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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042524/-autoimmune-and-epilepsy
#1
Riki Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Sakamoto, Akio Ikeda
The recent discovery of autoimmune antibodies to the neuronal cell surface membrane and extra- or intra-cellular proteins, such as NMDAR and LGI1, shed light on a proposed new etiology of epilepsy, namely, "autoimmune epilepsy". A large part of this entity most likely belongs to a forme fruste of autoimmune (limbic) encephalitis. Seizures are usually subacute in onset and refractory to antiepileptic medications. Patients occasionally manifest multiple seizure semiologies, such as autonomic or faciobrachial dystonic seizures...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036718/glutamatergic-response-to-heat-pain-stress-in-schizophrenia
#2
Joshua Chiappelli, Qiaoyun Shi, Sarah Andrea Wijtenburg, Raimi Quiton, Krista Wisner, Frank Gaston, Priyadurga Kodi, Christopher Gaudiot, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Liyi Elliot Hong
Regulation of stress response involves top-down mechanisms of the frontal-limbic glutamatergic system. As schizophrenia is associated with glutamatergic abnormalities, we hypothesized that schizophrenia patients may have abnormal glutamatergic reactivity within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a key region involved in perception of and reaction to stress. To test this, we developed a somatic stress paradigm involving pseudorandom application of safe but painfully hot stimuli to the forearm of participants while they were undergoing serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure changes in glutamate and glutamine levels in the dACC...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029449/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#3
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017915/the-neurobiology-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-theoretical-model
#4
REVIEW
Sally A Grace, Izelle Labuschagne, Ryan A Kaplan, Susan L Rossell
There has been an increase in neuroimaging research in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), yet little is known about the underlying neurobiological basis of the disorder. We aimed to provide a systematic overview of the literature on the neurobiology of BDD. Two reviewers undertook a search of three electronic research databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. The search consisted of synonyms commonly associated with BDD and methods to evaluate brain structure, function, and network organisation. Out of an initial yield of 175 articles, 19 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990866/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-emotion-processing-in-children-with-unilateral-brain-lesion-a-preliminary-study-of-limbic-system-organization
#5
Rowena Ng, Philip Lai, Timothy T Brown, Anna Järvinen, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Doris Trauner
In this study, MRI and DTI were employed to examine subcortical volume and microstructural properties (FA, MD) of the limbic network, and their relationships with affect discrimination in 13 FL (6 right FL, M = 10.17 years; 7 left FL; M = 10.09) and 13 typically-developing children (TD; M = 10.16). Subcortical volume of the amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus and FA and MD of the fornix and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) were examined. Results revealed no group differences across emotion-perception tasks or amygdalar volume...
October 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972123/a-multi-level-functional-study-of-a-snap25-at-risk-variant-for-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#6
Josselin Houenou, Jennifer Boisgontier, Annabelle Henrion, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Anne Dumaine, Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa, Claire Daban, Nora Hamdani, Marine Delavest, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Franck Schürhoff, Andrei Szöke, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Caroline Barau, Cyril Poupon, Bruno Etain, Marion Leboyer, Stéphane Jamain
The synaptosomal associated protein SNAP25 is a key player in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion and has been associated with multiple psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We recently identified a promoter variant in SNAP25, rs6039769, associated with early-onset bipolar disorder and a higher gene expression level in human prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we showed that this variant was associated both in males and females with schizophrenia in two independent cohorts...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968767/neuronal-migration-and-axonal-pathways-linked-to-human-fetal-insular-development-revealed-by-diffusion-mr-tractography
#7
Avilash Das, Emi Takahashi
The insula is a multimodal sensory integration structure that, in addition to serving as a gateway between somatosensory areas and limbic structures, plays a crucial role in autonomic nervous system function. While anatomical studies following the development of the insula have been conducted, currently, no studies have been published in human fetuses tracking the development of neuronal migration or of white matter tracts in the cortex. In this study, we aimed to follow the neuronal migration and subsequent maturation of axons in and around the insula in human fetal ages...
August 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967282/resting-state-functional-connectivity-signature-of-treatment-effects-of-rtms-in-mal-de-debarquement-syndrome
#8
Han Yuan, Guofa Shou, Diamond Urbano, Lei Ding, Yoon-Hee Cha
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in experimental protocols to treat Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS), a neurological condition that represents a maladaptive brain state resulting from entrainment to external oscillating motion. Medical treatments and biomarkers for MdDS remain limited but neuromodulation with rTMS has shown evidence for therapeutic effects. The current study took a neuroimaging approach to examine the neuromodulatory effect of rTMS on MdDS. Twenty individuals with MdDS underwent five daily treatments of rTMS over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
October 1, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963037/disruption-of-the-ascending-arousal-system-and-cortical-attention-networks-in-post-stroke-delirium-and-spatial-neglect
#9
REVIEW
Olga Boukrina, A M Barrett
Delirium is an acute attention and cognitive dysfunction, adversely affecting functional outcomes and mortality. As many as half of hospitalized right brain stroke survivors may develop delirium. Further, about 50% of right stroke patients experience spatial neglect, impairing safety and recovery. In this review we explore the brain mechanisms, which may explain the high incidence of delirium and spatial neglect after right-brain stroke. We suggest that brain networks for spatial attention and arousal, composed of ascending projections from the midbrain nuclei and integrating dorsal and ventral cortical and limbic components, may underlie impairments in delirium and spatial neglect...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961936/the-surgical-white-matter-chassis-a-practical-3-dimensional-atlas-for-planning-subcortical-surgical-trajectories
#10
Jonathan E Jennings, Amin B Kassam, Melanie B Fukui, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Srikant Chakravarthi, Nathan Kojis, Richard A Rovin
BACKGROUND: The imperative role of white matter preservation in improving surgical functional outcomes is now recognized. Understanding the fundamental white matter framework is essential for translating the anatomic and functional literature into practical strategies for surgical planning and neuronavigation. OBJECTIVE: To present a 3-dimensional (3-D) atlas of the structural and functional scaffolding of human white matter-ie, a "Surgical White Matter Chassis (SWMC)"-that can be used as an organizational tool in designing precise and individualized trajectory-based neurosurgical corridors...
