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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458010/galectin-9-is-critical-for-mucosal-adaptive-immunity-through-the-t-h-17-iga-axis
#1
Chih-Chia Liang, Chi-Shan Li, I-Chun Weng, Huan-Yuan Chen, Hsueh-Han Lu, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fu-Tong Liu
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/- and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456158/autologous-ipsc-based-vaccines-elicit-anti-tumor-responses-in-vivo
#2
Nigel G Kooreman, Youngkyun Kim, Patricia E de Almeida, Vittavat Termglinchan, Sebastian Diecke, Ning-Yi Shao, Tzu-Tang Wei, Hyoju Yi, Devaveena Dey, Raman Nelakanti, Thomas P Brouwer, David T Paik, Idit Sagiv-Barfi, Arnold Han, Paul H A Quax, Jaap F Hamming, Ronald Levy, Mark M Davis, Joseph C Wu
Cancer cells and embryonic tissues share a number of cellular and molecular properties, suggesting that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be harnessed to elicit anti-tumor responses in cancer vaccines. RNA sequencing revealed that human and murine iPSCs express tumor-associated antigens, and we show here a proof of principle for using irradiated iPSCs in autologous anti-tumor vaccines. In a prophylactic setting, iPSC vaccines prevent tumor growth in syngeneic murine breast cancer, mesothelioma, and melanoma models...
February 8, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456016/monoclonal-antibody-based-in-vitro-potency-assay-as-a-predictor-of-antigenic-integrity-and-in-vivo-immunogenicity-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-post-fusion-f-protein-based-vaccine
#3
Matieyendou Didier Djagbare, Li Yu, Arun Parupudi, Jenny Sun, Melissa L Coughlin, Benjamin S Rush, Gautam Sanyal
The post-fusion form of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein has been used recently in clinical trials as a potential vaccine antigen with the objective of eliciting protective immune response against RSV. In this paper, in vitro antigenicity and in vivo immunogenicity of recombinant, soluble F protein of RSV (RSVsF) were evaluated by several assays. In Vitro Relative Potency (IVRP) of RSVsF was measured in a sandwich ELISA using two antibodies, each specific for epitope site A or C. Therefore, IVRP reflected the integrity of the antigen in terms of changes in antibody binding affinity of either or both of these sites...
February 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456015/multi-antigenic-human-cytomegalovirus-mrna-vaccines-that-elicit-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immunity
#4
Shinu John, Olga Yuzhakov, Angela Woods, Jessica Deterling, Kimberly Hassett, Christine A Shaw, Giuseppe Ciaramella
A cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine that is effective at preventing congenital infection and reducing CMV disease in transplant patients remains a high priority as no approved vaccines exist. While the precise correlates of protection are unknown, neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cells have been implicated in controlling infection. We demonstrate that the immunization of mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) encapsulating modified mRNA encoding CMV glycoproteins gB and pentameric complex (PC) elicit potent and durable neutralizing antibody titers...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455539/immunological-evaluation-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-loaded-with-tetanus-toxoid
#5
M Ghalavand, M Saadati, A Ahmadi, E Abbasi, J Salimian
OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at comparing tetanus toxoid (TT)‑loaded-chitosan nanoparticles with aluminum hydroxide as a common vaccine adjuvant. BACKGROUND: Tetanus remains to be a major public health problem. Nanoparticles have been extensively used as immune adjuvants. Tetanus toxoid (TT) encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles is considered to be a promising tetanus vaccine candidate. METHODS: TT‑loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455062/enhanced-contraception-of-canine-zona-pellucida-3-dna-vaccine-via-targeting-dec-205-in-mice
#6
Ying Wang, Beibei Zhang, Jinyao Li, Adila Aipire, Yijie Li, Fuchun Zhang
Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a potential antigen for the development of contraceptive vaccines to control animal population. In this study, we designed a canine ZP3 (CZP3) DNA vaccine through targeting DEC-205 (named as pcD-scFv-CZP3c) and investigated its contraceptive effect in mice. Female BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized 3 times at 2 weeks intervals. After immunization, humoral and cellular immune responses were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry. The results showed that pcD-CZP3 and pcD-scFv-CZP3c induced CZP3-specific antibody (Ab) responses both in serum and vaginal secretions compared to pcDNA3...
February 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454892/fexaramine-as-an-entry-blocker-for-feline-caliciviruses
#7
Yunjeong Kim, Kyeong-Ok Chang
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a small non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 7.7 kb. FCV is a highly infectious pathogen of cats and typically causes moderate, self-limiting acute oral and upper respiratory tract diseases or chronic oral diseases. In addition, in recent years, virulent, systemic FCV (vs-FCV) strains causing severe systemic diseases with a high mortality rate of up to 67% have been reported in cats. Although FCV vaccines are commercially available, their efficacy is limited due to antigenic diversity of FCV strains and short duration of immunity...
