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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677684/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutics-where-do-we-stand-with-influenza-b-virus
#1
REVIEW
Jessica Tan, Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar, Florian Krammer
The development of a broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccine is currently a public health priority worldwide. The vast majority of these efforts is exclusively focused on influenza A viruses. While influenza A viruses cause the majority of all influenza cases worldwide, influenza B viruses should not be ignored. Approximately 25% of all influenza cases are caused by influenza B viruses which circulate as two distinct B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineages. In contrast to popular belief, influenza B cases frequently cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in children...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677188/smsp2-a-serine-protease-secreted-by-the-blood-fluke-pathogen-schistosoma-mansoni-with-anti-hemostatic-properties
#2
Adrian Leontovyč, Lenka Ulrychová, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Jiří Vondrášek, Lucie Marešová, Martin Hubálek, Pavla Fajtová, Marta Chanová, Zhenze Jiang, Charles S Craik, Conor R Caffrey, Michael Mareš, Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn
BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are important virulence factors for many pathogens. Recently, we discovered a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with domain organization unique to flatworm parasites and containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR-1). These proteases are recognized as antigens during host infection and may prove useful as anthelminthic vaccines, however their molecular characteristics are under-studied. Here, we characterize the structural and proteolytic attributes of serine protease 2 (SmSP2) from Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major species responsible for the tropical infectious disease, schistosomiasis...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675804/lactobacillus-plantarum-displaying-conserved-m2e-and-ha2-fusion-antigens-induces-protection-against-influenza-virus-challenge
#3
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Liang Zhao, Yu-Bei Jin, Yan-Long Jiang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guan Wang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Chun-Feng Wang
Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect poultry, mammals, and other hosts and causes enormous economic losses to the global poultry industry. In this study, to develop a novel and potent oral vaccine based on Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) for controlling the spread of AIV in the poultry industry, we constructed a recombinant L. plantarum strain displaying the 3M2e-HA2 protein of the influenza virus and determined the effect of N/pgsA'-3M2e-HA2 against AIV in chicks. We first confirmed that the 3M2e-HA2 fusion protein was expressed on the surface of L...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675803/drosophila-s2-cell-culture-in-a-wave-bioreactor-potential-for-scaling-up-the-production-of-the-recombinant-rabies-virus-glycoprotein
#4
Monize Caiado Decarli, Diogo Peres Dos Santos, Renato Mancini Astray, Daniella Cristina Ventini-Monteiro, Soraia Attie Calil Jorge, Daniela Matilde Correia, Juliana de Sá da Silva, Mayra Pereira Rocca, Hélio Langoni, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Carlos Augusto Pereira, Claudio Alberto Torres Suazo
The transmembrane rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) is the main antigen of vaccine formulations used around the world to prevent rabies, the most lethal preventable infectious disease known. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of a bioreactor using wave-induced agitation in the initial steps of scaling up the rRVGP production process by a Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell line to produce rRVGP in sufficient quantities for immunization and characterization studies. Taking advantage of some remarkable features recognized in Drosophila S2 cells for scaling the culture process, a robust recombinant lineage (S2MtRVGPH-His) engineered by our group for the expression of rRVGP using a copper-inducible promoter was used in the bioreactor cultures...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675543/improved-vaccine-induced-immune-responses-via-a-ros-triggered-nanoparticle-based-antigen-delivery-system
#5
Xiaoyu Liang, Jianwei Duan, Xuanling Li, Xiaowei Zhu, Youlu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Hongfan Sun, Deling Kong, Chen Li, Jing Yang
Subunit vaccines that are designed based on recombinant antigens or peptides have shown promising potential as viable substitutes for traditional vaccines due to their better safety and specificity. However, the induction of adequate in vivo immune responses with appropriate effectiveness remains a major challenge for vaccine development. More recently, the implementation of a nanoparticle-based antigen delivery system has been considered a promising approach to improve the in vivo efficacy for subunit vaccine development...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675401/analysis-of-the-antigenic-and-prophylactic-properties-of-the-leishmania-translation-initiation-factors-eif2-and-eif2b-in-natural-and-experimental-leishmaniasis
#6
Esther Garde, Laura Ramírez, Laura Corvo, José C Solana, M Elena Martín, Víctor M González, Carlos Gómez-Nieto, Aldina Barral, Manoel Barral-Netto, José M Requena, Salvador Iborra, Manuel Soto
Different members of intracellular protein families are recognized by the immune system of the vertebrate host infected by parasites of the genus Leishmania . Here, we have analyzed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of the Leishmania eIF2 and eIF2B translation initiation factors. An in silico search in Leishmania infantum sequence databases allowed the identification of the genes encoding the α, β, and γ subunits and the α, β, and δ subunits of the putative Leishmania orthologs of the eukaryotic initiation factors F2 (LieIF2) or F2B (LieIF2B), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675174/a-modular-synthetic-route-to-size-defined-immunogenic-haemophilus-influenzae-b-antigens-is-key-to-the-identification-of-an-octasaccharide-lead-vaccine-candidate
