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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099137/epilepsy-associated-alterations-in-hippocampal-excitability
#1
Mojdeh Navidhamidi, Maeheh Ghasemi, Nasrin Mehranfard
The hippocampus exhibits a wide range of epilepsy-related abnormalities and is situated in the mesial temporal lobe, where limbic seizures begin. These abnormalities could affect membrane excitability and lead to overstimulation of neurons. Multiple overlapping processes refer to neural homeostatic responses develop in neurons that work together to restore neuronal firing rates to control levels. Nevertheless, homeostatic mechanisms are unable to restore normal neuronal excitability, and the epileptic hippocampus becomes hyperexcitable or hypoexcitable...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094810/aberrant-development-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-caregiver-maltreatment-of-offspring
#2
C-G Yan, M Rincón-Cortés, C Raineki, E Sarro, S Colcombe, D N Guilfoyle, Z Yang, S Gerum, B B Biswal, M P Milham, R M Sullivan, F X Castellanos
Caregiver maltreatment induces vulnerability to later-life psychopathology. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggest changes in prefrontal and limbic circuitry underlie this susceptibility. We examined this question using a rat model of maternal maltreatment and methods translated from humans, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Rat pups were reared by mothers provided with insufficient or abundant bedding for nest building from postnatal (PN) days 8 to 12 and underwent behavioral assessments of affect-related behaviors (forced swim, sucrose preference and social interaction) in adolescence (PN45) and early adulthood (PN60)...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073122/central-%C3%AE-opioidergic-system-activation-evoked-by-heavy-and-severe-intensity-cycling-exercise-in-humans-a-pilot-study-using-positron-emission-tomography-with-11c-carfentanil
#3
Mikio Hiura, Muneyuki Sakata, Kenji Ishii, Jun Toyohara, Keiichi Oda, Tadashi Nariai, Kiichi Ishiwata
The central opioid receptor system likely contributes to the mechanism underlying the changes in affect elicited by exercise. Our aim was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to test whether exercise intensity influences activation of the μ-opioid receptor system in the brain, and whether changes in opioid receptor activation correlate with exercise-induced changes in affect. 7 healthy young male subjects (23±2 years) performed 20-min constant-load cycling exercises at heavy (ExH) and severe-intensity (ExS), and PET was performed using [(11)C]carfentanil as a tracer before and after each exercise...
January 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062719/characteristics-in-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-adenylate-kinase-5-autoantibodies
#4
Le-Duy Do, Eve Chanson, Virginie Desestret, Bastien Joubert, François Ducray, Sabine Brugière, Yohann Couté, Maité Formaglio, Veronique Rogemond, Catherine Thomas-Antérion, Laura Borrega, Brice Laurens, Francois Tison, Jonathan Curot, Thomas De Brouker, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jerome Honnorat
OBJECTIVE: To report 10 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) and adenylate kinase 5 autoantibodies (AK5-Abs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 50 patients with LE with uncharacterized autoantibodies and identified a specific target using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and cell-based assay. RESULTS: AK5 (a known autoantigen of LE) was identified as the target of antibodies in the CSFs and sera of 10 patients with LE (median age 64 years; range 57-80), which was characterized by subacute anterograde amnesia without seizure and sometimes preceded by a prodromal phase of asthenia or mood disturbances...