February 15, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454622/development-of-adjuvanted-solid-fat-nanoemulsions-for-pulmonary-hepatitis-b-vaccination
#8
Sunita Minz, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Pulmonary vaccination is one of the most promising routes for immunization owing to its non-invasive nature and induction of strong mucosal immunity and systemic response. In the present study, recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen loaded solid fat nanoemulsions (SFNs) as carrier system and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant-carrier system was prepared and evaluated as multi adjuvanted vaccine system for deep pulmonary vaccination. Deposition and clearance from the deep lung of rats were determined by gamma scintigraphy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454522/genetic-and-subunit-vaccines-based-on-the-stem-domain-of-the-equine-influenza-hemagglutinin-provide-homosubtypic-protection-against-heterologous-strains
#9
Lorena Itatí Ibañez, Cecilia Andrea Caldevilla, Yesica Paredes Rojas, Nora Mattion
H3N8 influenza virus strains have been associated with infectious disease in equine populations throughout the world. Although current vaccines for equine influenza stimulate a protective humoral immune response against the surface glycoproteins, disease in vaccinated horses has been frequently reported, probably due to poor induction of cross-reactive antibodies against non-matching strains. This work describes the performance of a recombinant protein vaccine expressed in prokaryotic cells (ΔHAp) and of a genetic vaccine (ΔHAe), both based on the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/equine/Argentina/1/93 (H3N8) virus...
February 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454038/dendritic-cells-as-cancer-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Christian E Bryant, Sarah Sutherland, Benjamin Kong, Michael S Papadimitrious, Derek N J Hart
The ability of immune therapies to control cancer has recently generated intense interest. This therapeutic outcome is reliant on T cell recognition of tumour cells. The natural function of dendritic cells (DC) is to generate adaptive responses, by presenting antigen to T cells, hence they are a logical target to generate specific anti-tumour immunity. Our understanding of the biology of DC is expanding, and they are now known to be a family of related subsets with variable features and function. Most clinical experience to date with DC vaccination has been using monocyte-derived DC vaccines...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453412/pulmonary-antigen-encounter-regulates-the-establishment-of-tissue-resident-cd8-memory-t-cells-in-the-lung-airways-and-parenchyma
#11
Sean R McMaster, Alexander N Wein, Paul R Dunbar, Sarah L Hayward, Emily K Cartwright, Timothy L Denning, Jacob E Kohlmeier
Resident memory CD8 T (T RM ) cells in the lung parenchyma (LP) and airways provide heterologous protection against influenza virus challenge. However, scant knowledge exists regarding factors necessary to establish and maintain lung CD8 T RM . Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to mechanisms described for other tissues, airway, and LP CD8 T RM establishment requires cognate antigen recognition in the lung. Systemic effector CD8 T cells could be transiently pulled into the lung in response to localized inflammation, however these effector cells failed to establish tissue residency unless antigen was present in the pulmonary environment...
February 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453292/clonal-selection-drives-protective-memory-b-cell-responses-in-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#12
Rajagopal Murugan, Lisa Buchauer, Gianna Triller, Cornelia Kreschel, Giulia Costa, Gemma Pidelaserra Martí, Katharina Imkeller, Christian E Busse, Sumana Chakravarty, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Elena A Levashina, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Thomas Höfer, Hedda Wardemann
Affinity maturation, the clonal selection and expansion of antigen-activated B cells expressing somatically mutated antibody variants that develop during T cell-dependent germinal center reactions, is considered pivotal for efficient development of protective B cell memory responses to infection and vaccination. Repeated antigen exposure promotes affinity maturation but each time also recruits antigen-reactive naïve B cells into the response. Here, we determined the relative impact of affinity maturation versus antigen-mediated clonal selection of naïve B cells to mount potent B cell memory responses in humans after repeated exposure to a complex pathogen, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)...
February 16, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453058/antigenic-and-genetic-evolution-of-contemporary-swine-h1-influenza-viruses-in-the-united-states
#13
Daniela S Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Pravina Kitikoon, Jered Stratton, Nicola S Lewis, Amy L Vincent
Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses representing clusters H1-α (1A.1), H1-β (1A.2), H1pdm (1A.3.3.2), H1-γ (1A.3.3.3), H1-δ1 (1B.2.2), and H1-δ2 (1B.2.1) currently circulating in pigs in the United States. The δ1-viruses diversified into two new genetic clades, H1-δ1a (1B...
