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amino acid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035970/emerging-perspectives-on-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#1
Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipogenesis has been extensively studied in the context of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, little information exists on the role of amino acid metabolism during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we review how branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is modified during adipogenesis and, due to the limited information in the area, address questions that remain to be answered with further research. RECENT FINDINGS: BCAAs are rapidly consumed during adipocyte differentiation and are indispensable for this process...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035969/effects-of-medical-food-leucine-content-in-the-management-of-methylmalonic-and-propionic-acidemias
#2
Jennifer G Myles, Irini Manoli, Charles P Venditti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the varied effects of medical foods high in leucine (Leu) and devoid of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in the management of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia and cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, aiming to advance dietary practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Leu is a key metabolic regulator with a multitude of effects on different organ systems. Recent observational studies have demonstrated that these effects can have unintended consequences in patients with MMA as a result of liberal use of medical foods...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035319/nutritional-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034959/quantitative-proteomics-of-a-b12-dependent-alga-grown-in-coculture-with-bacteria-reveals-metabolic-tradeoffs-required-for-mutualism
#4
Katherine E Helliwell, Jagroop Pandhal, Matthew B Cooper, Joseph Longworth, Ulrich Johan Kudahl, David A Russo, Eleanor V Tomsett, Freddy Bunbury, Deborah L Salmon, Nicholas Smirnoff, Phillip C Wright, Alison G Smith
The unicellular green alga Lobomonas rostrata requires an external supply of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) for growth, which it can obtain in stable laboratory cultures from the soil bacterium Mesorhizobium loti in exchange for photosynthate. We investigated changes in protein expression in the alga that allow it to engage in this mutualism. We used quantitative isobaric tagging (iTRAQ) proteomics to determine the L. rostrata proteome grown axenically with B12 supplementation or in coculture with M. loti. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (PXD005046)...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034854/whole-genome-transcriptomics-reveals-global-effects-including-up-regulation-of-francisella-pathogenicity-island-gene-expression-during-active-stringent-response-in-the-highly-virulent-francisella-tularensis-subsp-tularensis-schu-s4
#5
Amber L Murch, Paul J Skipp, Peter L Roach, Petra C F Oyston
During conditions of nutrient limitation bacteria undergo a series of global gene expression changes to survive conditions of amino acid and fatty acid starvation. Rapid reallocation of cellular resources is brought about by gene expression changes coordinated by the signalling nucleotides' guanosine tetraphosphate or pentaphosphate, collectively termed (p)ppGpp and is known as the stringent response. The stringent response has been implicated in bacterial virulence, with elevated (p)ppGpp levels being associated with increased virulence gene expression...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034330/perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-induces-chronic-inflammation-in-rabbit-offspring-via-modulation-of-gut-bacteria-and-their-metabolites
#6
Lavanya Reddivari, D N Rao Veeramachaneni, William A Walters, Catherine Lozupone, Jennifer Palmer, M K Kurundu Hewage, Rohil Bhatnagar, Amnon Amir, Mary J Kennett, Rob Knight, Jairam K P Vanamala
Bisphenol A (BPA) accumulates in the maturing gut and liver in utero and is known to alter gut bacterial profiles in offspring. Gut bacterial dysbiosis may contribute to chronic colonic and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that perinatal BPA exposure-induced intestinal (and liver) inflammation in offspring is due to alterations in the microbiome and colonic metabolome. The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis revealed differences in beta diversity with a significant reduction in the relative abundances of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers such as Oscillospira and Ruminococcaceae due to BPA exposure...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032469/itraq-based-proteomic-profiling-of-a-microbacterium-sp-strain-during-benzo-a-pyrene-removal-under-anaerobic-conditions
#7
Junfeng Dou, Wei Qin, Aizhong Ding, Xiang Liu, Yi Zhu
This study focused on the protein expression of a Microbacterium sp. strain that utilized various concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole source of carbon and energy under anaerobic conditions. A total of 1539 protein species were quantified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS. GO, COG, and pathway enrichment analysis showed that most proteins demonstrated catalytic and binding functions and were mainly involved in metabolic processes, cellular processes, and single-organism processes...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031770/effects-of-three-major-amino-acids-found-in-japanese-broth-on-glucose-metabolism-and-gastric-emptying
#8
Fumika Mano, Kaori Ikeda, Erina Joo, Shunsuke Yamane, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki
OBJECTIVES: To our knowledge, the effect of the broth of dried kelp and dried bonito, dashi, on glucose metabolism and digestion has rarely been studied. Based on the component analysis of three actual broths served in traditional restaurants, a chemically synthesized broth with three free amino acids (histidine, glutamate, aspartate) and salt was prepared to investigate their effect on glucose metabolism, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, and digestion...