#7
J Y Baek, A Geissner, D C K Rathwell, D Meierhofer, C L Pereira, P H Seeberger
The first glycoconjugate vaccine using isolated glycans was licensed to protect children from Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) infections. Subsequently, the first semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine using a mixture of antigens derived by polymerization targeted the same pathogen. Still, a detailed understanding concerning the correlation between oligosaccharide chain length and the immune response towards the polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) capsular polysaccharide that surrounds Hib remains elusive...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674705/children-with-cerebral-malaria-or-severe-malarial-anaemia-lack-immunity-to-distinct-variant-surface-antigen-subsets
#8
Mark A Travassos, Amadou Niangaly, Jason A Bailey, Amed Ouattara, Drissa Coulibaly, Kirsten E Lyke, Matthew B Laurens, Jozelyn Pablo, Algis Jasinskas, Rie Nakajima, Andrea A Berry, Matthew Adams, Christopher G Jacob, Andrew Pike, Shannon Takala-Harrison, Li Liang, Bourema Kouriba, Abdoulaye K Kone, J Alexandra Rowe, JoAnn Moulds, Dapa A Diallo, Ogobara K Doumbo, Mahamadou A Thera, Philip L Felgner, Christopher V Plowe
Variant surface antigens (VSAs) play a critical role in severe malaria pathogenesis. Defining gaps, or "lacunae", in immunity to these Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with severe malaria would improve our understanding of vulnerability to severe malaria and how protective immunity develops. Using a protein microarray with 179 antigen variants from three VSA families as well as more than 300 variants of three other blood stage P. falciparum antigens, reactivity was measured in sera from Malian children with cerebral malaria or severe malarial anaemia and age-matched controls...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674503/dexamethasone-promotes-durable-factor-viii-specific-tolerance-in-hemophilia-a-mice-via-thymic-mechanisms
#9
Maria T Georgescu, Paul C Moorehead, Alice S van Velzen, Kate Nesbitt, Birgit M Reipert, Katharina N Steinitz, Maria Schuster, Christine Hough, David Lillicrap
The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII is the most serious complication of replacement therapy in hemophilia A. Activation of the innate immune system during exposure to this protein contributes to inhibitor development. However, avoidance of factor VIII exposure during innate immune system activation by external stimuli (e.g. vaccines) has not been consistently shown to prevent inhibitors. We hypothesized that dexamethasone, a drug with potent anti-inflammatory effects, could prevent inhibitors by promoting immunologic tolerance to factor VIII in hemophilia A mice...
April 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674167/neuraminidase-as-an-influenza-vaccine-antigen-a-low-hanging-fruit-ready-for-picking-to-improve-vaccine-effectiveness
#10
REVIEW
Maryna C Eichelberger, David M Morens, Jeffery K Taubenberger
Neuraminidase (NA) plays an essential role in influenza virus replication, facilitating multicycle infection predominantly by releasing virions from infected cells. NA-inhibiting antibodies provide resistance to disease and NA-specific antibodies contribute to vaccine efficacy. The primary reason NA vaccine content and immunogenicity was not routinely measured in the past, was the lack of suitable assays to quantify NA and NA-specific antibodies. These are now available and with recent appreciation of its contribution to immunity, NA content of seasonal and pandemic vaccines is being considered...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673984/bioinformatics-analysis-and-epitope-screening-of-a-potential-vaccine-antigen-tolb-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-outer-membrane-protein
#11
Xiaojie Song, Hua Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Weifeng Xie, Guanghui Zhao
The clinical isolation rate of multidrug-resistant or pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is increasing, resulting that optional antibiotics are very limited in clinical practice. To deal with such a dilemma in treatment, the development of effective vaccines serves as a good strategy. Outer membrane proteins (Omp) often contain potential excellent vaccine antigens, and NCBI has published >300 Omp sequences of A. baumannii (including the duplicates). To accurately screen out the potential excellent antigen molecules from a large number of sequences, and avoid repetitive experimental processes is of great significance...
April 16, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673645/intranasal-delivery-of-adjuvant-free-peptide-nanofibers-elicits-resident-cd8-t-cell-responses
#12
Youhui Si, Yi Wen, Sean H Kelly, Anita S Chong, Joel H Collier
Influenza vaccines that can be administered intranasally or by other needle-free delivery routes have potential advantages over injected formulations in terms of patient compliance, cost, and ease of global distribution. Supramolecular peptide nanofibers have been investigated previously as platforms for vaccines and immunotherapies and have been shown to raise immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants and without measurable inflammation. However, at present it has not been tested whether the immunogenicity of these materials extends to the intranasal route...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673169/multifocal-equine-influenza-outbreak-with-vaccination-breakdown-in-thoroughbred-racehorses
#13
Sarah Gildea, Marie Garvey, Pamela Lyons, Rachel Lyons, Jacinta Gahan, Cathal Walsh, Ann Cullinane
Equine influenza (EI) outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB) and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were undertaken, and the diagnostic effectiveness of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay was demonstrated in regularly-vaccinated and sub-clinically-affected horses. Epidemiological data and repeat clinical samples were collected from 305 horses, of which 40% were reported as clinically affected, 39% were identified as confirmed cases and 11% were sub-clinically affected...
