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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166372/placental-lipid-processing-in-response-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-diabetes-in-rats
#1
Eli J Louwagie, Tricia D Larsen, Angela L Wachal, Michelle L Baack
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and obesity during pregnancy impact the health of both mothers and developing babies. Prevention focuses on glycemic control, but increasing evidence implicates a role for lipids. Using a rat model, we showed that a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but lipid processing across the maternal-placental-fetal triad remained unstudied. We hypothesized that HF diet would disrupt placental lipid processing to exaggerate fuel-mediated consequences of diabetic pregnancy...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165735/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-within-the-reference-range-is-associated-with-visceral-adiposity-index-and-lipid-accumulation-product-a-population-based-study-of-spect-china
#2
Yi Chen, Yingchao Chen, Ningjian Wang, Chi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yingli Lu
Few studies about the relationship of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level with visceral adiposity index (VAI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) in large Chinese population are available. The aim of this study was to explore whether TSH level within the reference range was associated with these two newer reliable cardiovascular risk factors. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (SPECT-China study, 2014-2015), which was based on the population. Participants underwent several checkups, which included anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, TSH levels, and glucose and lipid profiles...
November 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165364/the-rosiglitazone-like-effects-of-vitexilactone-a-constituent-from-vitex-trifolia-l-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#3
Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Daisuke Sato, Hirokazu Kimura, Yasuaki Hirai, Nyunt Phay, Makoto Makishima
The increased number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a worldwide problem, and insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as therapeutic agents. We found that extracts of Vitex trifolia L. (V. trifolia), a medicinal plant from Myanmar, induced adipogenesis similar to rosiglitazone (ROS), which is a TZD, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In the present study, we attempted to isolate from V. trifolia those compounds that showed ROS-like effects. Among the extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol obtained from V...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164883/raspberry-ketone-reduced-lipid-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-ovariectomy-induced-obesity-in-wistar-rats-by-regulating-autophagy-mechanisms
#4
Sy-Ying Leu, Yi-Chen Chen, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Yao-Wen Hung, Chih-Hsiung Hsu, Yen-Mei Lee, Pao-Yun Cheng
This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of raspberry ketone (RK), one of the major aromatic compounds contained in raspberry, and its underlying mechanisms. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). RK also reduced the expression of light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related protein 12 (Atg12), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and phosphorylated-tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), whereas it increased the level of p62 and phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163788/mind4-17-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-uv
#5
Chaopeng Li, Kang Yan, Wenqi Wang, Qing Bai, Changming Dai, Xiaofeng Li, Darui Huang
Nrf2 activation would efficiently protect retinal cells from UV radiation (UVR). Recent studies have developed a Nrf2-targeting thiazole-containing compound MIND4-17, which activates Nrf2 through blocking its association with Keap1. In the current study, we demonstrated that pretreatment with MIND4-17 efficiently protected retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from UVR. UVR-induced apoptosis in the retinal cells was also largely attenuated by MIND4-17 pretreatment. MIND4-17 presumably separated Nrf2 from Keap1, allowing its stabilization and accumulation in retinal cells, which then translocated to cell nuclei and promoted transcription of ARE-dependent anti-oxidant genes, including HO1, NQO1 and GCLM...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163608/oshak1-a-high-affinity-potassium-transporter-positively-regulates-responses-to-drought-stress-in-rice
#6
Guang Chen, Chaolei Liu, Zhenyu Gao, Yu Zhang, Hongzhen Jiang, Li Zhu, Deyong Ren, Ling Yu, Guohua Xu, Qian Qian
Drought is one of the environmental factors that severely restrict plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we reported that the high-affinity potassium transporter OsHAK1 plays important roles in K acquisition and translocation in rice over low and high K concentration ranges, however, knowledge on the regulatory roles of OsHAK1 in osmotic/drought stress is limited. Here, transcript levels of OsHAK1 were found transiently elevated by water deficit in roots and shoots, consistent with the enhanced GUS activity in transgenic plants under stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163606/transgenic-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-overexpressing-mtld-gene-showed-improved-photosynthetic-physio-biochemical-and-yield-parameters-under-soil-moisture-deficit-stress-in-lysimeter-system
#7
Kirankumar G Patel, Radhakrishnan Thankappan, Gyan P Mishra, Viralkumar B Mandaliya, Abhay Kumar, Jentibhai R Dobaria
