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Limbic development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225049/oxidative-stress-and-na-k-atpase-activity-differential-regulation-in-brainstem-and-forebrain-of-wistar-audiogenic-rats-may-lead-to-increased-seizure-susceptibility
#1
Gabriela Machado Parreira, Maria Daniela Aparecida Resende, Israel José Pereira Garcia, Daniela Bueno Sartori, Eduardo Henrique de Lima Umeoka, Lívea Dornela Godoy, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Leandro Augusto Barbosa, Hérica de Lima Santos, Cristiane Queixa Tilelli
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is a well-characterized seizure-prone, inbred rodent strain that, when acutely stimulated with high-intensity sounds, develops brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures that can evolve to limbic-like, myoclonic (forebrain) seizures when the acoustic stimuli are presented chronically (audiogenic kindling). In order to investigate possible mechanisms underlying WAR susceptibility to seizures, we evaluated Na,K-ATPase activity, Ca-ATPase activity, Mg-ATPase activity, lipid membrane composition and oxidative stress markers in whole forebrain and whole brainstem samples of naïve WAR, as compared to samples from control Wistar rats...
December 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222951/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-npas4-controls-neuronal-homeostasis-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-through-the-induction-of-homer1a
#2
Wei Shan, Taku Nagai, Motoki Tanaka, Norimichi Itoh, Yoko Furukawa-Hibi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Masahiro Sokabe, Kiyofumi Yamada
Neuronal intrinsic homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapse has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis to prevent the neuronal circuits from hyper-excitability. Recent findings suggest a role for neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), an activity-dependent neuron-specific transcription factor in epileptogenesis, however, the underlying mechanism by which Npas4 regulates epilepsy remains unclear. We herein propose that limbic seizure activity up-regulates Npas4-homer1a signaling in the hippocampus, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis in mice...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#3
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203852/the-dynamics-of-stress-a-longitudinal-mri-study-of-rat-brain-structure-and-connectome
#4
R Magalhães, D A Barrière, A Novais, F Marques, P Marques, J Cerqueira, J C Sousa, A Cachia, F Boumezbeur, M Bottlaender, T M Jay, S Mériaux, N Sousa
Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202654/sensation-and-psychiatry-linking-age-related-hearing-loss-to-late-life-depression-and-cognitive-decline
#5
Bret R Rutherford, Katharine Brewster, Justin S Golub, Ana H Kim, Steven P Roose
Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198278/brain-based-biomarkers-for-the-treatment-of-depression-evolution-of-an-idea
#6
Allison C Waters, Helen S Mayberg
An ambition of depression biomarker research is to augment psychometric and cognitive assessment of clinically relevant phenomena with neural measures. Although such applications have been slow to arrive, we observe a steady evolution of the idea and anticipate emerging technologies with some optimism. To highlight critical themes and innovations in depression biomarker research, we take as our point of reference a specific research narrative. We begin with an early model of frontal-limbic dysfunction, which represents a conceptual shift from localized pathology to understanding symptoms as an emergent property of distributed networks...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197740/gene-set-enrichment-analysis-and-expression-pattern-exploration-implicate-an-involvement-of-neurodevelopmental-processes-in-bipolar-disorder
#7
Thomas W Mühleisen, Céline S Reinbold, Andreas J Forstner, Lilia I Abramova, Martin Alda, Gulja Babadjanova, Michael Bauer, Paul Brennan, Alexander Chuchalin, Cristiana Cruceanu, Piotr M Czerski, Franziska Degenhardt, Sascha B Fischer, Janice M Fullerton, Scott D Gordon, Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Paul Grof, Joanna Hauser, Martin Hautzinger, Stefan Herms, Per Hoffmann, Jutta Kammerer-Ciernioch, Elza Khusnutdinova, Manolis Kogevinas, Valery Krasnov, André Lacour, Catherine Laprise, Markus Leber, Jolanta Lissowska, Susanne Lucae, Anna Maaser, Wolfgang Maier, Nicholas G Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Fermin Mayoral, James D McKay, Sarah E Medland, Philip B Mitchell, Susanne Moebus, Grant W Montgomery, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Lilijana Oruc, Galina Pantelejeva, Andrea Pfennig, Lejla Pojskic, Alexey Polonikov, Andreas Reif, Fabio Rivas, Guy A Rouleau, Lorena M Schenk, Peter R Schofield, Markus Schwarz, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Alexander S Tiganov, Jens Treutlein, Gustavo Turecki, Helmut Vedder, Stephanie H Witt, Thomas G Schulze, Marcella Rietschel, Markus M Nöthen, Sven Cichon
