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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222443/metabolic-versatility-of-small-archaea-micrarchaeota-and-parvarchaeota
#1
Lin-Xing Chen, Celia Méndez-García, Nina Dombrowski, Luis E Servín-Garcidueñas, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Bao-Zhu Fang, Zhen-Hao Luo, Sha Tan, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Esperanza Martinez-Romero, Tanja Woyke, Li-Nan Huang, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez, Manuel Ferrer, Brett J Baker, Wen-Sheng Shu
Small acidophilic archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Parvarchaeota phyla are known to physically interact with some Thermoplasmatales members in nature. However, due to a lack of cultivation and limited genomes on hand, their biodiversity, metabolisms, and physiologies remain largely unresolved. Here, we obtained 39 genomes from acid mine drainage (AMD) and hot spring environments around the world. 16S rRNA gene based analyses revealed that Parvarchaeota were only detected in AMD and hot spring habitats, while Micrarchaeota were also detected in others including soil, peat, hypersaline mat, and freshwater, suggesting a considerable higher diversity and broader than expected habitat distribution for this phylum...
December 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221569/functional-analysis-of-the-igf-system-in-milk
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Hoeflich, Zianka Meyer
The development of milk during evolution is considered a more recent step to provide the neonate with adequate amounts of energy, nutrients, and specific hormonal signals thereby, granting a fast and efficient rate of postnatal growth and development. Since the insulin- or the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems were evolved much earlier, it can be assumed that the functionality of the IGF-system has been integrated into the novel matrix milk containing casein and whey proteins from the beginnings. In fact, IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are abundantly present in milk, which is particularly true for fore-milk or colostrum and the potential effects of milk-borne IGF-compounds on the consuming organisms have in fact been addressed by several studies...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221133/endogenous-glutamine-decrease-is-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer-progression
#3
Cecilia Roux, Chiara Riganti, Sammy Ferri Borgogno, Roberta Curto, Claudia Curcio, Valeria Catanzaro, Giuseppe Digilio, Sergio Padovan, Maria Paola Puccinelli, Monica Isabello, Silvio Aime, Paola Cappello, Francesco Novelli
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is becoming the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The mortality is very high, which emphasizes the need to identify biomarkers for early detection. As glutamine metabolism alteration is a feature of PDAC, its in vivo evaluation may provide a useful tool for biomarker identification. Our aim was to identify a handy method to evaluate blood glutamine consumption in mouse models of PDAC. We quantified the in vitro glutamine uptake by Mass Spectrometry (MS) in tumor cell supernatants and showed that it was higher in PDAC compared to non-PDAC tumor and pancreatic control human cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218040/adaptation-of-lactobacillus-casei-zhang-to-gentamycin-involves-an-alkaline-shock-protein
#4
Wenyi Zhang, Huiling Guo, Chenxia Cao, Lina Li, Lai-Yu Kwok, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
Lactobacillus (L. casei) Zhang is a koumiss-originated probiotic strain, which was used as a model in a long-term antibiotics-driven evolution experiment to reveal bacterial evolutionary dynamics; and we isolated gentamycin-resistant L. casei Zhang descendents. To decipher the gentamycin resistance mechanism, here we cultivated the parental L. casei Zhang and its descendent cells in an antibiotics-containing environment to compare their global protein expression profiles using the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217499/severe-early-onset-obesity-due-to-a-novel-missense-mutation-in-exon-3-of-leptin-gene-in-an-infant-from-northwest-india
#5
Devi Dayal, Keerthivasan Seetharaman, Inusha Panigrahi, Muthuvel Balasubramaniyan, Ashish Agarwal
Monogenic obesity caused by mutations in one of the several genes involved in the control of hunger and satiety is a rare cause of early-onset obesity (EOO). The most common of the single gene alterations affect the LEP gene resulting in congenital leptin deficiency that manifests as intense hyperphagia, EOO and severe obesity associated hormonal and metabolic alterations. Only eight mutations of LEP gene associated with congenital leptin deficiency in humans have been described. In this study, we report a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 3 of the LEP gene (chr7:127894610;c...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217478/identification-of-a-gene-encoding-a-flavoprotein-involved-in-bile-acid-metabolism-by-the-human-gut-bacterium-clostridium-scindens-atcc-35704
#6
Spencer C Harris, Saravanan Devendran, João M P Alves, Sean M Mythen, Phillip B Hylemon, Jason M Ridlon
BACKGROUND: The multi-step bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating pathway by which a few species of Clostridium convert host primary bile acids to toxic secondary bile acids is of great importance to gut microbiome structure and host physiology and disease. While genes in the oxidative arm of the 7α-dehydroxylating pathway have been identified, genes in the reductive arm of the pathway are still obscure. METHODS: We identified a candidate flavoprotein-encoding gene predicted to metabolize steroids...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217180/structure-based-mimicking-of-phthalic-acid-esters-paes-and-inhibition-of-hacmsd-an-important-enzyme-of-the-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolism-pathway