February 13, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452594/comparative-immunogenicity-of-preparations-of-yeast-derived-dengue-oral-vaccine-candidate
#14
Jyotiranjan Bal, Nguyen Ngoc Luong, Jisang Park, Ki-Duk Song, Yong-Suk Jang, Dae-Hyuk Kim
BACKGROUND: Dengue is listed as a neglected tropical disease by the Center for Disease Control and Preservation, as there are insufficient integrated surveillance strategies, no effective treatment, and limited licensed vaccines. Consisting of four genetically distinct serotypes, dengue virus (DENV) causes serious life-threatening infections due to its complexity. Antibody-dependent enhancement by pre-existing cross-reactive as well as homotypic antibodies further worsens the clinical symptoms of dengue...
February 16, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452195/construction-and-evaluation-of-the-immune-protection-of-a-recombinant-divalent-protein-composed-of-the-mrpa-from-mr-p-fimbriae-and-flagellin-of-proteus-mirabilis-strain-against-urinary-tract-infection
#15
Mehri Habibi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Saeid Bouzari
Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are prevalent among the catheterized patients. There is no effective vaccine to reduce the frequency of UTIs caused by P. mirabilis. In the present study, the immune responses and effectiveness of different combinations of MrpA and flagellin (FliC) of P. mirabilis were assessed intranasally in the mice model. The addition of FliC as adjuvant to MrpA in fusion form significantly raised the mucosal IgA and cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17) responses and maintained the serum IgG responses for 180 days after the first vaccination...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452143/unusual-self-assembly-of-the-recombinant-chlamydia-trachomatis-major-outer-membrane-protein-momp-based-fusion-antigen-cth522-into-protein-nanoparticles
#16
Fabrice Rose, Kasper Karlsen, Pernille Rønde Jensen, Rasmus Uffe Jakobsen, Grith Krøyer Wood, Kasper Dyrberg Rand, Helene Godiksen, Peter Andersen, Frank Follmann, Camilla Foged
Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic but is a challenging vaccine candidate by being an integral membrane protein, and the immunogenicity depends on a correctly folded structure. We investigated the biophysical properties of the recombinant MOMP-based fusion antigen CTH522, which is tested in early human clinical trials...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451040/pulmonary-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-formulations-in-cotton-rats-site-of-deposition-plays-a-minor-role-in-the-protective-efficacy-against-clinical-isolate-of-h1n1pdm-virus
#17
Yoshita Bhide, Jasmine Tomar, Wei Dong, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Henderik W Frijlink, Anke Huckriede, Wouter L J Hinrichs
Administration of influenza vaccines to the lungs could be an attractive alternative to conventional parenteral administration. In this study, we investigated the deposition site of pulmonary delivered liquid and powder influenza vaccine formulations and its relation to their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. In vivo deposition studies in cotton rats revealed that, the powder formulation was mainly deposited in the trachea ( ∼ 65%) whereas the liquid was homogenously distributed throughout the lungs ( ∼ 96%)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449842/pan-influenza-a-protection-by-prime-boost-vaccination-with-cold-adapted-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449630/prime-and-boost-vaccination-elicit-a-distinct-innate-myeloid-cell-immune-response
#19
Jean-Louis Palgen, Nicolas Tchitchek, Jamila Elhmouzi-Younes, Simon Delandre, Inana Namet, Pierre Rosenbaum, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Yves Lévy, Roger Le Grand, Anne-Sophie Beignon
Understanding the innate immune response to vaccination is critical in vaccine design. Here, we studied blood innate myeloid cells after first and second immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara. The inflammation at the injection site was moderate and resolved faster after the boost. The blood concentration of inflammation markers increased after both injections but was lower after the boost. The numbers of neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells were transiently affected by vaccination, but without any major difference between prime and boost...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449582/use-of-elispot-assay-to-study-hbs-specific-b-cell-responses-in-vaccinated-and-hbv-infected-humans
#20
Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu
Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) plays a critical role in protecting against infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and were extensively studied in literature. At the same time, the status of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs)-specific B cells in both vaccinated and HBV infected people received limited attention. In the current study, we adopted a highly specific B-cell Enzyme Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISpot) assay to analyze HBs-specific B cells in various clinical settings: healthy individuals with the history of HBV vaccination before and after receiving an extra HBV vaccine boost, people chronically infected with HBV (CHB) in various clinical stages, with or without a particular type anti-viral treatment, or whether receiving a dose of HBV vaccine...
February 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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