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197573/development-of-the-emotional-brain
#8
REVIEW
B J Casey, Aaron S Heller, Dylan G Gee, Alexandra O Cohen
In this article, we highlight the importance of dynamic reorganization of neural circuitry during adolescence, as it relates to the development of emotion reactivity and regulation. We offer a neurobiological account of hierarchical, circuit-based changes that coincide with emotional development during this time. Recent imaging studies suggest that the development of the emotional brain involves a cascade of changes in limbic and cognitive control circuitry. These changes are particularly pronounced during adolescence, when the demand for self regulation across a variety of emotional and social situations may be greatest...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189554/paraneoplastic-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-with-limbic-encephalitis-clinical-correlation-with-the-coexistence-of-anti-vgcc-and-anti-gabab-receptor-antibodies
#9
Jonathan J Cho, James P Wymer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and limbic encephalitis with coexistent voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibody and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor antibody. METHODS: Case study. RESULTS: A 57-year-old man presented with 6 months of weakness, unsteadiness, and vision difficulties. Examination revealed proximal weakness and diminished reflexes. Electrodiagnostic study revealed low-amplitude motor potentials and facilitation on high-frequency stimulation...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185868/three-case-studies-of-nonparaneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-nple-in-young-adult-males-onset-course-and-recovery-following-rehabilitation-services
#10
Robert Perna, Lindsey Harik, Ana Arenivas
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain caused by autoimmunity or infection. LE has been a difficult to define and diagnose disorder due to the insidious and nonspecific (e.g., irritability, low mood, short-term memory complaints) presentation of early symptoms, as well as inconsistent findings on neuroimaging, lumbar puncture serum analysis, and electroencephalogram. Seizures, memory problems, and psychiatric disturbance are among the earliest and most prominent clinical features...
November 29, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177509/repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-are-linked-to-imbalance-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-a-functional-connectivity-mri-study
#11
Angela E Abbott, Annika Linke, Aarti Nair, Afrooz Jahedi, Laura A Alba, Christopher L Keown, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
The neural underpinnings of repetitive behaviors (RBs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), ranging from cognitive to motor characteristics, remain unknown. We assessed RB symptomatology in 50 ASD and 52 typically developing (TD) children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years), examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of corticostriatal circuitry, which is important for reward-based learning and integration of emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, and considered impaired in ASDs. Connectivity analyses were performed for three functionally distinct striatal seeds (limbic, frontoparietal, motor)...
November 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171405/seizure-semiology-of-anti-lgi1-antibody-encephalitis
#12
Nicholas J Beimer, Linda M Selwa
Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-LGI1 antibody (LGI1 encephalitis) presents with a variety of features, the most prominent of which include seizures and progressive disturbance of memory and behaviour. Although varied in semiology, recognition of the pattern of seizures in LGI1 encephalitis is important, as early diagnosis and definitive treatment may prevent subsequent development of cognitive impairment. We present a patient with LGI1 encephalitis and "faciobrachial dystonic seizures-plus", which began as classic faciobrachial dystonic seizures and progressed to focal seizures with impaired awareness, dacrystic/gelastic-like outbursts, ictal speech, manual automatisms, and autonomic signs (tachycardia)...
