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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457245/longitudinal-relationships-among-depressive-symptoms-cortisol-and-brain-atrophy-in-the-neocortex-and-the-hippocampus
#1
A Lebedeva, A Sundström, L Lindgren, A Stomby, D Aarsland, E Westman, B Winblad, T Olsson, L Nyberg
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with accelerated aging and age-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels. METHOD: Participants from the Betula prospective cohort study (mean age = 59 years, SD = 13.4 years) underwent clinical, neuropsychological and brain 3T MRI assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434570/perspectives-on-how-human-simultaneous-multi-modal-imaging-adds-directionality-to-spread-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Julia Neitzel, Rachel Nuttall, Christian Sorg
Previous animal research suggests that the spread of pathological agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD) follows the direction of signaling pathways. Specifically, tau pathology has been suggested to propagate in an infection-like mode along axons, from transentorhinal cortices to medial temporal lobe cortices and consequently to other cortical regions, while amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology seems to spread in an activity-dependent manner among and from isocortical regions into limbic and then subcortical regions. These directed connectivity-based spread models, however, have not been tested directly in AD patients due to the lack of an in vivo method to identify directed connectivity in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434542/norepinephrine-in-the-medial-pre-frontal-cortex-supports-accumbens-shell-responses-to-a-novel-palatable-food-in-food-restricted-mice-only
#3
Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429419/altered-fear-processing-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-an-fmri-study
#4
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423004/herpes-zoster-chronification-to-postherpetic-neuralgia-induces-brain-activity-and-grey-matter-volume-change
#5
Song Cao, Bangyong Qin, Yi Zhang, Jie Yuan, Bao Fu, Peng Xie, Ganjun Song, Ying Li, Tian Yu
OBJECTIVE: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422181/playing-music-improves-well-being-of-oncology-nurses
#6
Stella Ploukou, Efharis Panagopoulou
BACKGROUND: Nurses experience high levels of stress associated with the demands of their workplace. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common in this occupational group and the necessity of supportive actions is vital. This is especially true for nurses working in high intensity and demanding settings such as oncology units. AIM: This study examined the effects of a music intervention on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms of oncology nurses. METHODS: Forty-eight oncology nurses, were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 22) attending four consecutive weekly 1-h music classes or a control group with no intervention (n = 26) who maintained their usual lifestyle habits, for one month...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415604/long-term-programing-of-psychopathology-like-behaviors-in-male-rats-by-peripubertal-stress-depends-on-individual-s-glucocorticoid-responsiveness-to-stress
#7
Sophie E Walker, Carmen Sandi
Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid (GR) responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress...
February 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402375/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#8
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397534/chronic-methylphenidate-alters-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-signaling-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-a-freely-moving-rat-model-of-adhd
#9
Erin M Miller, Jorge E Quintero, Francois Pomerleau, Peter Huettl, Greg A Gerhardt, Paul E A Glaser
Glutamate dysfunction has been implicated in a number of substance of abuse studies, including cocaine and methamphetamine. Moreover, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has been discovered that when the initiation of stimulant treatment occurs during adolescence, there is an increased risk of developing a substance use disorder later in life. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) serves as a phenotype for ADHD and studies have found increased cocaine self-administration in adult SHRs when treated with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) during adolescence...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385576/aging-exacerbates-neuroinflammatory-outcomes-induced-by-acute-ozone-exposure
#10
Christina R Tyler, Shahani Noor, Tamara Young, Valeria Rivero, Bethany Sanchez, Selita Lucas, Kevin K Caldwell, Erin D Milligan, Matthew J Campen
The role of environmental stressors, particularly exposure to air pollution, in the development of neurodegenerative disease remains underappreciated. We examined the neurological effects of acute ozone (O3) exposure in aged mice, where increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability may confer vulnerability to neuroinflammatory outcomes. C57BL/6 male mice, aged 8-10 weeks or 12 - 18 months were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or 1.0 ppm O3 for 4 hours; animals received a single IP injection of sodium fluorescein (FSCN) 20 hours post-exposure...
