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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822645/diphtheria-vaccine-who-position-paper-august-2017-recommendations
#1
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of diphtheria vaccines excerpted from the Diphtheria vaccines: WHO position paper, August 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record (Diphtheria vaccine, 2017) [1]. This position paper replaces the 2006 WHO position paper on diphtheria vaccine (Diphtheria vaccine, 2006) [2]. The position paper incorporates recent evidence on diphtheria and provides revised recommendations on the optimal number of doses and timing of diphtheria vaccination...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822643/genetic-background-impacts-vaccine-induced-reduction-of-pneumococcal-colonization
#2
Kirsten Kuipers, Saskia van Selm, Fred van Opzeeland, Jeroen D Langereis, Lilly M Verhagen, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Marien I de Jonge
Vaccination has been one of the most successful strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory infections. Recent evidence suggests that differences in the host genetic background and environmental factors may contribute to heterogeneity in the immune response to vaccination. During pre-clinical testing, vaccines are often evaluated in a single mouse inbred strain, which may not translate well to the heterogeneous human population. Here, we examined the influence of host genetic background on vaccine-induced protection against pneumococcal colonization in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, i...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822432/-clinical-analysis-of-children-with-pertussis-and-significance-of-respiratory-virus-detection-in-the-combined-diagnosis
#3
H Huang, L Deng, F Xiao, J Fu, J Deng, F Wang, J Yang
Objective: To analyze the clinical data of children with pertussis and explore the necessity of respiratory virus detection in the combined diagnosis so as to improve the clinician's understanding and standardize the diagnosis and treatment of pertussis in children. Method: Clinical data and laboratory examination of 195 suspected pertussis children between Jan. 2015 and Dec. 2016 in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatric were analyzed retrospectively. Result: The nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from 195 suspected pertussis children, PCR was employed to detect the nucleic acid of Bordetella pertussis...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821267/small-size-recombinant-adenoviral-hexon-protein-fragments-for-the-production-of-virus-type-specific-antibodies
#4
Martin Pacesa, Rodinde Hendrickx, Manuela Bieri, Justin W Flatt, Urs F Greber, Silvio Hemmi
BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses are common pathogens infecting animals and humans. They are classified based on serology, or genome sequence information. These methods have limitations due to lengthy procedures or lack of infectivity data. Adenoviruses are easy to produce and amenable to genetic and biochemical modifications, which makes them a powerful tool for biological studies, and clinical gene-delivery and vaccine applications. Antibodies directed against adenoviral proteins are important diagnostic tools for virus identification in vivo and in vitro, and are used to elucidate infection mechanisms, often in combination with genomic sequencing and type specific information from hyper-variable regions of structural proteins...
August 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820470/adaption-of-fmdv-asia-1-to-suspension-culture-cell-resistance-is-overcome-by-virus-capsid-alterations
#5
Veronika Dill, Bernd Hoffmann, Aline Zimmer, Martin Beer, Michael Eschbaumer
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. BHK21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of FMDV vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. Serotype Asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. In this study, the Asia-1 strain Shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infection. Cell media composition, pH and ammonium chloride concentration did not affect Asia-1 differently than other serotypes...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819703/novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-a-dna-encoded-anti-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-monoclonal-antibody
#6
Kar Muthumani, Liron Marnin, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Hyeree Choi, Sangya Agarwal, Veronica L Scott, Emma L Reuschel, Faraz I Zaidi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Megan C Wise, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Kenneth E Ugen, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, David B Weiner
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed at high levels on malignant prostate cells and is likely an important therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Current immunotherapy approaches to target PSMA include peptide, cell, vector or DNA-based vaccines as well as passive administration of PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Conventional mAb immunotherapy has numerous logistical and practical limitations, including high production costs and a requirement for frequent dosing due to short mAb serum half-life...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819692/molecular-characterization-of-atypical-antigenic-variants-of-canine-rabies-virus-reveals-its-reintroduction-by-wildlife-vectors-in-southeastern-mexico
#7
Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Joanna M Ortiz-Alcántara, Elizabeth González-Durán, Sandra I Pérez-Agüeros, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is practically always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. In Mexico, the last case of human rabies transmitted by dogs was reported in 2006 and canine rabies has declined significantly due to vaccination campaigns implemented in the country. Here we report on the molecular characterization of six rabies virus strains found in Yucatan and Chiapas, remarkably, four of them showed an atypical reaction pattern when antigenic characterization with a reduced panel of eight monoclonal antibodies was performed...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819261/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-preferentially-targets-antigen-presenting-cells-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#8
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Bobby W S Li, Ronan J MacLoughlin, Ron A M Fouchier, Geert van Amerongen, Asisa Volz, Rudi W Hendriks, Rik L de Swart, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rory D de Vries
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising vaccine vector with an excellent safety profile. However, despite extensive pre-clinical and clinical testing, surprisingly little is known about the cellular tropism of MVA, especially in relevant animal species. Here, we performed in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments with recombinant MVA expressing green fluorescent protein (rMVA-GFP). In both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse lung explants, rMVA-GFP predominantly infected antigen presenting cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819257/cytolytic-dna-vaccine-encoding-lytic-perforin-augments-the-maturation-of-and-antigen-presentation-by-dendritic-cells-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#9
Danushka K Wijesundara, Wenbo Yu, Ben J C Quah, Preethi Eldi, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener, Ilia Voskoboinik, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
The use of cost-effective vaccines capable of inducing robust CD8(+) T cell immunity will contribute significantly towards the elimination of persistent viral infections and cancers worldwide. We have previously reported that a cytolytic DNA vaccine encoding an immunogen and a truncated mouse perforin (PRF) protein significantly augments anti-viral T cell (including CD8(+) T cell) immunity. Thus, the current study investigated whether this vaccine enhances activation of dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in greater priming of CD8(+) T cell immunity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819247/delta-inulin-based-adjuvants-promote-the-generation-of-polyfunctional-cd4-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#10
Claudio Counoupas, Rachel Pinto, Gayathri Nagalingam, Warwick J Britton, Nikolai Petrovsky, James A Triccas
There is an urgent need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Advax™ is a novel adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles that enhances immunity with a minimal inflammatory profile and has entered human trials to protect against viral pathogens. In this report we determined if Advax displays broad applicability against important human pathogens by assessing protective immunity against infection with M. tuberculosis...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819024/trastuzumab-increases-her2-uptake-and-cross-presentation-by-dendritic-cells
#11
Victor A Gall, Anne V Philips, Na Qiao, Karen Clise-Dwyer, Alexander A Perakis, Mao Zhang, Guy Travis Clifton, Pariya Sukhumalchandra, Qing Ma, Sangeetha M Reddy, Dihua Yu, Jeffrey J Molldrem, George E Peoples, Gheath Alatrash, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
Early phase clinical trials evaluating CD8+ T cell-eliciting, HER2-derived peptide vaccines administered to HER2-positive breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting suggest synergy between the vaccines and trastuzumab, the monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 protein. Among 60 patients enrolled on clinical trials evaluating the E75+GM-CSF and GP2+GM-CSF vaccines, there have been no recurrences in patients vaccinated after receiving trastuzumab as part of standard therapy in the per treatment analyses conducted after a median follow-up of greater than 34 months...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818619/lymph-node-targeting-strategies-to-improve-vaccination-efficacy
#12
Hao Jiang, Qin Wang, Xun Sun
With the rapid development of nanotechnology as well as growing interest in immunotherapy, a great number of vaccine delivery vehicles have been explored in order to elicit potent adaptive immune responses against various infections or tumors. Recent studies have shown that targeting vaccine to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) within lymph nodes is an effective strategy for improving antigen-specific adaptive immune response. However, the characteristics of vaccine vehicles, such as size, surface charge and the degree of PEGylation, affect lymph node transfer and subsequent APC uptake, leading to different levels of immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818567/a-protein-chimera-including-pspa-in-fusion-with-potd-is-protective-against-invasive-pneumococcal-infection-and-reduces-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-mice
#13
T R Converso, C Goulart, M Darrieux, L C C Leite
Despite the success of the available polysaccharide-based vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in preventing invasive diseases, this bacterium remains a major cause of death in many parts of the world. New vaccine strategies are needed in order to increase protection. Thus, the utilization of fusion proteins is being investigated as an alternative to the current formulations. In the present work, we demonstrate that a chimeric protein, composed of PspA and PotD in fusion is able to maintain the protective characteristics of both parental proteins, providing protection against systemic infection while reducing nasal colonization...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818566/a-synthetic-human-cytomegalovirus-pp65-ie1-fusion-antigen-efficiently-induces-and-expands-virus-specific-t-cells
