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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432047/delayed-lgi1-seropositivity-in-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-vgkc-complex-antibody-limbic-encephalitis
#1
Michael Sweeney, Jonathan Galli, Scott McNally, Anne Tebo, Thomas Haven, Perla Thulin, Stacey L Clardy
We utilise a clinical case to highlight why exclusion of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex autoantibody testing in serological evaluation of patients may delay or miss the diagnosis. A 68-year-old man presented with increasing involuntary movements consistent with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Initial evaluation demonstrated VGKC antibody seropositivity with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) seronegativity. Aggressive immunotherapy with methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis was started early in the course of his presentation...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417344/biotherapy-in-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-cns-current-knowledge-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Nicolas Collongues, Laure Michel, Jérôme de Seze
Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Valuable results are now available in the field of autoimmunity, neuro-oncology, paraneoplastic manifestations, and neurodegenerative disorders...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406942/the-brain-anatomy-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-adults-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#3
Jean-G Gehricke, Frithjof Kruggel, Tanyaporn Thampipop, Sharina Dyan Alejo, Erik Tatos, James Fallon, L Tugan Muftuler
BACKGROUND: This is one of the first studies to examine the structural brain anatomy and connectivity associated with an ADHD diagnosis and child as well as adult ADHD symptoms in young adults. It was hypothesized that an adult ADHD diagnosis and in particular childhood symptoms, are associated with widespread changes in the brain macro- and microstructure, which can be used to develop a morphometric biomarker for ADHD. METHODS: Voxel-wise linear regression models were used to examine structural and diffusion-weighted MRI data in 72 participants (31 young adults with ADHD and 41 controls without ADHD) in relation to diagnosis and the number of self-reported child and adult symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397390/effects-of-city-living-on-the-mesolimbic-reward-system-an-fmri-study
#4
Bernd Krämer, Esther K Diekhof, Oliver Gruber
Based on higher prevalence rates of several mental disorders for city dwellers, psychosocial stress effects of urban living have been proposed as an environmental risk factor contributing to the development of mental disorders. Recently, it was shown that amygdala activation differs between city dwellers and rural residents in response to a cognitive-social stressor. Besides its influence on the amygdala, chronic stress also affects mesocorticolimbic brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress-related dysregulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system is thought to contribute to onset and manifestation of psychiatric disorders...
April 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396650/new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-with-claustrum-damage-definition-of-the-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features
#5
Stefano Meletti, Giada Giovannini, Giuseppe d'Orsi, Lisa Toran, Giulia Monti, Rahul Guha, Andreas Kiryttopoulos, Maria Grazia Pascarella, Tommaso Martino, Haris Alexopoulos, Martha Spilioti, Jana Slonkova
New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a rare but challenging condition occurring in a previously healthy patient, often with no identifiable cause. We describe the electro-clinical features and outcomes in a group of patients with NORSE who all demonstrated a typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sign characterized by bilateral lesions of the claustrum. The group includes 31 patients (12 personal and 19 previously published cases; 17 females; mean age of 25 years). Fever preceded status epilepticus (SE) in 28 patients, by a mean of 6 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394205/a-three-dimensional-computational-human-head-model-that-captures-live-human-brain-dynamics
#6
Shailesh Ganpule, Nitin P Daphalapurkar, Kaliat T Ramesh, Andrew K Knutsen, Dzung L Pham, Philip V Bayly, Jerry L Prince
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributed to abnormal stretching of axons caused by blunt head trauma or acceleration of the head. We developed an anatomically accurate, subject-specific, three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the human brain, and used it to study the dynamic deformations in the substructures of the brain when the head is subjected to rotational accelerations. The computational head models use anatomy and morphology of the white matter fibers obtained using MRI...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392082/neglect-as-a-violation-of-species-expectant-experience-neurodevelopmental-consequences
#7
REVIEW
Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan, Charles A Nelson
The human brain requires a wide variety of experiences and environmental inputs in order to develop normally. Children who are neglected by caregivers or raised in institutional environments are deprived of numerous types of species-expectant environmental experiences. In this review, we articulate a model of how the absence of cognitive stimulation and sensory, motor, linguistic, and social experiences common among children raised in deprived early environments constrains early forms of learning, producing long-term deficits in complex cognitive function and associative learning...