January 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383516/glioblastoma-as-differential-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#11
Alberto Vogrig, Bastien Joubert, Francois Ducray, Laure Thomas, Cristina Izquierdo, Kévin Decaestecker, Olivier Martinaud, Emmanuel Gerardin, Sylvie Grand, Jérome Honnorat
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and radiological features that should raise suspicion for the autoimmune encephalitis (AE)-like presentation of glioblastoma. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective case series of patients referred to the French National Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Diseases for suspected AE (possible, probable or definite, using the 2016 criteria) who later received a final diagnosis of glioblastoma according to 2016 WHO criteria...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382821/dopamine-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-the-widening-gap-between-basic-and-clinical-neuroscience
#12
REVIEW
J P Kesby, D W Eyles, J J McGrath, J G Scott
The stagnation in drug development for schizophrenia highlights the need for better translation between basic and clinical research. Understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia presents substantial challenges but a key feature continues to be the involvement of subcortical dopaminergic dysfunction in those with psychotic symptoms. Our contemporary knowledge regarding dopamine dysfunction has clarified where and when dopaminergic alterations may present in schizophrenia. For example, clinical studies have shown patients with schizophrenia show increased presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum, rather than the limbic striatum as previously presumed...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358399/tau-induces-blood-vessel-abnormalities-and-angiogenesis-related-gene-expression-in-p301l-transgenic-mice-and-human-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Rachel E Bennett, Ashley B Robbins, Miwei Hu, Xinrui Cao, Rebecca A Betensky, Tim Clark, Sudeshna Das, Bradley T Hyman
Mixed pathology, with both Alzheimer's disease and vascular abnormalities, is the most common cause of clinical dementia in the elderly. While usually thought to be concurrent diseases, the fact that changes in cerebral blood flow are a prominent early and persistent alteration in Alzheimer's disease raises the possibility that vascular alterations and Alzheimer pathology are more directly linked. Here, we report that aged tau-overexpressing mice develop changes to blood vessels including abnormal, spiraling morphologies; reduced blood vessel diameters; and increased overall blood vessel density in cortex...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355816/does-status-epilepticus-modify-the-effect-of-ifenprodil-on-cortical-epileptic-afterdischarges-in-immature-rats
#14
Kenul Abbasova, Hana Kubová, Pavel Mareš
BACKGROUND: Ifenprodil as a specific antagonist of NMDA receptors containing a dominant NR2B subunit exhibits age-dependent anticonvulsant action. Possible changes of this action due to status epilepticus (SE) elicited at early stage of development were studied using cortical epileptic afterdischarges (ADs) as a model. METHODS: Lithium-pilocarpine SE was induced at postnatal day 12 and effects of ifenprodil were studied 3, 6, 9, and 13 days after SE in rat pups with implanted epidural electrodes...
August 26, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#15
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339309/late-chronotype-is-associated-with-enhanced-amygdala-reactivity-and-reduced-fronto-limbic-functional-connectivity-to-fearful-versus-happy-facial-expressions
#16
Charlotte Mary Horne, Ray Norbury
Increasing evidence suggests late chronotype individuals are at increased risk of developing depression. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that confer risk are not fully understood. Here, fifty healthy, right-handed individuals without a current or previous diagnosis of depression, family history of depression or sleep disorder underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Participants completed an implicit emotion processing task (gender discrimination) including happy and fearful facial expressions...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#17
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#18
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317669/selective-targeting-of-scn8a-prevents-seizure-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Jennifer C Wong, Christopher D Makinson, Tyra Lamar, Qi Cheng, Jeffrey C Wingard, Ernest F Terwilliger, Andrew Escayg
We previously found that genetic mutants with reduced expression or activity of Scn8a are resistant to induced seizures and that co-segregation of a mutant Scn8a allele can increase survival and seizure resistance of Scn1a mutant mice. In contrast, Scn8a expression is increased in the hippocampus following status epilepticus and amygdala kindling. These findings point to Scn8a as a promising therapeutic target for epilepsy and raise the possibility that aberrant overexpression of Scn8a in limbic structures may contribute to some epilepsies, including temporal lobe epilepsy...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304386/the-neurobiology-of-self-face-recognition-among-depressed-adolescents
#20
Karina Quevedo, Madeline Harms, Mitchell Sauder, Hannah Scott, Sumaya Mohamed, Kathleen M Thomas, Michael-Paul Schallmo, Garry Smyda
OBJECTIVE: Depression is linked to alterations in both emotion and self-processing. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess neural activation in healthy and depressed youth to a novel task that combined emotion processing with self-face recognition. METHODS: An fMRI study involving 81 adolescents (50.6% females; Mage=14.61, SD=1.65) comprised of depressed (DEP, n=43), and healthy controls (HC, n=38). Participants completed a clinical interview and self-report measures during an initial assessment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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