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amino acid metabolism

Ronggui Tang, Changfeng Ding, Fei Dang, Yibing Ma, Junsong Wang, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang
Mercury is a globally distributed toxicant to aquatic animals and mammals. However, the potential risks of environmental relevant mercury in terrestrial systems remain largely unclear. The metabolic profiles of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to soil contaminated with mercury at 0.77 ± 0.09 mg/kg for 2 weeks were investigated using a two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance-based (1 H-13 C NMR) metabolomics approach. The results revealed that traditional endpoints (e.g., mortality and weight loss) did not differ significantly after exposure...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase
The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii has evolved morphological and behavioural adaptations to lay eggs under the skin of fresh fruits. This results in severe damage to a wide range of small fruits. Drosophila suzukii females typically lay few eggs per fruit, preferring healthy fruits. Hence, larvae are exposed to a reduced amount of nitrogenous waste. Differently, the innocuous Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs on fermented fruits already infested by conspecifics, with larvae developing in a crowded environment with the accumulation of nitrogenous waste such as ammonia and urea...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ladan Dawoody Nejad, Mauro Serricchio, Jennifer Jelk, Andrew Hemphill, Peter Bütikofer
Mammalian phosphatidic acid phosphatases, also called lipins, show high amino acid sequence identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pah1p and catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol. Both the substrate and product of the reaction are key precursors for the synthesis of phospholipids and triacylglycerol (TAG). We now show that expression of the Trypanosoma brucei lipin homolog TbLpn is essential for parasite survival in culture. Inducible down-regulation of TbLpn in T. brucei procyclic forms increased cellular PA content, decreased the numbers of lipid droplets, reduced TAG steady-state levels and inhibited in vivo [3 H]TAG formation after labeling trypanosomes with [3 H]glycerol...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Jingqiang Fu, Minghui Shen, Yawei Shen, Wengang Lü, Miaoqin Huang, Xuan Luo, Jinjin Yu, Caihuan Ke, Weiwei You
Ivory shell, Babylonia areolata, is one of the commercially important mariculture species in China and South East Asia. Survival varies in the artificial hatching and larval rearing of B. areolata. Food deprivation may be involved in rearing mortality, and so, a better understanding of how larvae respond and adjust to starvation is needed. In this study, the metabolite profiles of newly hatched larvae with yolk (I), larvae with yolk exhaustion (II), larvae suffering 24 h starvation after yolk exhaustion (III), and larvae fed with exogenous nutrients after yolk exhaustion (IV) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Lisa M Petti, Sara A Marlatt, Yong Luo, Elizabeth H Scheideman, Ashish Shelar, Daniel DiMaio
C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell surface-associated, immune-regulatory G protein-coupled receptor (GCPR) with seven transmembrane helices. We previously reported the isolation and initial characterization of short artificial transmembrane protein aptamers, named "traptamers," that specifically down-regulate CCR5 expression and inhibit infection of human T cells by HIV strains that use CCR5 as a co-receptor. Here, we investigated the mechanism of traptamer-mediated CCR5 down-regulation and show that most of the traptamers (designated class 1 traptamers) form a stable complex with CCR5 and target it for lysosome-mediated degradation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fatemeh Torkashvand, Fereidoun Mahboudi, Manouchehr Vossoughi, Elnaz Fatemi, Seyed Masoud Moosavi Basri, Amir Heydari, Behrouz Vaziri
Background: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line is considered as the most common cell line in the biopharmaceutical industry because of its capability in performing efficient post-translational modifications and producing the recombinant proteins, which are similar to natural human proteins. The optimization of the upstream process via different feed strategies has a great impact on the target molecule expression and yield. Methods: To determine and understand the molecular events beneath the feed effects on the CHO cell, a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was applied...