November 24, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162178/childhood-maltreatment-moderates-the-effect-of-combat-exposure-on-cingulum-structural-integrity
#13
Layla Banihashemi, Meredith L Wallace, Lei K Sheu, Michael C Lee, Peter J Gianaros, Robert P Mackenzie, Salvatore P Insana, Anne Germain, Ryan J Herringa
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159962/expression-profile-of-n-cadherin-and-protocadherin-19-in-postnatal-mouse-limbic-structures
#14
Anne Schaarschuch, Nicole Hertel
Cadherins are a superfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that are involved in brain development and organization. Previous genetic studies revealed that mutations in protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) lead to an epilepsy syndrome with a variable degree of cognitive disability. Seizure origins are located in the frontotemporal and limbic structures. Expression studies of Pcdh19 in mouse confirmed a widespread presence during brain development while the function and the pathogenesis of Pcdh19 are still unknown in mammals...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155719/exploring-deep-space-uncovering-the-anatomy-of-periventricular-structures-to-reveal-the-lateral-ventricles-of-the-human-brain
#15
Alexandru S Colibaba, Aicee Dawn B Calma, Alexandra L Webb, Krisztina Valter
Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121642/limbic-system-damage-in-ms-mri-assessment-and-correlations-with-clinical-testing
#16
Jie Wen, Dmitriy A Yablonskiy, Amber Salter, Anne H Cross
Volume loss in some limbic region structures has been observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo evaluation of existing tissue cellular microstructure integrity has received less attention. The goal of studies reported here was to quantitatively assess loss of limbic system volumes and tissue integrity, and to evaluate associations of these measures with cognitive and physical dysfunction in MS patients. Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 80 MS patients, including 32 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 32 secondary progressive (SPMS) and 16 primary progressive (PPMS), participated in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101217/epigenetic-histone-deacetylation-inhibition-prevents-the-development-and-persistence-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Sandesh D Reddy, Bryan C Clossen, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. Currently, no drug therapy exists for curing epilepsy or disease-modification in people at risk. Despite several emerging mechanisms, there have been few studies of epigenetic signaling in epileptogenesis, the process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic because of precipitating factors. Here, we report a novel role of histone deacetylation as critical epigenetic mechanism in epileptogenesis. Experiments were conducted using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate in the hippocampus kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a classic model heavily used to approve drugs for treatment of epilepsy...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100972/neural-and-neuroendocrine-predictors-of-pharmacological-treatment-response-in-adolescents-with-depression-a-preliminary-study
#18
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Michelle Thai, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Kristina Reigstad, Kathryn R Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Typically, about 30 to 50% of adolescents with depression fail to respond to evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Efforts for identifying predictors and moderators of treatment response are needed to begin to address critical questions relevant to personalized care in adolescent depression. In this pilot study, we aim to identify biological predictors of response to antidepressant treatment...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100631/drug-cues-conditioned-reinforcement-and-drug-seeking-the-sequelae-of-a-collaborative-venture-with-athina-markou
#19
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt
Athina Markou spent a research period in my laboratory, then in the Department of Anatomy in Cambridge University, in 1991 to help us establish a cocaine-seeking procedure. Thus we embarked on developing a second-order schedule of intravenous cocaine reinforcement to investigate the neural basis of the pronounced effects of cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli on cocaine seeking. This brief review summarizes the fundamental aspects of cocaine seeking measured using this approach and the importance of the methodology in enabling us to define the neural mechanisms and circuitry underlying conditioned reinforcement and cocaine, heroin, and alcohol seeking...
September 25, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090517/increased-glia-density-in-the-caudate-nucleus-in-williams-syndrome-implications-for-frontostriatal-dysfunction-in-autism
#20
Kari L Hanson, Caroline H Lew, Branka Hrvoj-Mihic, Kimberly M Groeniger, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Katerina Semendeferi
Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-described, known genetic etiology. In contrast to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), WS has a unique phenotype characterized by global reductions in IQ and visuospatial ability, with relatively preserved language function, enhanced reactivity to social stimuli and music, and an unusual eagerness to interact socially with strangers. A duplication of the deleted region in WS has been implicated in a subset of ASD cases, defining a spectrum of genetic and behavioral variation at this locus defined by these opposite extremes in social behavior...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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