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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092496/the-effect-of-contrast-material-on-radiation-dose-at-ct-part-i-incorporation-of-contrast-material-dynamics-in-anthropomorphic-phantoms
#1
Pooyan Sahbaee, W Paul Segars, Daniele Marin, Rendon C Nelson, Ehsan Samei
Purpose To develop a method to incorporate the propagation of contrast material into computational anthropomorphic phantoms for estimation of organ dose at computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A patient-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of the human cardiovascular system was incorporated into 58 extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) patient phantoms. The PBPK model comprised compartmental models of vessels and organs unique to each XCAT model. For typical injection protocols, the dynamics of the contrast material in the body were described according to a series of patient-specific iodine mass-balance differential equations, the solutions to which provided the contrast material concentration time curves for each compartment...
January 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087383/stratified-premedication-strategy-for-the-prevention-of-contrast-media-hypersensitivity-in-high-risk-patients
#2
Suh-Young Lee, Min Suk Yang, Young-Hoon Choi, Chang Min Park, Heung-Woo Park, Sang Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang
BACKGROUND: Although the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media varies, it is well correlated with the severity of recurrent reactions; however, prophylaxis protocols are not severity-stratified. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes of tailored prophylaxis according to the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. METHODS: Our premedication protocols were stratified based on the severity of previous reactions: (1) 4 mg of chlorpheniramine for mild reactions, (2) adding 40 mg of methylprednisolone for moderate reactions, and (3) adding multiple doses of 40 mg of methylprednisolone for severe index reactions...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079827/differentiating-malignant-from-benign-gastric-mucosal-lesions-with-quantitative-analysis-in-dual-energy-spectral-computed-tomography-initial-experience
#3
Xiaoyan Meng, Cheng Ni, Yaqi Shen, Xuemei Hu, Xiao Chen, Zhen Li, Daoyu Hu
To investigate the value of quantitative analysis in dual energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) for differentiating malignant gastric mucosal lesions from benign gastric mucosal lesions (including gastric inflammation [GI] and normal gastric mucosa [NGM]). This study was approved by the ethics committee, and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 161 consecutive patients (63 with gastric cancer [GC], 48 with GI, and 50 with NGM) who underwent dual-phase contrast enhanced DESCT scans in the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) were included in this study...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072512/a-high-performance-hybrid-bismuth-carbon-nanotube-based-contrast-agent-for-x-ray-ct-imaging
#4
Mayra Hernández-Rivera, Ish Kumar, Stephen Y Cho, Benjamin Y Cheong, Merlyn X Pulikkathara, Sakineh E Moghaddam, Kenton Herbert Whitmire, Lon J Wilson
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used for a plethora of biomedical applications including their use as delivery vehi-cles for drugs, imaging agents, proteins, DNA, and other materials. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new CNT-based contrast agent (CA) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The CA is a hybrid material derived from ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes (20-80 nm long, US-tubes) and Bi(III) oxo-salicylate clusters with four Bi(III) ions per cluster (Bi4C). The element bismuth was chosen over iodine, which is the conventional element used for CT CAs in the clinic today, due to its high X-ray attenuation capability and its low toxicity, which make bismuth a more promising element for new CT CA design...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070917/dual-energy-ct-quantitative-imaging-a-comparison-study-between-twin-beam-and-dual-source-ct-scanners
#5
Isabel P Almeida, Lotte E J R Schyns, Michel C Öllers, Wouter van Elmpt, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry, Frank Verhaegen
PURPOSE: To assess image quality and to quantify the accuracy of relative electron densities (ρe ) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff ) for three dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanners: a novel single-source split-filter (i.e., twin-beam) and two dual-source scanners. METHODS: Measurements were made with a second generation dual-source scanner at 80/140Sn kVp, a third-generation twin-beam single-source scanner at 120 kVp with gold (Au) and tin (Sn) filters, and a third-generation dual-source scanner at 90/150Sn kVp...
November 19, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070843/noise-optimized-monoenergetic-post-processing-improves-visualization-of-incidental-pulmonary-embolism-in-cancer-patients-undergoing-single-pass-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#6
Jakob Weiss, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Malte Bongers, Christoph Schabel, Stefanie Mangold, Konstantin Nikolaou, Fabian Bamberg, Ahmed E Othman
PURPOSE: To evaluate noise-optimized monoenergetic postprocessing of dual-energy CT (DE-CT) on image quality in patients with incidental pulmonary embolism in single-pass portal-venous phase CT (CTpv). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 Consecutive patients with incidental pulmonary embolism in contrast-enhanced oncological follow-up DE-CTpv examination were included in this study. Images were acquired with a 3rd generation DE-CT system in DE mode (100/Sn150 kV) and activated tube current modulation 90 s after contrast agent administration...