Peanut, an important oilseed crop, frequently encounters drought stress (DS) during its life cycle. In this study, four previously developed mtlD transgenic (T) peanut lines were used for detailed characterization under DS, at the reproductive stage using lysimeter system under controlled greenhouse conditions. In dry-down experiments, T lines maintained better photosynthetic machinery, such as, photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and SPAD (Soil-Plant Analyses Development) values, and had lower oxidative damage, including lipid membrane peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical accumulation than WT, when exposed to 24 days of DS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163362/obesity-and-breast-cancer-current-insights-on-the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-lipid-metabolism-in-promoting-breast-cancer-growth-and-progression
#8
REVIEW
Christina Blücher, Sonja C Stadler
Obesity and excess accumulation of adipose tissue are known risk factors for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. With the incidence of obesity constantly rising worldwide, understanding the molecular details of the interaction between adipose tissue and breast tumors, the most common tumors in women, becomes an urgent task. In terms of lipid metabolism, most of the studies conducted so far focused on upregulated de novo lipid synthesis in cancer cells. More recently, the use of extracellular lipids as source of energy came into focus...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163032/lipid-involvement-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-of-the-motor-system-insights-from-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#9
REVIEW
James C Dodge
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic diseases that are frequently triggered by the accumulation of lipids inside organelles of the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal system (EALS). There is now a growing realization that disrupted lysosomal homeostasis (i.e., lysosomal cacostasis) also contributes to more common neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD). Lipid deposition within the EALS may also participate in the pathogenesis of some additional neurodegenerative diseases of the motor system...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162682/caenorhabditis-elegans-dbl-1-bmp-regulates-lipid-accumulation-via-interaction-with-insulin-signaling
#10
James F Clark, Michael Meade, Gehan Ranepura, David H Hall, Cathy Savage-Dunn
Metabolic homeostasis is coordinately controlled by diverse inputs. Understanding these regulatory networks is vital to combating metabolic disorders. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful, genetically tractable model system for the discovery of lipid regulatory mechanisms. Here we introduce DBL-1, the C. elegans homolog of bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4), as a significant regulator of lipid homeostasis. We used neutral lipid staining and a lipid droplet marker to demonstrate that both increases and decreases in DBL-1/BMP signaling result in reduced lipid stores and lipid droplet count...
November 21, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162603/exogenous-insulin-infusion-can-decrease-atherosclerosis-in-diabetic-rodents-by-improving-lipids-inflammation-and-endothelial-function
#11
Kyoungmin Park, Qian Li, Net Daş Evcimen, Christian Rask-Madsen, Yasutaka Maeda, Ernesto Maddaloni, Hisashi Yokomizo, Takanori Shinjo, Ronald St-Louis, Jialin Fu, Daniel Gordin, Mogher Khamaisi, David Pober, Hillary Keenan, George L King
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate whether exogenously induced hyperinsulinemia may increase the development of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Hyperinsulinemia, induced by exogenous insulin implantation in high-fat fed (60% fat HFD) apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE(-/-)) mice, exhibited insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Atherosclerosis was measured by the accumulation of fat, macrophage, and extracellular matrix in the aorta...
November 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162508/targeted-delivery-of-nucleic-acids-into-xenograft-tumors-mediated-by-novel-folate-equipped-liposomes
#12
Tatyana O Kabilova, Elena V Shmendel, Daniil V Gladkikh, Elena L Chernolovskaya, Oleg V Markov, Nina G Morozova, Mikhail A Maslov, Marina A Zenkova
Folate receptors (FR) are cellular markers highly expressed in various cancer cells. Here, we report on the synthesis of a novel folate-containing lipoconjugate (FC) built of 1,2-di-O-ditetradecyl-rac-glycerol and folic acid connected via a PEG spacer, and the evaluation of the FC as a targeting component of liposomal formulations for nucleic acid (NA) delivery into FR expressing tumor cells. FR-targeting liposomes, based on polycationic lipid 1,26-bis(cholest-5-en-3β-yloxycarbonylamino)-7,11,16,20-tetraazahexacosan tetrahydrochloride (2X3), lipid helper dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and novel FC, formed small compact particles in solution with diameters of 60 ± 22 nm, and were not toxic to cells...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162450/visualization-of-local-phosphatidylcholine-synthesis-within-hippocampal-neurons-using-a-compartmentalized-culture-system-and-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#13
Eiji Sugiyama, Ikuko Yao, Mitsutoshi Setou