February 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391012/mapping-of-pain-circuitry-in-early-post-natal-development-using-manganese-enhanced-mri-in-rats
#8
M M Sperry, B M Kandel, S Wehrli, K N Bass, S R Das, P S Dhillon, J C Gee, G A Barr
Premature or ill full-term infants are subject to a number of noxious procedures as part of their necessary medical care. Although we know that human infants show neural changes in response to such procedures, we know little of the sensory or affective brain circuitry activated by pain. In rodent models, the focus has been on spinal cord and, more recently, midbrain and medulla. The present study assesses activation of brain circuits using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Uptake of manganese, a paramagnetic contrast agent that is transported across active synapses and along axons, was measured in response to a hindpaw injection of dilute formalin in 12-day-old rat pups, the age at which rats begin to show aversion learning and which is roughly the equivalent of full-term human infants...
April 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390167/brain-structure-and-verbal-function-across-adulthood-while-controlling-for-cerebrovascular-risks
#9
L Sanfratello, S L Lundy, C Qualls, J E Knoefel, J C Adair, A Caprihan, J M Stephen, C J Aine
The development and decline of brain structure and function throughout adulthood is a complex issue, with cognitive aging trajectories influenced by a host of factors including cerebrovascular risk. Neuroimaging studies of age-related cognitive decline typically reveal a linear decrease in gray matter (GM) volume/density in frontal regions across adulthood. However, white matter (WM) tracts mature later than GM, particularly in regions necessary for executive functions and memory. Therefore, it was predicted that a middle-aged group (MC: 35-45 years) would perform best on a verbal working memory task and reveal greater regional WM integrity, compared with both young (YC: 18-25 years) and elder groups (EC: 60+ years)...
April 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378986/neurophysiological-maturation-in-adolescence-vulnerability-and-counteracting-addiction-to-alcohol
#10
Roman Chwedorowicz, Henryk Skarżyński, Weronika Pucek, Tadeusz Studziński
The results of contemporary studies confirm the formation of two neural networks in the brain during the period of adolescence. The first is defined as emotional, located in the limbic system, develops earlier, quicker, and more intensively than the second one in the prefrontal cortex, called the judgement network, which fulfils the role of control and inhibition of emotional reactions. The domination of the emotional network in adolescence is manifested by hyperactivity of the limbic system, accompanied by intensified undertaking of courageous, reckless, risky, or even sometimes dangerous actions, so very characteristic in the maturation...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363946/emergence-of-new-onset-psychotic-disorder-following-recovery-from-lgi1-antibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis
#11
Thomas A Pollak, Nick Moran
Neuronal autoantibodies targeting cell surface antigens have been described in association with autoimmune encephalitides which frequently feature psychosis and other psychiatric disturbances alongside neurological signs and symptoms. Little has been written however about the long-term psychiatric status of individuals following recovery from the acute phase of autoimmune encephalitis, despite case series and anecdotal evidence suggesting this may be a cause of considerable disability. Here, we describe a man aged 58 years with no psychiatric history who developed a severe and acute psychotic disorder following resolution of a protracted course of limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 protein...
March 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357695/impaired-interoception-in-a-preclinical-model-of-functional-dyspepsia
#12
John H Winston, Jose E Aguirre, Xuan-Zheng Shi, Sushil K Sarna
INTRODUCTION: The etiologies of functional dyspepsia symptoms, including postprandial distress syndrome, remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal colon inflammation induces postprandial distress syndrome-like symptoms in adult life that associate with increased activation of vagal afferent pathways and forebrain limbic regions. RESULTS: These rats showed a significant decrease in nutrient meal consumption to satiety after an overnight fast, decrease in gastric emptying, decrease in total distance traveled, and decrease in percent distance traveled in midfield versus control rats in open field test, indicating postprandial anxiety- and depression-like behaviors...