April 17, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672857/bags-versus-flasks-a-comparison-of-cell-culture-systems-for-the-production-of-dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapies
#14
REVIEW
Natalie Fekete, Ariane V Béland, Katie Campbell, Sarah L Clark, Corinne A Hoesli
In recent years, cell-based therapies targeting the immune system have emerged as promising strategies for cancer treatment. This review summarizes manufacturing challenges related to production of antigen presenting cells as a patient-tailored cancer therapy. Understanding cell-material interactions is essential because in vitro cell culture manipulations to obtain mature antigen-producing cells can significantly alter their in vivo performance. Traditional antigen-producing cell culture protocols often rely on cell adhesion to surface-treated hydrophilic polystyrene flasks...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672713/imprinting-of-repeated-influenza-a-h3-exposures-on-antibody-quantity-and-antibody-quality-implications-on-seasonal-vaccine-strain-selection-and-vaccine-performance
#15
Martina Kosikova, Lei Li, Peter Radvak, Zhiping Ye, Xiu-Feng Wan, Hang Xie
Background: Reduced seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was observed in individuals who received repeated annual vaccinations. Pre-existing influenza antibody levels were also found inversely correlated with post-vaccination titers. These reports suggest that pre-existing immunity may affect contemporary seasonal vaccine performance. Methods: Influenza A/H3 specific cross-reactivity of post-vaccination sera from humans with or without pre-existing immunity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672670/predicting-influenza-h3n2-vaccine-efficacy-from-evolution-of-the-dominant-epitope
#16
Melia E Bonomo, Michael W Deem
We predict vaccine efficacy with a measure of antigenic distance between influenza A(H3N2) and candidate vaccine viruses based on amino acid substitutions in the dominant epitopes. In 2016-2017, our model predicts 19% efficacy compared to 20% observed. This tool assists candidate vaccine selection by predicting human protection against circulating strains.
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672472/recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-for-use-of-a-hepatitis-b-vaccine-with-a-novel-adjuvant
#17
Sarah Schillie, Aaron Harris, Ruth Link-Gelles, José Romero, John Ward, Noele Nelson
Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the primary means of preventing infections and complications caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). On February 21, 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month) for use in persons aged ≥18 years. The ACIP Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence, including data from four randomized controlled trials assessing prevention of HBV infection and six randomized controlled trials assessing adverse events in adults...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670745/induction-of-immunity-following-vaccination-with-a-chemically-attenuated-malaria-vaccine-correlates-with-persistent-antigenic-stimulation
#18
Jennifer M Reiman, Sanjai Kumar, Ingrid B Rodriguez, Sedami Gnidehou, Koichi Ito, Danielle I Stanisic, Moses Lee, Virginia McPhun, Victoria Majam, Nicole M Willemsen, Michael R Batzloff, Amber I Raja, Brad Dooley, Stephen L Hoffman, Stephanie K Yanow, Michael F Good
Objectives: Blood stage malaria parasites attenuated with seco-cyclopropyl pyrrolo indole (CPI) analogues induce robust immunity in mice to homologous and heterologous malaria parasites and are being considered for the development of a human vaccine. However, it is not understood how attenuated parasites induce immunity. We showed that following vaccination, parasite DNA persisted in blood for several months, raising the possibility that ongoing immune stimulation may be critical. However, parasites were not seen microscopically beyond 24 h postvaccination...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670634/robust-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-pertussis-in-adults-after-a-first-acellular-booster-vaccination
#19
Saskia van der Lee, Debbie M van Rooijen, Mary-Lène de Zeeuw-Brouwer, Marjan J M Bogaard, Pieter G M van Gageldonk, Axel Bonacic Marinovic, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman
Introduction: To reduce the pertussis disease burden, nowadays several countries recommend acellular pertussis (aP) booster vaccinations for adults. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a first adult aP booster vaccination at childbearing age. Methods: In 2014, healthy adults aged 25-29 years ( n  = 105), vaccinated during infancy with four doses of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine, received a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and aP) booster vaccination. Blood samples were collected longitudinally pre-booster, 2 and 4 weeks, and 1 year and 2 years post-booster...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670624/photochemical-internalization-of-peptide-antigens-provides-a-novel-strategy-to-realize-therapeutic-cancer-vaccination
#20
Markus Haug, Gaute Brede, Monika Håkerud, Anne Grete Nedberg, Odrun A Gederaas, Trude H Flo, Victoria T Edwards, Pål K Selbo, Anders Høgset, Øyvind Halaas
Effective priming and activation of tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is crucial for realizing the potential of therapeutic cancer vaccination. This requires cytosolic antigens that feed into the MHC class I presentation pathway, which is not efficiently achieved with most current vaccination technologies. Photochemical internalization (PCI) provides an emerging technology to route endocytosed material to the cytosol of cells, based on light-induced disruption of endosomal membranes using a photosensitizing compound...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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