#7
Neha Singh, Vikram Dalal, Pravindra Kumar
Human α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (hACMSD) is a zinc containing amidohydrolase which is a vital enzyme of the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism. It prevents the accumulation of quinolinic acid (QA) and helps in the maintenance of basal trp-niacin ratio. To assess the structure based inhibitory action of PAEs such as DMP, DEP, DBP, DIBP, DEHP and their metabolites, these were docked into the active site cavity of hACMSD. Docking results show that the binding affinities of PAEs lie in the comparable range (-4...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216634/lysine-restriction-affects-feed-intake-and-amino-acid-metabolism-via-gut-microbiome-in-piglets
#8
Jie Yin, Hui Han, Yuying Li, Zhaojin Liu, Yurong Zhao, Rejun Fang, Xingguo Huang, Jie Zheng, Wenkai Ren, Fei Wu, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Kai Wang, Liping Sun, Chunyong Li, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our previous reports suggested that dietary supplementation with lysine influenced intestinal absorption and metabolism of amino acids. In this study, we further investigated the effect of lysine restriction (30%) on feed intake and we also tested the hypothesis that gut microbiome contributed to the potential mechanism of lysine restriction-mediated feeding behavior. Here, we profiled gut microbial communities by sequencing 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes from gut samples as well as growth performance, serum hormones, and intestinal lysine transport in a piglet model...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216020/hydrolyzed-formula-with-reduced-protein-content-supports-adequate-growth-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#9
Birgit Ahrens, Christian Hellmuth, Nadja Haiden, Dirk Olbertz, Eckard Hamelmann, Milica Vusurovic, Manja Fleddermann, Robert Roehle, Anette Knoll, Berthold Koletzko, Ulrich Wahn, Kirsten Beyer
OBJECTIVE: A high protein content of non-hydrolyzed infant formula exceeding metabolic requirements can induce rapid weight gain and obesity. Hydrolyzed formula with too low protein (LP) content may result in inadequate growth. The aim of this study was to investigate non-inferiority of partial and extensively hydrolyzed formulas (pHF, eHF) with lower hydrolyzed protein content than conventionally, regularly used formulas, with or without synbiotics for normal growth of healthy term infants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215281/metabolic-effect-of-dietary-taurine-supplementation-on-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-nilotictus-evaluated-by-nmr-based-metabolomics
#10
Guiping Shen, Ying Huang, Jiyang Dong, Xuexi Wang, Kian-Kai Cheng, Jianghua Feng, Jingjing Xu, Jidan Ye
Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214486/metabolism-mediated-induction-of-zinc-tolerance-in-brassica-rapa-by-burkholderia-cepacia-cs2-1
#11
Sang-Mo Kang, Raheem Shahzad, Saqib Bilal, Abdul Latif Khan, Young-Hyun You, Won-Hee Lee, Hee-La Ryu, Ko-Eun Lee, In-Jung Lee
Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is an essential component of traditional Korean food. However, the crop is often subject to zinc (Zn+) toxicity from contaminated irrigation water, which, as a result, compromises plant growth and production, as well as the health of human consumers. The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of Zn+ by Burkholderia cepacia CS2-1 and its effect on the heavy metal tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Strain CS2-1 was identified and characterized on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213266/taxonomic-and-functional-differences-between-microbial-communities-in-qinghai-lake-and-its-input-streams
#12
Ze Ren, Fang Wang, Xiaodong Qu, James J Elser, Yang Liu, Limin Chu
Understanding microbial communities in terms of taxon and function is essential to decipher the biogeochemical cycling in aquatic ecosystems. Lakes and their input streams are highly linked. However, the differences between microbial assemblages in streams and lakes are still unclear. In this study, we conducted an intensive field sampling of microbial communities from lake water and stream biofilms in the Qinghai Lake watershed, the largest lake in China. We determined bacterial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and predicted functional profiles using PICRUSt to determine the taxonomic and functional differences between microbial communities in stream biofilms and lake water...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213256/determinism-and-contingency-shape-metabolic-complementation-in-an-endosymbiotic-consortium
#13
Miguel Ponce-de-Leon, Daniel Tamarit, Jorge Calle-Espinosa, Matteo Mori, Amparo Latorre, Francisco Montero, Juli Pereto
Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213153/reference-values-of-amino-acids-acylcarnitines-and-succinylacetone-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-use-in-newborn-screening-in-southwest-colombia
#14
Nora Céspedes, Angela Valencia, Carlos Alberto Echeverry, Maria Isabel Arce-Plata, Cristóbal Colón, Daisy E Castiñeiras, Paula Margarita Hurtado, Jose Angel Cocho, Sócrates Herrera, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera
Introduction: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent an important public health problem due to current diagnosis and treatment limitations, poor life quality of affected patients, and consequent untimely child death. In contrast to classical methods, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed simultaneous evaluation of multiple metabolites associated with IEM offering higher sensitivity, low false positive rates and high throughput. Aims: Determine concentration levels for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood of newborns from Colombia, to establish reference values for further use in diagnosis of IEM...