March 29, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348954/tractography-in-the-clinics-implementing-a-pipeline-to-characterize-early-brain-development
#13
Fernando Yepes-Calderon, Yi Lao, Pierre Fillard, Marvin D Nelson, Ashok Panigrahy, Natasha Lepore
In imaging studies of neonates, particularly in the clinical setting, diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography is typically unreliable due to the use of fast acquisition protocols that yield low resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These image acquisition protocols are implemented with the aim of reducing motion artifacts that may be produced by the movement of the neonate's head during the scanning session. Furthermore, axons are not yet fully myelinated in these subjects. As a result, the water molecules' movements are not as constrained as in older brains, making it even harder to define structure using diffusion profiles...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348513/commentary-microstructure-length-and-connection-of-limbic-tracts-in-normal-human-brain-development
#14
COMMENT
Kenichi Oishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341206/alcohol-and-basal-ganglia-circuitry-animal-models
#15
REVIEW
David M Lovinger, Veronica A Alvarez
Brain circuits that include the cortex and basal ganglia make up the bulk of the forebrain, and influence behaviors related to almost all aspects of affective, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. The learning of new actions as well as association of existing action repertoires with environmental events are key functions of this circuitry. Unfortunately, the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry is also the target for all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. This makes the circuitry susceptible to the actions of chronic alcohol exposure that impairs circuit function in ways that contribute to cognitive dysfunction and drug use disorders...
March 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336571/regulation-of-alcohol-extinction-and-cue-induced-reinstatement-by-specific-projections-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-accumbens-and-basolateral-amygdala
#16
Colby R Keistler, Emma Hammarlund, Jacqueline M Barker, Colin W Bond, Ralph J DiLeone, Christopher Pittenger, Jane R Taylor
The ability to inhibit drinking is a significant challenge for recovering alcoholics, especially in the presence of alcohol-associated cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that the regulation of cue-guided alcohol seeking is mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, given the high interconnectivity between these structures, it is unclear how mPFC projections to each subcortical structure, as well as projections between BLA and NAc, mediate alcohol-seeking behaviors...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334351/effects-of-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-socio-economic-status-on-neonatal-brain-development-are-modulated-by-genetic-risk
#17
Anqi Qiu, Mojun Shen, Claudia Buss, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Martin Styner, Neerja Karnani, Christine M Heim, Kieran J O'Donnell, Joanna D Holbrook, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney
This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326027/accessible-neurobehavioral-anger-related-markers-for-vulnerability-to-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-a-population-of-male-soldiers
#18
Tamar Lin, Gadi Gilam, Gal Raz, Ayelet Or-Borichev, Yair Bar-Haim, Eyal Fruchter, Talma Hendler
Identifying vulnerable individuals prone to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is of paramount importance, especially in populations at high risk for stress exposure such as combat soldiers. While several neural and psychological risk factors are known, no post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) biomarker has yet progressed to clinical use. Here we present novel and clinically applicable anger-related neurobehavioral risk markers for military-related PTSS in a large cohort of Israeli soldiers. The psychological, electrophysiological and neural (Simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography [EEG] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) reaction to an anger-inducing film were measured prior to advanced military training and PTSS were recorded at 1-year follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#19
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263011/emergence-of-a-hierarchical-brain-during-infancy-reflected-by-stepwise-functional-connectivity
#20
Suzanne L Pendl, Andrew P Salzwedel, Barbara D Goldman, Lisa F Barrett, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Wei Gao
The hierarchical nature of the brain's functional organization has long been recognized, but when and how this architecture emerges during development remains largely unknown. Here the development of the brain's hierarchical organization was characterized using a modified stepwise functional connectivity approach based on resting-state fMRI in a fully longitudinal sample of infants (N = 28, with scans after birth, and at 1 and 2 years) and adults. Results obtained by placing seeds in early sensory cortices revealed novel hierarchical patterns of adult brain organization ultimately converging in limbic, paralimbic, basal ganglia, and frontoparietal brain regions...
March 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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