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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535548/is-traumatic-and-non-traumatic-neck-pain-associated-with-brain-alterations-a-systematic-review
#1
Robby DePauw, Iris Coppieters, Mira Meeus, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain affects 50% - 85% of people who have experienced an acute episode. This transition and the persistence of chronic complaints are believed to be mediated by brain alterations among different central mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically review and critically appraise the current existing evidence regarding structural and functional brain alterations in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and idiopathic neck pain (INP)...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535478/the-effect-of-billboard-design-specifications-on-driving-a-pilot-study
#2
Hadas Marciano, Pe'erly Setter
Decades of research on the effects of advertising billboards on road accident rates, driver performance, and driver visual scanning behavior, has produced no conclusive findings. We suggest that road safety researchers should shift their focus and attempt to identify the billboard characteristics that are most distracting to drivers. This line of research may produce concrete guidelines for permissible billboards that would be likely to reduce the influence of the billboards on road safety. The current study is a first step towards this end...
May 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534382/meta-meta-analysis-a-paradigm-in-the-case-of-surgical-publications
#3
Georgios C Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Machairas, Stylianos Kykalos, Paraskevas Stamopoulos, Anastasia Prodromidou, Athanasios Katsargyris
PURPOSE: Meta-analyses are considered to provide level I-II evidence. Based on this premise, several statements have been developed to standardize guidelines and optimize results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of the information delivered by meta-analyses. METHODS: Meta-analyses published in Annals of Surgery during an 11-year period were reviewed whereas individual publications of each meta-analysis were assessed. An Excel database encompassing 29 parameters was constructed based on the Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) statement...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534277/how-do-small-groups-make-decisions-a-theoretical-framework-to-inform-the-implementation-and-study-of-clinical-competency-committees
#4
Saad Chahine, Sayra Cristancho, Jessica Padgett, Lorelei Lingard
In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making...
May 22, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533689/medication-related-costs-of-rhinitis-in-australia-a-nostradata-cross-sectional-study-of-pharmacy-purchases
#5
Pete Smith, David Price, Richard Harvey, Andrew Simon Carney, Vicky Kritikos, Sinthia Z Bosnic-Anticevich, Louise Christian, Derek Skinner, Victoria Carter, Alice Marie Sybille Durieux
PURPOSE: There is a relative paucity of research regarding medication expenditure associated with multiple-therapy use for rhinitis in Australia. To describe 1) the nature and extent of multiple-therapy use for rhinitis in Australia using data on therapies purchased with prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) and 2) additional costs incurred by multiple-therapy use compared with intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) therapy alone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out using a database containing anonymous pharmacy transaction data available from 20% of pharmacies in Australia that links doctor prescriptions and OTC purchase information...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533465/human-colour-in-mate-choice-and-competition
#6
REVIEW
Hannah M Rowland, Robert P Burriss
The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533120/evaluation-of-new-chemical-entities-as-substrates-of-liver-transporters-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-response-to-regulatory-requirements-and-future-steps
#7
Noriko Okudaira
This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at an early stage of drug development, we employed a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532336/changing-techniques-in-crop-plant-classification-molecularization-at-the-national-institute-of-agricultural-botany-during-the-1980s
#8
Matthew Holmes
Modern methods of analysing biological materials, including protein and DNA sequencing, are increasingly the objects of historical study. Yet twentieth-century taxonomic techniques have been overlooked in one of their most important contexts: agricultural botany. This paper addresses this omission by harnessing unexamined archival material from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), a British plant science organization. During the 1980s the NIAB carried out three overlapping research programmes in crop identification and analysis: electrophoresis, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and machine vision systems...
April 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532299/role-of-objectively-measured-sedentary-behaviour-in-physical-performance-frailty-and-mortality-among-older-adults-a-short-systematic-review
#9
Asier Mañas, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Francisco José García-García, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Ignacio Ara
Sedentary behaviour (SB) has recently emerged as an independent risk factor for different health outcomes. Older adults accumulate long time in SB. Understanding the role that SB plays on health is crucial for a successful aging. This short systematic review summarizes the current evidence related to the effects of objectively measured SB on frailty, physical performance and mortality in adults ≥60 years old. The literature search produced 271 records for physical performance (n = 119), frailty (n = 31), and mortality (n = 121)...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532254/towards-the-recovery-of-a-sense-of-self-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-of-patients-experience-of-body-oriented-psychotherapy-for-schizophrenia
#10
Laura Galbusera, Lisa Fellin, Thomas Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence supports the efficacy of body-oriented psychotherapy (BPT) for schizophrenia. Yet, so far no research has investigated outcome in relation to therapy process: Why and how BPT is effective. In this study, we qualitatively explore participants' experience of a manualized BPT for schizophrenia to shed light on the process of therapeutic change. METHOD: We conducted in-depth interviews with 6 participants who completed a 10-week BPT group intervention...
