, Wei Liu, Louis M French, Terrence R Oakes, Gerard Riedy, John Ollinger
The aim of this study was to apply recently developed automated fiber segmentation and quantification methods using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and DTI-based deterministic and probabilistic tractography to access local and global diffusion changes in blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bmTBI). Two hundred and two (202) male active US service members who reported persistent post-concussion symptoms for more than 6 months after injury were recruited. An additional forty (40) male military controls were included for comparison...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Yu Uneno, Akira Yokoyama, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Taro Funakoshi, Yoshinao Ozaki, Ikuo Aoyama, Kiichiro Baba, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Shuko Morita, Yukiko Mori, Masashi Kanai, Hisanori Kinoshita, Takeshi Inoue, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Riki Matsumoto, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are rare nervous system dysfunctions in cancer patients, which are primarily observed with small-cell lung cancer, gynecological cancer, and thymoma. We herein present an uncommon case of PNS in an anti-Hu antibody-positive patient with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive gastric cancer (GC), who developed limbic encephalitis and a worsening cognitive function. Trastuzumab-combined chemotherapy was initiated and appeared to be partially effective for controlling the neurological symptoms and tumor volume...
2016: Internal Medicine
Petra Heiden, Andreas Heinz, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
The incidence of pathological gambling in Parkinson's patients is significantly greater than in the general population. A correlation has been observed between dopamine agonist medication and the development of pathological gambling. However, scientists conjecture that the affected patients have underlying risk factors. Studies analysing Parkinson's patients have detected that patients who developed pathological gambling are younger, score higher on novelty-seeking tests, are more impulsive and are more likely to have a personal or family history of alcohol addiction...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michael D Grannan, Catharine A Mielnik, Sean P Moran, Robert W Gould, Jacob Ball, Zhuoyan Lu, Michael Bubser, Amy J Ramsey, Masahito Abe, Hyekyung P Cho, Kellie D Nance, Anna L Blobaum, Colleen M Niswender, P Jeffrey Conn, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Abnormalities in the signaling of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) within cortical and limbic brain regions are thought to underlie many of the complex cognitive and affective symptoms observed in individuals with schizophrenia. The M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype is a closely coupled signaling partner of the NMDAR. Accumulating evidence suggests that development of selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M1 receptor represent an important treatment strategy for the potential normalization of disruptions in NMDAR signaling in patients with schizophrenia...
October 5, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Daniel L Albaugh, Andrew Salzwedel, Nathalie Van Den Berge, Wei Gao, Garret D Stuber, Yen-Yu Ian Shih
Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons...
2016: Scientific Reports
Iman Ghodratitoostani, Yossi Zana, Alexandre C B Delbem, Siamak S Sani, Hamed Ekhtiari, Tanit G Sanchez
Subjective tinnitus is the conscious (attended) awareness perception of sound in the absence of an external source and can be classified as an auditory phantom perception. Earlier literature establishes three distinct states of conscious perception as unattended, attended, and attended awareness conscious perception. The current tinnitus development models depend on the role of external events congruently paired with the causal physical events that precipitate the phantom perception. We propose a novel Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model to indicate that the conscious (attended) awareness perception of phantom sound is essential in activating the cognitive-emotional value...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Benjamin C Nephew, Wei Huang, Guillaume L Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Jean A King
The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Dylan G Gee
Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental buffering regulates emotional behaviors and stress physiology as emotion regulation circuitry continues to mature. By contrast, disorganized or poor quality caregiving has profound and lasting consequences on the maturation of frontoamygdala circuitry essential for emotion regulation, even following termination of this early life stressor (e...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Amélie LeBoeuf, Jean-Marc Guilé, Réal Labelle, David Luck
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
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