#14
Ellen K Link, Christine Brandmüller, Yasemin Suezer, Stefanie Ameres, Asisa Volz, Andreas Moosmann, Gerd Sutter, Michael H Lehmann
Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause severe complications in newborns and immunocompromised patients, and a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HCMV is not available. Here, we generated a HCMV vaccine candidate fulfilling the regulatory requirements for GMP-compliant production and clinical testing. A novel synthetic fusion gene consisting of the coding sequences of HCMV pp65 and IE1 having a deleted nuclear localization sequence and STAT2 binding domain was introduced into the genome of the attenuated vaccinia virus strain MVA...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818565/raw-starch-microparticles-have-immunostimulant-activity-in-mice-vaccinated-with-bcg-and-challenged-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Silvia Moreno-Mendieta, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Sergio Sánchez, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja
The main challenge for vaccine development or improvement is the lack of safe adjuvants or immunostimulants that induce protective immune responses and can be used for mucosal immunization, which is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against infectious diseases acquired by oral or intranasal routes. One promising alternative is the use of biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric microparticles. Recently, we developed an immobilization and delivery system with starch microparticles (SMPs) and a starch-binding domain (SBDtag) suitable for the mucosal administration of antigens and the induction of antigen-specific immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818406/rethinking-schistosomiasis-vaccine-development-synthetic-vesicles
#16
Moses Egesa, Karl F Hoffmann, Cornelis H Hokke, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Stephen Cose
There is currently no vaccine against schistosomiasis. With few Schistosoma vaccine candidates in clinical trials, unexplored antigens from the vulnerable schistosomulum should be considered as possible vaccine candidates. In addition, we suggest developing synthetic vesicles as a new delivery vehicle and adjuvant for immunoprophylactic schistosomula vaccine candidates.
August 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817541/titers-of-antibodies-to-the-surface-antigen-of-hepatitis-b-virus-after-vaccination-in-relation-to-immunity-related-gene-variants-a-prospective-study-among-hemodialysis-patients
#17
Elżbieta Jodłowska-Siewert, Paweł P Jagodziński, Alicja E Grzegorzewska
INTRODUCTION    Hemodialysis (HD) patients show a weaker response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination than the healthy population. Several gene variants were reported to be associated with the levels of antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) after HBV vaccination among healthy individuals. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunity-related genes on the maximum anti-HBs antibody levels after vaccination among HD subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS    This 6-year prospective study included HD patients who were not infected with HBV and underwent HBV vaccination...
August 9, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816583/mammalian-cell-surface-display-for-monoclonal-antibody-based-facs-selection-of-viral-envelope-proteins
#18
Tim-Henrik Bruun, Veronika Grassmann, Benjamin Zimmer, Benedikt Asbach, David Peterhoff, Alexander Kliche, Ralf Wagner
The elicitation of broadly and efficiently neutralizing antibodies in humans by active immunization is still a major obstacle in the development of vaccines against pathogens such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza virus, hepatitis C virus or cytomegalovirus. Here, we describe a mammalian cell surface display and monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated panning technology that allows affinity-based selection of envelope (Env) variants from libraries. To this end, we established an experimental setup featuring: 1) single and site specific integration of Env to link genotype and phenotype, 2) inducible Env expression to avoid cytotoxicity effects, 3) translational coupling of Env and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression to normalize for Env protein levels, and 4) display on HEK cells to ensure native folding and mammalian glycosylation...
August 17, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816084/adenoviral-type-35-and-26-vectors-with-a-bidirectional-expression-cassette-in-the-e1-region-show-an-improved-genetic-stability-profile-and-potent-transgene-specific-immune-response
#19
Marija Vujadinovic, Kerstin Wunderlich, Benoit Callendret, Marina Koning, Mark Vermeulen, Barbara Sanders, Esmeralda van der Helm, Adile Gecgel, Dirk Spek, Karin de Boer, Masha Stalknecht, Jan Serroyen, Maria Grazia Pau, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Roland Zahn, Jerome Custers, Jort Vellinga
Genetic vaccines based on replication-incompetent adenoviral (AdV) vectors are currently in clinical development. Monovalent AdV vectors express one antigen from an expression cassette placed in most cases in the E1 region. For many vaccines, inclusion of several antigens is necessary in order to raise protective immunity and/or target more than one pathogen or pathogen strain. Based on the current technology, a mix of several monovalent vectors can be employed. However, a mix of the standard monovalent AdV may not be optimal with respect to manufacturing costs and the final dose per vector in humans...
August 17, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815049/multi-target-chimaeric-vlp-as-a-therapeutic-vaccine-in-a-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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