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ORGAN PROTECTION

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214774/multimodality-imaging-of-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cell-migration-and-antitumor-immunity
#1
Su-Bi Ahn, Sang Bong Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sung Jin Cho, Sang Kyoon Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
Here, we sought to monitor bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) migration and antitumor effects using a multimodal reporter imaging strategy in living mice. BMDCs were transduced with retroviral vector harboring human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS, nuclear imaging reporter), firefly luc2 (optical imaging reporter), and thy1.1 (surrogate marker of NIS and luc2) genes (BMDC/NF cells). No significant differences in biological functions, including cell proliferation, antigen uptake, phenotype expression, and migration ability, were observed between BMDC and BMDC/NF cells...
February 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#2
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214364/in-situ-analysis-of-bacillus-licheniformis-biofilms-amyloid-like-polymers-and-edna-are-involved-in-the-adherence-and-aggregation-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#3
I Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, P Rouquette, D Lefebvre, E Girbal-Neuhauser, C-E Marcato-Romain
AIMS: This study attempts to determine which exopolymeric substances are involved in the adherence and aggregation of a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm. METHODS AND RESULTS: The involvement of extracellular proteins and eDNA were particularly investigated using DNase and proteinase K treatment. The permeability of the biofilms increased 5-fold after DNase I-treatment. Quantification of the matrix components showed that, whatever the enzyme tested, some eDNA and amyloid-like polymers were removed simultaneously...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214357/nesting-habits-influence-population-genetic-structure-of-a-bee-living-in-anthropogenic-disturbance
#4
J L Vickruck, M H Richards
While most organisms are negatively affected by anthropogenic disturbance, a few species thrive in landscapes altered by humans. Typically, native bees are negatively impacted by anthropogenic environmental change, including habitat alteration and climate change. Here we investigate the population structure of the eastern carpenter bee Xylocopa virginica, a generalist pollinator with a broad geographic range spanning eastern North America. Eastern carpenter bees now nest almost exclusively in human made wooden structures, linking their geographic distribution and population structure to human activities and disturbance...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214348/organo-protective-and-antioxidant-properties-of-leaf-extracts-of-syzygium-guineense-var-macrocarpum-against-ferric-nitriloacetate-induced-stress-of-wistar-rats
#5
Francine Tankeu Nzufo, Constant Anatole Pieme, Jacques Romain Njimou, Prosper Cabral Biapa Nya, Bruno Moukette Moukette, Bravi Marco, Chianese Angelo, Ngogang Jeanne Yonkeu
Background The present study focused on the antioxidant, phenolic profile and free radical scavenging-mediated protective effect of leaves extracts of Syzygium guineense var. macrocarpum against ferric nitriloacetate-induced stress in the liver, heart, kidney and brain tissues of Wistar rats homogenates. Methods Spectrophotometric standardized methods were used to determine the free radical scavenging potential, antioxidant and protective properties of plant extracts on rat homogenates. Results All the extracts showed a concentration-dependent free radical quenching potential, and the ability to protect all the tested organs by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and potentiating or restoring the activity of enzymatic and non enzymatic markers...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214329/-p-clphse-2-reduces-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-by-improving-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#6
Caroline B Quines, Pietro M Chagas, Diane Hartmann, Nélson R Carvalho, Félix A Soares, Cristina W Nogueira
It is has been demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory process are associated with progress of morbid obesity in human patients. For this reason, the searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. In this context, the organic selenium compounds have attracted much attention due to their pharmacological properties, such as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 , an organic selenium compound, in a model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration in rats...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214327/improved-exposure-estimation-in-soil-screening-and-clean-up-criteria-for-volatile-organic-chemicals
#7
George E DeVaull
Soil clean-up criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria which include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways...