April 21, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Paolina Crocco, Eneida Hoxha, Serena Dato, Francesco De Rango, Alberto Montesanto, Giuseppina Rose, Giuseppe Passarino
Amino acid (AA) availability is a rate-limiting factor in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism and, consequently, a risk factor for age-related decline in muscle performance. AA transporters are emerging as sensors of AA availability and activators of mTORC1 signalling, acting as transceptors. Here, we evaluated the association of 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 selected AA transporter genes with parameters of physical performance (Hand Grip, Activity of Daily Living, Walking time). By analysing a sample of 475 subjects aged 50-89 years, we found significant associations with SLC7A5 /LAT1, SLC7A8 /LAT2, SLC36A1 /PAT1, SLC38A2 /SNAT2, SLC3A2 /CD98, SLC38A7 /SNAT7 genes...
April 18, 2018: Aging
Yue-Xiao Xing, Ming-Hui Li, Liang Tao, Ling-Yu Ruan, Wei Hong, Cheng Chen, Wen-Long Zhao, Han Xu, Jian-Feng Chen, Jun-Song Wang
Hepatic carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world with a high incidence. Emodin is an anthraquinone derived from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, possessing anti-cancer activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-cancer effect of different dosages of emodin on HepG2 cells using 1H-NMR based metabolic approach complemented with qRT-PCR and flow cytometry to identify potential markers and discover the targets to explore the underlying mechanism. Emodin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells, perturb cell cycle progression, down-regulate the expression of genes and proteins related to glycolysis and trigger intracellular ROS generation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Marek Kieliszek, Stanisław Błażejak, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna M Kot
This article discusses the effect of selenium in aqueous solutions on aspects of lipid and amino acid metabolism in the cell biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeasts. The yeast biomass was obtained by using waste products (potato wastewater and glycerol). Selenium, at a dose of 20 mg/L of aqueous solution, affected the differentiation of cellular morphology. Yeast enriched with selenium was characterized by a large functional diversity in terms of protein and amino acid content...
April 19, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Maritsa Cruz-Munoz, Joseph R Petrone, Alexa R Cohn, Alam Munoz-Beristain, Nabil Killiny, Jennifer C Drew, Eric W Triplett
Liberibacter crescens is the closest cultured relative of four important uncultured crop pathogens. Candidatus L. asiaticus, L. americanus, and L. africanus are causal agents of citrus greening disease, otherwise known as huanglongling (HLB). Candidatus L. solanacearum is responsible for potato Zebra chip disease. Cultures of L. crescens grow slowly on BM-7 complex medium, while attempts to culture the Ca. Liberibacter pathogens in BM-7 have failed. Developing a defined medium for the growth of L. crescens will be useful in the study of Liberibacter metabolism and will improve the prospects for culturing the Ca ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xuehui Wang, Li Zhang, Jing Jin, Anting Xia, Chunmei Wang, Yingjun Cui, Bo Qu, Qingzhang Li, Chunyan Sheng
miRNAs play an important role in the processes of cell differentiation, biological development, and physiology. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating milk secretion and quality in dairy cows via transcriptome analyses of mammary gland tissues from dairy cows during the high-protein/high-fat, low-protein/low-fat or dry periods. To characterize the important roles of miRNAs and mRNAs in milk quality and to elucidate their regulatory networks in relation to milk secretion and quality, an integrated analysis was performed...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christine Wasinger, Alexandra Hofer, Oliver Spadiut, Martin Hohenegger
Cancer cells rewire metabolism to sustain high proliferation rates. Beside glycolysis and glutaminolysis, amino acids substitute as energy source, feed fatty acid biosynthesis and represent part of the secretome of transformed cells, including melanoma. We have therefore investigated acetate, pyruvate and the amino acid composition of the secretome of human melanoma cells representing the early slow (WM35, WM278, WM793b and VM21) and metastatic fast (A375, 518a2, 6F and WM8) growth phase in order to identify possible signalling components within these profiles...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroki Koyama, Nanami Mizusawa, Masataka Hoashi, Engkong Tan, Ko Yasumoto, Mitsuru Jimbo, Daisuke Ikeda, Takehiko Yokoyama, Shuichi Asakawa, Sanit Piyapattanakorn, Shugo Watabe
Shrimps inhabiting the coastal water can survive in a wide range of salinity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in their acclimation to different environmental salinities have remained largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus at 1.7 %, 3.4 % and 4.0 % salinities. After acclimating for 6, 12, 24 and 72 h, we determined free amino acid concentrations in their abdominal muscle, and performed RNA-seq analysis on this muscle. The concentrations of free amino acids were clearly altered depending on salinity after acclimating for 24 h...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