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#5
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056817/proteomic-analyses-of-limbic-regions-in-neonatal-male-female-and-androgen-receptor-knockout-mice
#6
Anna Zettergren, Sara Karlsson, Erik Studer, Anna Sarvimäki, Petronella Kettunen, Annika Thorsell, Carina Sihlbom, Lars Westberg
BACKGROUND: It is well-established that organizational effects of sex steroids during early development are fundamental for sex-typical displays of, for example, mating and aggressive behaviors in rodents and other species. Male and female brains are known to differ with respect to neuronal morphology in particular regions of the brain, including the number and size of neurons, and the density and length of dendrites in nuclei of hypothalamus and amygdala. The aim of the present study was to use global proteomics to identify proteins differentially expressed in hypothalamus/amygdala during early development (postnatal day 8) of male, female and conditional androgen receptor knockout (AR(NesDel)) male mice, lacking androgen receptors specifically in the brain...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045980/long-term-effects-of-acute-stress-on-the-prefrontal-limbic-system-in-the-healthy-adult
#7
Yu Li, Xin Hou, Dongtao Wei, Xue Du, Qinglin Zhang, Guangyuan Liu, Jiang Qiu
Most people are exposed to at least one traumatic event during the course of their lives, but large numbers of people do not develop posttraumatic stress disorders. Although previous studies have shown that repeated and chronic stress change the brain's structure and function, few studies have focused on the long-term effects of acute stressful exposure in a nonclinical sample, especially the morphology and functional connectivity changes in brain regions implicated in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018194/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-relationships-between-depressive-symptoms-and-brain-atrophy-in-ms-patients
#8
Heiner Stuke, Katrin Hanken, Jochen Hirsch, Jan Klein, Fabian Wittig, Andreas Kastrup, Helmut Hildebrandt
Introduction: Depressive symptoms are a frequent and distressing phenomenon in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Cross-sectional research links these symptoms to reduced brain gray matter volumes in parts of the prefrontal and temporal lobe as well as subcortical structures like the hippocampus, nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus. Nevertheless, prospective relationships between regional gray matter volume and the course of depressive symptoms are poorly understood. Methods: Forty-four patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive MS participated in a prospective study with two assessments of depressive symptoms and high-resolution MRI with an inter-test-interval of 17 months...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017648/non-invasive-pet-imaging-of-brain-inflammation-at-disease-onset-predicts-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-reflects-comorbidities
#9
Daniele Bertoglio, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Eva Santermans, Halima Amhaoul, Elisabeth Jonckers, Leonie Wyffels, Annemie Van Der Linden, Niel Hens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
Brain inflammation is an important factor in the conversion of a healthy brain into an epileptic one, a phenomenon known as epileptogenesis, offering a new entry point for prognostic tools. The development of anti-epileptogenic therapies to treat before or at disease onset is hampered by our inability to predict the severity of the disease outcome. In a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy we aimed to assess whether in vivo non-invasive imaging of brain inflammation at disease onset was predictive of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency and severity of depression-like and sensorimotor-related comorbidities...
December 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002987/decision-making-under-uncertainty-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#10
Charlotte Héricé, Radwa Khalil, Marie Moftah, Thomas Boraud, Martin Guthrie, André Garenne
The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used these properties to develop and extend a connectionist model at a spiking neuron level based on a previous rate model approach. This model is demonstrated on decision-making tasks that have been studied in primates and the electrophysiology interpreted to show that the decision is made in two steps...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995059/working-memory-circuit-as-a-function-of-increasing-age-in-healthy-adolescence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#11
Julia Andre, Marco Picchioni, Ruibin Zhang, Timothea Toulopoulou
Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981194/differences-in-frontal-and-limbic-brain-activation-in-a-small-sample-of%C3%A2-monozygotic-twin-pairs-discordant-for-severe-stressful-life-events
#12
Detre A Godinez, Kateri McRae, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Harry Smolker, Marie T Banich
Monozygotic twin pairs provide a valuable opportunity to control for genetic and shared environmental influences while studying the effects of nonshared environmental influences. The question we address with this design is whether monozygotic twins selected for discordance in exposure to severe stressful life events during development (before age 18) demonstrate differences in brain activation during performance of an emotional word-face Stroop task. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain activation in eighteen young adult twins who were discordant in exposure to severe stress such that one twin had two or more severe events compared to their control co-twin who had no severe events...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955671/pro-epileptogenic-effects-of-viral-like-inflammation-in-both-mature-and-immature-brains
#13
Nina Dupuis, Andrey Mazarati, Béatrice Desnous, Vibol Chhor, Bobbi Fleiss, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Sophie Lebon, Zsolt Csaba, Pierre Gressens, Pascal Dournaud, Stéphane Auvin
BACKGROUND: Infectious encephalitides are most often associated with acute seizures during the infection period and are risk factors for the development of epilepsy at later times. Mechanisms of viral encephalitis-induced epileptogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the contribution of viral encephalitis-associated inflammation to ictogenesis and epileptogenesis using a rapid kindling protocol in rats. In addition, we examined whether minocycline can improve outcomes of viral-like brain inflammation...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943643/the-development-of-spatial-and-memory-circuits-in-the-rat
#14
REVIEW
Hui Min Tan, Thomas Joseph Wills, Francesca Cacucci
We provide a concise review of recent studies related to the development of neural circuits supporting spatial navigation and memory in the rat. We chart the relative timeline of the emergence of the four main classes of spatially tuned neurons within the hippocampus and related limbic areas: head direction cells emerge earliest (postnatal day 12, P12), before the eyes of the rats are even open, followed by place cells and boundary responsive cells; grid cells emerge last, around the age of weaning (P21). The rate of maturation is unique to each type of neuron, with the head direction and grid cells showing rapid developmental spurts, in contrast to place cells, which show a more gradual trend of maturation...