August 10, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030727/-parenteral-nutrition-in-premature-babies-with-a-birth-weight-1500g-a%C3%A2-systematic-single-center-analysis-and-comparison-with-current-guidelines
#9
Melanie Sirch, Martin Poryo, Mona Butte, Ulrike Lindner, Ludwig Gortner, Michael Zemlin, Holger Nunold, Sascha Meyer
BACKGROUND: Parenteral and enteral nutrition are essential for both growth and development of preterm infants. Based on the results of many studies, the rate of nutritional growth and the amount of substrate delivered parenterally are under debate. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess parenteral nutrition in very and extremely immature preterm infants, i.e. very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight <1000g) neonates, and to compare the amount of parenterally delivered substrate in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to current German guidelines...
October 13, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030620/transcriptomic-profiles-of-clostridium-ljungdahlii-during-lithotrophic-growth-with-syngas-or-h2-and-co2-compared-to-organotrophic-growth-with-fructose
#10
Muktak Aklujkar, Ching Leang, Pravin M Shrestha, Minita Shrestha, Derek R Lovley
Clostridium ljungdahlii derives energy by lithotrophic and organotrophic acetogenesis. C. ljungdahlii was grown organotrophically with fructose and also lithotrophically, either with syngas - a gas mixture containing hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), or with H2 and CO2. Gene expression was compared quantitatively by microarrays using RNA extracted from all three conditions. Gene expression with fructose and with H2/CO2 was compared by RNA-Seq. Upregulated genes with both syngas and H2/CO2 (compared to fructose) point to the urea cycle, uptake and degradation of peptides and amino acids, response to sulfur starvation, potentially NADPH-producing pathways involving (S)-malate and ornithine, quorum sensing, sporulation, and cell wall remodeling, suggesting a global and multicellular response to lithotrophic conditions...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030588/impaired-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-may-underlie-the-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-like-pathology-of-neonatal-testosterone-treated-female-rats
#11
Álvaro Anzai, Rodrigo R Marcondes, Thiago H Gonçalves, Kátia C Carvalho, Manuel J Simões, Natália Garcia, José M Soares, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Edmund C Baracat, Ismael D C G da Silva, Gustavo A R Maciel
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms involved in the development of NAFLD in PCOS are not well known. We investigated histological changes and metabolomic profile in the liver of rat models of PCOS phenotype induced by testosterone or estradiol. Two-day old female rats received sc injections of 1.25 mg testosterone propionate (Testos; n = 10), 0.5 mg estradiol benzoate (E2; n = 10), or vehicle (control group, CNT; n = 10)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029389/a-ketogenic-diet-supplemented-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-enhances-the-anti-tumor-and-anti-angiogenic-efficacy-of-chemotherapy-on-neuroblastoma-xenografts-in-a-cd1-nu-mouse-model
#12
Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Silvia Vidali, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnel, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Johannes Adalbert Mayr, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignancy characterized by a marked reduction in aerobic energy metabolism. Recent preclinical data indicate that targeting this metabolic phenotype by a ketogenic diet (KD), especially in combination with calorie restriction, slows tumor growth and enhances metronomic cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy of NB xenografts. Because calorie restriction would be contraindicated in most cancer patients, the aim of the present study was to optimize the KD such that the tumors are sensitized to CP without the need of calorie restriction...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#13
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028873/mirna-in-tumour-metabolism-and-why-could-it-be-the-preferred-pathway-for-energy-reprograming
#14
Aliaa A Alamoudi, Amina Alnoury, Hoda Gad