M Maulidiani, Ahmed Mediani, Faridah Abas, Yong Seo Park, Yang-Kyun Park, Young Mo Kim, Shela Gorinstein
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) is one of the most important fruits that has been consumed for its medicinal properties due to the presence of some active metabolites, particularly polyphenols and carotenoids. Previously described methods, including HPLC, were limited in the determination of metabolites in different persimmon varieties. The present study shows the evaluation and the differences among persimmon polar and non-polar extracts by 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) based on score values of principal component analysis (PCA) model was used to analyze the important compounds in investigated fruits...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Cynthia Fernández-Lainez, Carmen Aláez-Verson, Isabel Ibarra-González, Sergio Enríquez-Flores, Karol Carrillo-Sanchez, Leonardo Flores-Lagunes, Sara Guillén-López, Leticia Belmont-Martínez, Marcela Vela-Amieva
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in three of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) genes. Classical MSUD symptom can be observed immediately after birth and include ketoacidosis, irritability, lethargy, and coma, which can lead to death or irreversible neurodevelopmental delay in survivors. The molecular diagnosis of MSUD can be time-consuming and difficult to establish using conventional Sanger sequencing because it could be due to pathogenic variants of any of the BCKDC genes...
April 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Nadja A Henke, Julian Wichmann, Thomas Baier, Jonas Frohwitter, Kyle J Lauersen, Joe M Risse, Petra Peters-Wendisch, Olaf Kruse, Volker F Wendisch
Patchoulol is a sesquiterpene alcohol and an important natural product for the perfume industry. Corynebacterium glutamicum is the prominent host for the fermentative production of amino acids with an average annual production volume of ~6 million tons. Due to its robustness and well established large-scale fermentation, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a number of value-added compounds including terpenoids. Both C40 and C50 carotenoids, including the industrially relevant astaxanthin, and short-chain terpenes such as the sesquiterpene valencene can be produced with this organism...
April 17, 2018: Genes
Chien-Feng Li, Kun-Hung Shen, Lan-Hsiang Chien, Cheng-Hao Huang, Ting-Feng Wu, Hong-Lin He
Among various heterogeneous types of bladder tumors, urothelial carcinoma is the most prevalent lesion. Some of the urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas (UBUCs) develop local recurrence and may cause distal invasion. Galectin-1 de-regulation significantly affects cell transformation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell invasiveness. In continuation of our previous investigation on the role of galectin-1 in UBUC tumorigenesis, in this study, proteomics strategies were implemented in order to find more galectin-1-associated signaling pathways...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Digar Singh, Choong H Lee
Notwithstanding its mitosporic nature, an improbable morpho-transformation state i. e., sclerotial development (SD), is vaguely known in Aspergillus oryzae . Nevertheless an intriguing phenomenon governing mold's development and stress response, the effects of exogenous factors engendering SD, especially the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediated interactions (VMI) pervasive in microbial niches have largely remained unexplored. Herein, we examined the effects of intra-species VMI on SD in A. oryzae RIB 40, followed by comprehensive analyses of associated growth rates, pH alterations, biochemical phenotypes, and exometabolomes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yingdong Li, Hongmei Jing, Xiaomin Xia, Shunyan Cheung, Koji Suzuki, Hongbin Liu
The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales , and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia V Fedorova, Alexander L Ksenofontov, Marina V Serebryakova, Vladimir I Stadnichuk, Tatjana V Gaponova, Ludmila A Baratova, Galina F Sud'ina, Svetlana I Galkina
In patients with reperfusion after ischemia and early development of diabetes, neutrophils can attach to blood vessel walls and release their aggressive bactericide agents, which damage the vascular walls. Insulin and 17 β -estradiol (E2) relieve the vascular complications observed in metabolic disorders. In contrast, glucagon plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes. We studied the effect of hormones on neutrophil secretion during adhesion to fibronectin. Amino acid analysis revealed that proteins secreted by neutrophils are characterized by a stable amino acid profile enriched with glutamate, leucine, lysine, and arginine...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
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