January 9, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070657/-how-to-incorporate-dual-energy-imaging-into-a-high-volume-abdominal-imaging-practice
#7
Eric P Tamm, Ott Le, Xinming Liu, Rick R Layman, Dianna D Cody, Priya R Bhosale
Dual-energy CT imaging has many potential uses in abdominal imaging. It also has unique requirements for protocol creation depending on the dual-energy scanning technique that is being utilized. It also generates several new types of images which can increase the complexity of image creation and image interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review, for rapid switching and dual-source dual-energy platforms, methods for creating dual-energy protocols, different approaches for efficiently creating dual-energy images, and an approach to navigating and using dual-energy images at the reading station all using the example of a pancreatic multiphasic protocol...
January 9, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065379/selection-of-peripheral-intravenous-catheters-with-24-gauge-side-holes-versus-those-with-22-gauge-end-hole-for-mdct-a-prospective-randomized-study
#8
Akio Tamura, Kenichi Kato, Masayoshi Kamata, Tomohiro Suzuki, Michiko Suzuki, Manabu Nakayama, Makiko Tomabechi, Tatsuhiko Nakasato, Shigeru Ehara
PURPOSE: To compare the 24-gauge side-holes catheter and conventional 22-gauge end-hole catheter in terms of safety, injection pressure, and contrast enhancement on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). MATERIALS & METHODS: In a randomized single-center study, 180 patients were randomized to either the 24-gauge side-holes catheter or the 22-gauge end-hole catheter groups. The primary endpoint was safety during intravenous administration of contrast material for MDCT, using a non-inferiority analysis (lower limit 95% CI greater than -10% non-inferiority margin for the group difference)...
February 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060917/a-novel-mouse-segmentation-method-based-on-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-micro-ct-images
#9
Dongmei Yan, Zhihong Zhang, Qingming Luo, Xiaoquan Yang
With the development of hybrid imaging scanners, micro-CT is widely used in locating abnormalities, studying drug metabolism, and providing structural priors to aid image reconstruction in functional imaging. Due to the low contrast of soft tissues, segmentation of soft tissue organs from mouse micro-CT images is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a mouse segmentation scheme based on dynamic contrast enhanced micro-CT images. With a homemade fast scanning micro-CT scanner, dynamic contrast enhanced images were acquired before and after injection of non-ionic iodinated contrast agents (iohexol)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059514/myelography-iodinated-contrast-media-ii-conformational-versatility-of-iopamidol-in-the-solid-state
#10
Barbara Bellich, Silvia Di Fonzo, Letizia Tavagnacco, Marco Paolantoni, Claudio Masciovecchio, Federica Bertolotti, Giovanna Giannini, Rita De Zorzi, Silvano Geremia, Alessandro Maiocchi, Fulvio Uggeri, Norberto Masciocchi, Attilio Cesàro
The phenomenon of polymorphism is of great relevance in pharmaceutics, since different polymorphs have different physico-chemical properties, e.g. solubility, hence, bioavailability. Coupling diffractometric and spectroscopic experiments with thermodynamic analysis and computational work opens to a methodological approach which provides information on both structure and dynamics in the solid as well as in solution. The present work reports on the conformational changes in crystalline iopamidol, which is characterized by atropisomerism, a phenomenon that influences both the solution properties and the distinct crystal phases...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054400/nanopolymersomes-with-an-ultrahigh-iodine-content-for-high-performance-x-ray-computed-tomography-imaging-in-vivo
#11
Yan Zou, Yaohua Wei, Guanglin Wang, Fenghua Meng, Mingyuan Gao, Gert Storm, Zhiyuan Zhong
Biocompatible and biodegradable nanopolymersomes with an unprecedented iodine content, low viscosity, and iso-osmolality achieve significantly enhanced CT imaging of blood pool and the reticuloendothelial system. Moreover, in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models in mice, they show enhanced in vivo imaging when compared to iohexol, a clinically used small molecule contrast agent.