The current literature on the role of microRNA (miRNA) in tumour metabolism is growing, and a number of studies regularly confirm the impact miRNA can have in energy reprograming in tumours. However, there remains to be a lack of understanding of the larger perspective of the role of miRNA in the metabolism story. In the first part of this review, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the extensive role of miRNAs in tumour metabolism including glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. However, in the second part, we aim to provide a description of the multidimensional role miRNA can be playing in tumour metabolism...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#15
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028412/the-bacteroid-periplasm-in-soybean-nodules-is-an-interkingdom-symbiotic-space
#16
Kent N Strodtman, Severin E Stevenson, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney, Jay J Thelen, Joseph C Polacco, David W Emerich
The functional role of the periplasm of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids has not been determined. Proteins were isolated from the periplasm and cytoplasm of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens bacteroids and were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics. Identification of bacteroid periplasmic proteins was aided by periplasm prediction programs. Approximately 40% of all the proteins identified as periplasmic in the B. diazoefficiens genome were found expressed in the bacteroid form of the bacteria, indicating the periplasm is a metabolically active symbiotic space...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027997/microdiversification-in-genome-streamlined-ubiquitous-freshwater-actinobacteria
#17
Stefan M Neuenschwander, Rohit Ghai, Jakob Pernthaler, Michaela M Salcher
Actinobacteria of the acI lineage are the most abundant microbes in freshwater systems, but there are so far no pure living cultures of these organisms, possibly because of metabolic dependencies on other microbes. This, in turn, has hampered an in-depth assessment of the genomic basis for their success in the environment. Here we present genomes from 16 axenic cultures of acI Actinobacteria. The isolates were not only of minute cell size, but also among the most streamlined free-living microbes, with extremely small genome sizes (1...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026150/essential-role-of-the-na-ca2-exchanger-ncx-in-glutamate-enhanced-cell-survival-in-cardiac-cells-exposed-to-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#18
Marta Maiolino, Pasqualina Castaldo, Vincenzo Lariccia, Silvia Piccirillo, Salvatore Amoroso, Simona Magi
Myocardial ischemia culminates in ATP production impairment, ionic derangement and cell death. The provision of metabolic substrates during reperfusion significantly increases heart tolerance to ischemia by improving mitochondrial performance. Under normoxia, glutamate contributes to myocardial energy balance as substrate for anaplerotic reactions, and we demonstrated that the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger1 (NCX1) provides functional support for both glutamate uptake and use for ATP synthesis. Here we investigated the role of NCX1 in the potential of glutamate to improve energy metabolism and survival of cardiac cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025995/metabolic-recycling-of-ammonia-via-glutamate-dehydrogenase-supports-breast-cancer-biomass
#19
Jessica B Spinelli, Haejin Yoon, Alison E Ringel, Sarah Jeanfavre, Clary B Clish, Marcia C Haigis
Ammonia is a ubiquitous by-product of cellular metabolism, however the biological consequences of ammonia production are not fully understood, especially in cancer. We find that ammonia is not merely a toxic waste product, but is recycled into central amino acid metabolism to maximize nitrogen utilization. Cancer cells primarily assimilated ammonia through reductive amination catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and secondary reactions enabled other amino acids, such as proline and aspartate, to directly acquire this nitrogen...
October 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025929/whole-genome-sequence-of-bifidobacterium-longum-strain-indica-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-healthy-indian-adult
#20
Satyabrata Bag, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Bhabatosh Das
Bifidobacterium longum, a Gram-positive rod-shaped anaerobic bacterium, inhabits the human gastrointestinal tract and contributes significantly to oligosaccharide production, amino acid metabolism, and protection against intestinal inflammation. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of B. longum, which was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy Indian adult.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
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