September 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212306/oncogene-driven-metabolic-alterations-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Hye-Young Min, Ho-Young Lee
Cancer is the leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Understanding the biology underlying the evolution of cancer is important for reducing the economic and social burden of cancer. In addition to genetic aberrations, recent studies demonstrate metabolic rewiring, such as aerobic glycolysis, glutamine dependency, accumulation of intermediates of glycolysis, and upregulation of lipid and amino acid synthesis, in several types of cancer to support their high demands on nutrients for building blocks and energy production...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212303/targeting-glutamine-metabolism-for-cancer-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Yeon-Kyung Choi, Keun-Gyu Park
Rapidly proliferating cancer cells require energy and cellular building blocks for their growth and ability to maintain redox balance. Many studies have focused on understanding how cancer cells adapt their nutrient metabolism to meet the high demand of anabolism required for proliferation and maintaining redox balance. Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in plasma, is a well-known nutrient used by cancer cells to increase proliferation as well as survival under metabolic stress conditions. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glutamine metabolism in cancer cell survival and growth and highlight the mechanisms by which glutamine metabolism affects cancer cell signaling...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212054/developmental-and-metabolic-responses-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos-and-larvae-to-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-sccps-exposure
#17
Xiaoqian Ren, Haijun Zhang, Ningbo Geng, Liguo Xing, Yu Zhao, Feidi Wang, Jiping Chen
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, but their toxicity is yet not well characterized. In this study, the developmental toxicity of SCCPs to zebrafish embryos/larvae was evaluated, and a metabolomics approach was adopted to explore the impact of SCCPs exposure on the metabolism in zebrafish embryos. Exposure to SCCPs at concentrations of 1-200μg/L did not produce an observable effect on the hatching rate and morphological deformities of zebrafish embryos/larvae. However, the survival rate of zebrafish larvae in SCCPs exposure groups decreased in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211980/when-cancer-cells-are-given-lemo-nh3-s-they-make-lemo-nh3-ade
#18
Mengrou Shan, Costas A Lyssiotis
In normal physiology, end-products of metabolism are excreted from the body. In tumors, these metabolic wastes accumulate due to deregulated metabolism and vascular insufficiency. Spinelli et al. (2017) show that breast cancer cells adapt to ammonia buildup by recycling it for amino acid synthesis, which can support cancer cell growth.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211866/association-of-urinary-citrate-with-acid-base-status-bone-resorption-and-calcium-excretion-in-older-men-and-women
#19
M Kyla Shea, Bess Dawson-Hughes
Context: Elevated urine net acid excretion (NAE), indicative of subclinical metabolic acidosis, has been associated with higher bone turnover. While NAE is the gold-standard clinical measure of acid-base status, it is impractical to measure in most clinical/research settings. Urine citrate, which is commonly measured, changes in response to acid-base status, but its association with bone turnover is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association between change in urine citrate and change in bone turnover and calcium excretion...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211698/branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-cancer
#20
Elitsa A Ananieva, Adam C Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide an update on the recent biomedical interest in oncogenic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, and discusses the advantages of using BCAAs and expression of BCAA-related enzymes in the treatment and diagnosis of cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: An accumulating body of evidence demonstrates that BCAAs are essential nutrients for cancer growth and are used by tumors in various biosynthetic pathways and as a source of energy...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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