January 5, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048512/th-cd-202-04-evaluation-of-virtual-non-contrast-images-from-a-novel-split-filter-dual-energy-ct-technique
#12
J Huang, T Szczykutowicz, J Bayouth, J Miller
PURPOSE: To compare the ability of two dual-energy CT techniques, a novel split-filter single-source technique of superior temporal resolution against an established sequential-scan technique, to remove iodine contrast from images with minimal impact on CT number accuracy. METHODS: A phantom containing 8 tissue substitute materials and vials of varying iodine concentrations (1.7-20.1 mg I /mL) was imaged using a Siemens Edge CT scanner. Dual-energy virtual non-contrast (VNC) images were generated using the novel split-filter technique, in which a 120kVp spectrum is filtered by tin and gold to create high- and low-energy spectra with < 1 second temporal separation between the acquisition of low- and high-energy data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048492/th-cd-206-07-determination-of-patient-specific-myocardial-mass-at-risk-using-computed-tomography-angiography
#13
L Hubbard, B Ziemer, S Malkasian, J Lipinski, B Sadeghi, H Javan, B Dertli, E Groves, S Molloi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of a patient-specific coronary perfusion territory assignment algorithm that uses CT angiography (CTA) and a minimum-cost-path approach to assign coronary perfusion territories on a voxel-by-voxel basis for determination of myocardial mass at risk. METHODS: Intravenous (IV) contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 25 mL, 7 mL/s) was injected centrally into five swine (35-45 kg) and CTA was performed using a 320-slice CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048440/su-g-iep2-12-the-effect-of-iterative-reconstruction-and-ct-tube-voltage-on-hounsfield-unit-values-of-iodinated-contrast
#14
K Ogden, K Greene-Donnelly, D Vallabhaneni, E Scalzetti
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of changing iterative reconstruction strength and tube voltage on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of varying concentrations of Iodinated contrast medium in a phantom. METHOD: Iodinated contrast (Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare, Princeton NJ) was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 mg/mL of Iodine. The solutions were scanned in a patient equivalent water phantom on two MDCT scanners: VCT 64 slice (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) and an Aquilion One 320 slice scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin CA)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048330/th-ef-207a-04-a-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-cone-beam-ct-technique-for-evaluation-of-renal-functions
#15
Z Wang, J Shi, Y Yang
PURPOSE: To develop a simple but robust method for the early detection and evaluation of renal functions using dynamic contrast enhanced cone beam CT technique. METHODS: Experiments were performed on an integrated imaging and radiation research platform developed by our lab. Animals (n=3) were anesthetized with 20uL Ketamine/Xylazine cocktail, and then received 200uL injection of iodinated contrast agent Iopamidol via tail vein. Cone beam CT was acquired following contrast injection once per minute and up to 25 minutes...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048301/su-f-i-41-calibration-free-material-decomposition-for-dual-energy-ct
#16
W Zhao, L Xing, Q Zhang, G Xiong, J Min
PURPOSE: To eliminate tedious phantom calibration or manually region of interest (ROI) selection as required in dual-energy CT material decomposition, we establish a new projection-domain material decomposition framework with incorporation of energy spectrum. METHODS: Similar to the case of dual-energy CT, the integral of the basis material image in our model is expressed as a linear combination of basis functions, which are the polynomials of high- and low-energy raw projection data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048242/su-f-i-59-quality-assurance-phantom-for-pet-ct-alignment-and-attenuation-correction
#17
T Lin, K Hamacher
PURPOSE: This study utilizes a commercial PET/CT phantom to investigate two specific properties of a PET/CT system: the alignment accuracy of PET images with those from CT used for attenuation correction and the accuracy of this correction in PET images. METHODS: A commercial PET/CT phantom consisting of three aluminum rods, two long central cylinders containing uniform activity, and attenuating materials such as air, water, bone and iodine contrast was scanned using a standard PET/CT protocol...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048234/su-f-i-19-mri-positive-contrast-visualization-of-prostate-brachytherapy-seeds-using-an-integrated-laplacian-based-phase-processing
#18
A Soliman, R Nosrati, H Safigholi, A Owrangi, G Morton, W Song
PURPOSE: To propose a new method that provides a positive contrast visualization of the prostate brachytherapy seeds using the phase information from MR images. Additionally, the feasibility of using the processed phase information to distinguish seeds from calcifications is explored. METHODS: A gel phantom was constructed using 2% agar dissolved in 1 L of distilled water. Contrast agents were added to adjust the relaxation times. Four iodine-125 (Eckert & Ziegler SML86999) dummy seeds were placed at different orientations with respect to the main magnetic field (B0)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047752/we-de-207b-04-quantitative-contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography-based-on-photon-counting-detectors-a-feasibility-study
#19
H Ding, B Zhou, D Beidokhti, S Molloi
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of accurate quantification of iodine mass thickness in contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. METHODS: Experimental phantom studies were performed on a spectral mammography system based on Si strip photon-counting detectors. Dual-energy images were acquired using 40 kVp and a splitting energy of 34 keV with 3 mm Al pre-filtration. The initial calibration was done with glandular and adipose tissue equivalent phantoms of uniform thicknesses and iodine disk phantoms of various concentrations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047671/su-g-iep2-09-iodine-imaging-at-spectral-ct-with-a-dual-layer-detector
#20
O Ozguner, A Dhanantwari, S Halliburton, G Wen, S Utrup, D Jordan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the attenuation response of iodine and the accuracy of iodine quantification on a detector-based spectral CT scanner. METHODS: A Gammex 461A phantom was scanned using a dual-layer detector (IQon, Philips) at 120 kVp using helical acquisition with a CDTIvol of 15 mGy to approximate the hospital's clinical body protocol. No modifications to the standard protocol were necessary to enable spectral imaging. Iodine inserts at 6 concentrations (2, 5, 7...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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