May 22, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#11
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530527/health-care-costs-associated-with-addition-titration-and-switching-antihypertensive-medications-after-first-line-treatment-results-from-a-commercially-insured-sample
#12
Kalyani B Sonawane Deshmukh, Jingjing Qian, Kimberly B Garza, Bradley M Wright, Peng Zeng, Cecilia M Ganduglia Cazaban, Richard A Hansen
BACKGROUND: Treatment modifications are necessary for addressing issues related to efficacy and tolerance of first-line monotherapy, but they increase the economic burden on patients and their health plans. Understanding the differences in costs between alternative treatment modification strategies, if any, can serve as a guideline for clinical decision making and for designing cost-containment strategies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the health care utilization costs between (a) addition (i...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530525/cost-effectiveness-of-nivolumab-ipilimumab-combination-therapy-compared-with-monotherapy-for-first-line-treatment-of-metastatic-melanoma-in-the-united-states
#13
Anna Oh, Dang M Tran, Leann C McDowell, Dor Keyvani, Jay Andrew Barcelon, Oscar Merino, Leslie Wilson
BACKGROUND: The approval of new immunotherapies has dramatically changed the treatment landscape of metastatic melanoma. These survival gains come with trade-offs in side effects and costs, as well as important considerations for third-party payer systems, physicians, and patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop a Markov model to determine the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab, ipilimumab, and nivolumab-ipilimumab combination as firstline therapy in metastatic melanoma, while accounting for differential effectiveness in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive and negative patients...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530033/concomitant-contraceptive-implant-and-efavirenz-use-in-women-living-with-hiv-perspectives-on-current-evidence-and-policy-implications-for-family-planning-and-hiv-treatment-guidelines
#14
REVIEW
Rena C Patel, Chelsea Morroni, Kimberly K Scarsi, Tabitha Sripipatana, James Kiarie, Craig R Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Preventing unintended pregnancies is important among all women, including those living with HIV. Increasing numbers of women, including HIV-positive women, choose progestin-containing subdermal implants, which are one of the most effective forms of contraception. However, drug-drug interactions between contraceptive hormones and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce implant effectiveness. We present four inter-related perspectives on this issue. DISCUSSION: First, as a case study, we discuss how limited data prompted country-level guidance against the use of implants among women concomitantly using efavirenz in South Africa and its subsequent negative effects on the use of implants in general...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529410/quality-of-life-in-patients-with-intermittent-claudication
#15
A E Harwood, J P Totty, E Broadbent, G E Smith, I C Chetter
BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC) is a common condition that causes pain in the lower limbs when walking and has been shown to severely impact the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The QoL is therefore often regarded as an important measure in clinical trials investigating intermittent claudication. To date, no consensus exits on the type of life questionnaire to be used. This review aims to examine the QoL questionnaires used in trials investigating peripheral arterial disease (PAD)...
2017: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529188/grade-guidelines-17-assessing-the-risk-of-bias-associated-with-missing-participant-outcome-data-in-a-body-of-evidence
#16
Gordon H Guyatt, Shanil Ebrahim, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Bradley C Johnston, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Matthias Briel, Reem A Mustafa, Xin Sun, Stephen D Walter, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Ignacio Neumann, Lara A Kahale, Alfonso Iorio, Joerg Meerpohl, Holger J Schünemann, Elie A Akl
OBJECTIVE: To provide GRADE guidance for assessing risk of bias across an entire body of evidence consequent on missing data for systematic reviews of both binary and continuous outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic survey of published methodological research, iterative discussions, testing in systematic reviews, and feedback from the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Approaches begin with a primary meta-analysis using a complete case analysis followed by sensitivity meta-analyses imputing, in each study, data for those with missing data, and then pooling across studies...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529087/a-critical-analysis-of-australian-policies-and-guidelines-for-water-immersion-during-labour-and-birth
#17
Megan Cooper, Helen McCutcheon, Jane Warland
BACKGROUND: Accessibility of water immersion for labour and/or birth is often dependent on the care provider and also the policies/guidelines that underpin practice. With little high quality research about the safety and practicality of water immersion, particularly for birth, policies/guidelines informing the practice may lack the evidence necessary to ensure practitioner confidence surrounding the option thereby limiting accessibility and women's autonomy. AIM: The aims of the study were to determine how water immersion policies and/or guidelines are informed, who interprets the evidence to inform policies/guidelines and to what extent the policy/guideline facilitates the option for labour and birth...
May 18, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528329/the-interrater-reliability-of-the-autism-diagnostic-interview-revised-adi-r-in-clinical-settings
#18
Eric Zander, Charlotte Willfors, Steve Berggren, Christina Coco, Anette Holm, Ida Jifält, Renata Kosieradzki, Jenny Linder, Viviann Nordin, Karin Olafsdottir, Sven Bölte
BACKGROUND: The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is considered a first choice assessment tool in autism spectrum disorder. Nevertheless, despite its wide use in psychiatric practice and recommendations by various clinical guidelines, its interrater reliability has predominantly been confirmed in research settings by specially trained, research reliability interviewers. The reliability of ADI-R assessments among clinicians has not yet been established. Therefore, this study examined the spontaneous interrater reliability of the ADI-R in a naturalistic clinical multicenter setting...
May 20, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527476/forensic-medicine-and-the-military-population-international-dental-records-and-personal-identification-concerns
#19
Maria Inês Guimarães, Augusta Silveira, Teresa Sequeira, Joaquim Gonçalves, Maria José Carneiro Sousa, Aurora Valenzuela
INTRODUCTION: The first goal of this research was to perceive the global commitment towards the organization and archiving of dental records and to compare it with each country's security risk rating. The second one was to study dental records in a sample of the Portuguese military population, using the available national dental records. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An e-mail was sent to representative dentistry associations in several countries, requesting some information concerning the professionals' awareness of this issue...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527420/factors-predictive-of-locoregional-recurrence-following-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-large-operable-or-locally-advanced-breast-cancer-an-analysis-of-the-eortc-10994-big-1-00-study
#20
Pauline Gillon, Nathan Touati, Christel Breton-Callu, Leen Slaets, David Cameron, Hervé Bonnefoi
PURPOSE: Identification of clinicopathological factors predicting for a locoregional recurrence (LRR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) could help to decide on the optimal locoregional radiotherapy. The objective of this trial is to identify those factors in the context of a phase III trial (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 10994). METHODS: Patients received NAC followed by surgery with or without radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was administered according to pre-specified guidelines...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
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