February 18, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214296/abnormally-high-and-heterogeneous-bone-matrix-mineralization-after-childhood-solid-organ-transplantation-a-complex-pathology-of-low-bone-turnover-and-local-defects-in-mineralization
#8
Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Helena Valta, Renata C Pereira, Barbara M Misof, Paul Roschger, Hannu Jalanko, Kathrine Wesseling-Perry, Klaus Klaushofer, Outi Mäkitie
Chronic renal, liver and heart failure in children associates with multiple skeletal complications. Increased fracture incidence often persists after transplantation and could be related to alterations in bone material properties. In the present cohort study we evaluated bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in 23 pediatric solid organ allograft recipients with suspected osteoporosis. We measured BMDD in the entire cross-sectional area of transiliac bone biopsies obtained from kidney (n = 9), liver (n = 9) and heart (n = 5) transplant recipients (aged 7...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213971/mass-turnover-and-recovery-dynamics-of-a-diverse-australian-continental-radiation
#9
Ian G Brennan, Paul M Oliver
Trends in global and local climate history have been linked to observed macroevolutionary patterns across a variety of organisms. These climatic pressures may unilaterally or asymmetrically influence the evolutionary trajectory of clades. To test and compare signatures of changing global (Eocene-Oligocene boundary cooling) and continental (Miocene aridification) environments on a continental fauna, we investigated the macroevolutionary dynamics of one of Australia's most diverse endemic radiations, pygopodoid geckos...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213964/when-sensing-is-gambling-an-experimental-system-reveals-how-plasticity-can-generate-tunable-bet-hedging-strategies
#10
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
Genotypes can persist in unpredictable environments by 'hedging their bets' and producing diverse phenotypes. Theoretical studies have shown that the phenotypic variability needed for a bet-hedging strategy can be generated by factors either inside or outside an organism. However, sensing the environment and bet hedging are frequently treated as distinct evolutionary strategies. Furthermore, nearly all empirical studies of the molecular underpinnings of bet-hedging strategies to date have focused on internal sources of variability...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213289/quercetin-and-pioglitazone-synergistically-reverse-endothelial-dysfunction-in-isolated-aorta-from-fructose-streptozotocin-f-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#11
Thubasni Kunasegaran, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Francis I Achike, Dharmani Devi Murugan
Pioglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug with potential to cause adverse effects following prolonged use. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of combination treatment of a subliminal concentration of pioglitazone and quercetin, a potent antioxidant, on vascular reactivity of aorta isolated from fructose-streptozotocin (F-STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Relaxation to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, and contraction to phenylephrine were tested in organ bath chambers following pre-incubation with vehicle (DMSO; 0...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213031/antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-association-with-tolerance-to-heavy-metals-in-agriculture-production
#12
REVIEW
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Patrick Wall, Séamus Fanning
Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213028/influence-of-application-sequence-and-timing-of-eugenol-and-lauric-arginate-lae-on-survival-of-spoilage-organisms
#13
Yudith Manrique, Monika Gibis, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Weiss
The effectiveness of sequential applications of the antimicrobials eugenol and lauric arginate (LAE) was investigated against Staphylococcus carnosus, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli K12, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antimicrobials were applied simultaneously at half of their minimum lethal concentrations (MLC) or sequentially at t = 0 h and t = 3, 4, 6 or 8 h. Bacterial survival was determined by direct plate counts. Survivals kinetic were fitted to a growth and mortality model to obtain characteristic parameters that described time-dependent changes from growth to mortality or vice versa...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213000/obesity-is-associated-with-long-term-improved-survival-in-definitively-treated-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#14
Vincent K Lam, Søren M Bentzen, Pranshu Mohindra, Elizabeth M Nichols, Neha Bhooshan, Melissa Vyfhuis, Katherine A Scilla, Steven J Feigenberg, Martin J Edelman, Josephine L Feliciano
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) in definitively treated locally advanced NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single institution retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 291 patients who were treated for locally advanced NSCLC from 2000 to 2010. They were stratified into four BMI groups based on World Health Organization criteria: underweight (<18.5kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 to <25kg/m2), overweight (25 to <30kg/m2), and obese (≧30kg/m2)...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#15
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212817/in-vivo-toxicity-of-copper-oxide-lead-oxide-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-acting-in-different-combinations-and-its-attenuation-with-a-complex-of-innocuous-bio-protectors
#16
Ilzira A Minigalieva, Boris A Katsnelson, Vladimir G Panov, Larisa I Privalova, Anatoly N Varaksin, Vladimir B Gurvich, Marina P Sutunkova, Vladimir Ya Shur, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Irene E Valamina, Ilya V Zubarev, Oleg H Makeyev, Ekaterina Y Meshtcheryakova, Svetlana V Klinova
Stable suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles (Me-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure copper, zinc or lead under a layer of deionized water were used separately, in three binary combinations and a triple combination in two independent experiments on rats. In one of the experiments the rats were instilled with Me-NPs intratracheally (i.t.) (for performing a broncho-alveolar lavage in 24hrs to estimate the cytological and biochemical indices of the response of the lower airways), while in the other, Me-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212668/association-of-community-sanitation-usage-with-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-among-school-aged-children-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#17
William E Oswald, Aisha E P Stewart, Michael R Kramer, Tekola Endeshaw, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Tesfaye Teferi, Zerihun Tadesse, Birhan Guadie, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, Elizabeth K Callahan, Matthew C Freeman, W Dana Flanders, Thomas F Clasen, Christine L Moe
BACKGROUND: Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#18
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212458/chemical-composition-variability-of-essential-oils-of-daucus-gracilis-steinh-from-algeria
#19
Batoul Benyelles, Hocine Allali, Mohamed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Julien Paolini, Jean Costa
The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90-99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5-22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2-20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2-12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6-37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2-12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3-9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212410/a-high-throughput-genetic-screen-identifies-previously-uncharacterized-borrelia-burgdorferi-genes-important-for-resistance-against-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species
#20
Meghan E Ramsey, Jenny A Hyde, Diana N Medina-Perez, Tao Lin, Lihui Gao, Maureen E Lundt, Xin Li, Steven J Norris, Jon T Skare, Linden T Hu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. burgdorferi against ROS or RNS exposure. Here, we use transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) to conduct an unbiased search for genes involved in resistance to nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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