December 12, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#15
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927737/the-rock-inhibitor-fasudil-prevents-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-and-dendritic-spine-loss-in-rat-hippocampus
#16
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Cristóbal Fresno, Natalia Vilches, Gabriela Díaz-Véliz, Sergio Mora, Felipe Aguayo, Aníbal Pacheco, Nicolás Parra-Fiedler, Claudio S Parra, Paulina S Rojas, Macarena Tejos, Esteban Aliaga, Jenny L Fiedler
BACKGROUND: Dendritic arbor simplification and dendritic spine loss in the hippocampus -a limbic structure implicated in mood disorders- are assumed to contribute to symptoms of depression. These morphological changes imply changes in dendritic cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are regulators of actin dynamics through their effector Rho kinase (ROCK). We have reported that chronic stress promotes depressive-like behaviors in rats, along with dendritic spine loss in apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons; changes associated with ROCK activation...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918911/cortical-amygdala-volumetric-ratios-predict-onset-of-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#17
David Berhanu, Leah M Mattiaccio, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Frank A Middleton, Wendy R Kates
Dysfunction of cortical circuitry involving prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal lobe has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that comports a 25-fold increased risk of developing psychosis. Morphological changes in the neuroanatomy of this syndrome may represent a biological risk factor for the development of psychosis. The present study explored ratios between cortical volumes and the amygdala. We also explored relationships between these ratios and the eventual development of psychosis in youth with 22q11DS...
January 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918562/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-define-neurophysiological-subtypes-of-depression
#18
Andrew T Drysdale, Logan Grosenick, Jonathan Downar, Katharine Dunlop, Farrokh Mansouri, Yue Meng, Robert N Fetcho, Benjamin Zebley, Desmond J Oathes, Amit Etkin, Alan F Schatzberg, Keith Sudheimer, Jennifer Keller, Helen S Mayberg, Faith M Gunning, George S Alexopoulos, Michael D Fox, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Henning U Voss, B J Casey, Marc J Dubin, Conor Liston
Biomarkers have transformed modern medicine but remain largely elusive in psychiatry, partly because there is a weak correspondence between diagnostic labels and their neurobiological substrates. Like other neuropsychiatric disorders, depression is not a unitary disease, but rather a heterogeneous syndrome that encompasses varied, co-occurring symptoms and divergent responses to treatment. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large multisite sample (n = 1,188), we show here that patients with depression can be subdivided into four neurophysiological subtypes ('biotypes') defined by distinct patterns of dysfunctional connectivity in limbic and frontostriatal networks...
January 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891086/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-mechanisms-of-depression
#19
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889469/changes-in-neural-circuitry-associated-with-depression-at-pre-clinical-pre-motor-and-early-motor-phases-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Janina Borgonovo, Camilo Allende-Castro, Almudena Laliena, Néstor Guerrero, Hernán Silva, Miguel L Concha
Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed...
November 21, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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