August 5, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956338/the-role-of-phosphodiesterase-2-in-psychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
Chong Zhang, Lindsay M Lueptow, Han-Ting Zhang, James M O'Donnell, Ying Xu
Cyclic nucleotide PDEs are a super-family of enzymes responsible for regulating intracellular levels of the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Through their catalysis, PDEs are able to exert tight regulation over these important intracellular signaling cascades. Previously, PDEs have been implicated in learning and memory, as well as in mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. PDE2 is of special interest due to its high level of expression in the forebrain, specifically in the isocortex, entorhinal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and medial habenula...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949286/altered-intrinsic-functional-brain-architecture-in-female-patients-with-bulimia-nervosa
#12
Li Wang, Qing-Mei Kong, Ke Li, Xue-Ni Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Chao Chen, Ying Qian, Shi-Jie Feng, Ji-Tao Li, Yun'Ai Su, Christoph U Correll, Philip B Mitchell, Chao-Gan Yan, Da-Rong Zhang, Tian-Mei Si
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis. Neural systems involved in sensorimotor and visual processing, reward and impulsive control may contribute to the binge eating and purging behaviours characterizing bulimia nervosa. However, little is known about the alterations of functional organization of whole brain networks in individuals with this disorder. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to characterize functional brain networks of unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949049/intrinsic-brain-connectivity-predicts-impulse-control-disorders-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Alessandro Tessitore, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Federica di Nardo, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Mattia Siciliano, Manuela De Stefano, Antonio Russo, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi
BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders can be triggered by dopamine replacement therapies in patients with PD. Using resting-state functional MRI, we investigated the intrinsic brain network connectivity at baseline in a cohort of drug-naive PD patients who successively developed impulse control disorders over a 36-month follow-up period compared with patients who did not. METHODS: Baseline 3-Tesla MRI images of 30 drug-naive PD patients and 20 matched healthy controls were analyzed...
September 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#14
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#15
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923274/mapping-orbitofrontal-limbic-maturation-in-non-human-primates-a-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Akiko Uematsu, Junichi Hata, Yuji Komaki, Fumiko Seki, Chihoko Yamada, Norio Okahara, Yoko Kurotaki, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
Brain development involves spatiotemporally complex microstructural changes. A number of neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to the neural processes of development and aging. Thus, it is important to understanding the typical developmental patterns of various brain structures, which will help to define critical periods of vulnerability for neural maturation, as well as anatomical mechanisms of brain structure-related neuropathology. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess development of the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in a non-human primate species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)...
September 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915150/tics-and-tourette-a-clinical-pathophysiological-and-etiological-review
#17
Russell C Dale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves multiple vulnerability genes and environmental factors...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894217/the-faah-inhibitor-urb597-suppresses-hippocampal-maximal-dentate-afterdischarges-and-restores-seizure-induced-impairment-of-short-and-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#18
Roberto Colangeli, Massimo Pierucci, Arcangelo Benigno, Giuseppe Campiani, Sefania Butini, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Synthetic cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids have been shown to suppress seizures both in humans and experimental models of epilepsy. However, they generally have a detrimental effect on memory and memory-related processes. Here we compared the effect of the inhibition of the endocannabinoid (eCB) degradation versus synthetic CB agonist on limbic seizures induced by maximal dentate activation (MDA) acute kindling. Moreover, we investigated the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell reactivity and synaptic plasticity in naïve and in MDA-kindled anaesthetised rats...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893651/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-altered-midbrain-chemical-concentrations
#19
Paul M Macey, Manoj K Sarma, Janani P Prasad, Jennifer A Ogren, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, M Albert Thomas
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by altered structure and function in cortical, limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. The midbrain is relatively unexamined, but contains many integrative nuclei which mediate physiological functions that are disrupted in OSA. We therefore assessed the chemistry of the midbrain in OSA in this exploratory study. We used a recently developed accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-MRS) technique, compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (4D-EP-JRESI), to measure metabolites in the midbrain of 14 OSA (mean age±SD:54...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887225/substance-p-and-neurotensin-in-the-limbic-system-their-roles-in-reinforcement-and-memory-consolidation
#20
REVIEW
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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