Neurons extend neurites with an increased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) that is not only a membrane component but also a functional regulator with specific fatty acid composition. To analyze the local synthesis of the PC molecular species within neurons, we combined a compartmentalized culture system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). We observed that a newly synthesized PC, which contains exogenously administered palmitic acid-d3, is accumulated at the cell bodies and the tips of the distal neurites...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162448/intracellular-cholesterol-level-regulates-sensitivity-of-glioblastoma-cells-against-temozolomide-induced-cell-death-by-modulation-of-caspase-8-activation-via-death-receptor-5-accumulation-and-activation-in-the-plasma-membrane-lipid-raft
#14
Yutaro Yamamoto, Arata Tomiyama, Nobuyoshi Sasaki, Hideki Yamaguchi, Takuya Shirakihara, Katsuhiko Nakashima, Kosuke Kumagai, Satoru Takeuchi, Terushige Toyooka, Kojiro Wada, Yoshitaka Narita, Koichi Ichimura, Ryuichi Sakai, Hiroki Namba, Kentaro Mori
Development of resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM) after continuous treatment with TMZ is one of the critical problems in clinical GBM therapy. Intracellular cholesterol regulates cancer cell biology, but whether intracellular cholesterol is involved in TMZ resistance of GBM cells remains unclear. The involvement of intracellular cholesterol in acquired resistance against TMZ in GBM cells was investigated. Intracellular cholesterol levels were measured in human U251 MG cells with acquired TMZ resistance (U251-R cells) and TMZ-sensitive control U251 MG cells (U251-Con cells), and found that the intracellular cholesterol level was significantly lower in U251-R cells than in U251-Con cells...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162103/phenolic-compounds-apigenin-hesperidin-and-kaempferol-reduce-in-vitro-lipid-accumulation-in-human-adipocytes
#15
Saioa Gómez-Zorita, Arrate Lasa, Naiara Abendaño, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, Andrea Mosqueda-Solís, Maria Pilar Garcia-Sobreviela, Jose M Arbonés-Mainar, Maria P Portillo
BACKGROUND: Adipocytes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used to investigate adipogenesis. Taking into account both the novelty of these MSCs and the scarcity of studies focused on the effects of phenolic compounds, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of apigenin, hesperidin and kaempferol on pre-adipocyte and mature adipocytes derived from this type of cells. In addition, the expression of genes involved in TG accumulation was also measured...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161576/unraveling-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-olive-olea-europaea-l-cv-ch%C3%A3-toui-tolerance-to-drought-and-salt-stresses
#16
Mariem Ben Abdallah, Dalila Trupiano, Antonella Polzella, Elena De Zio, Mauro Sassi, Andrea Scaloni, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Nabil Ben Youssef, Gabriella Stefania Scippa
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an economically important crop for the Mediterranean basin, where prolonged drought and soil salinization may occur. This plant has developed a series of mechanisms to tolerate and grow under these adverse conditions. By using an integrated approach, we described in Chétoui olive cultivar the changes in plant growth, oxidative damage and osmolyte accumulation in leaves, in combination with corresponding changes in physiological parameters and proteome. Our results showed, under both stress conditions, a greater growth reduction of the aboveground plant organs than of the underground counterparts...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161294/embryonic-cholesterol-esterification-is-regulated-by-a-cyclic-amp-dependent-pathway-in-yolk-sac-membrane-derived-endodermal-epithelial-cells
#17
Siou-Huei Wang, Han-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yu Lin, Yu-Jen Chen, Yu-Hui Pan, Cheng-Ting Tung, Harry John Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
During avian embryonic development, endodermal epithelial cells (EECs) absorb yolk through the yolk sac membrane. Sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) is important for esterification and yolk lipid utilization during development. Because the major enzyme for yolk sac membrane cholesteryl ester synthesis is SOAT1, we cloned the avian SOAT1 promoter and elucidated the cellular functions of SOAT1. Treatments with either glucagon, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), an adenylate cyclase activator (forskolin), a cAMP analog (dibutyryl-cAMP), or a low glucose concentration all increased SOAT1 mRNA accumulation in EECs from Japanese quail, suggesting that SOAT1 is regulated by nutrients and hormones through a cAMP-dependent pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160608/apple-fruit-superficial-scald-resistance-mediated-by-ethylene-inhibition-is-associated-with-diverse-metabolic-processes
#18
Nicola Busatto, Brian Farneti, Mauro Commisso, Martino Bianconi, Barbara Iadarola, Elisa Zago, Benedetto Ruperti, Francesco Spinelli, Angelo Zanella, Riccardo Velasco, Alberto Ferrarini, Giulia Chitarrini, Urska Vrhovsek, Massimo Delledonne, Flavia Guzzo, Guglielmo Costa, Fabrizio Costa
Fruits stored at low temperature can exhibit different types of chilling injury. In apple, one of the most serious physiological disorders is superficial scald, which is characterized by discoloration and brown necrotic patches on the fruit exocarp. Although this phenomenon is widely ascribed to the oxidation of α-farnesene, its physiology is not yet fully understood. To elucidate the mechanism of superficial scald development and possible means of prevention, we performed an integrated metabolite screen, including an analysis of volatiles, phenols and lipids, together with a large-scale transcriptome study...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159529/plasma-p-cresol-lowering-effect-of-sevelamer-in-non-dialysis-ckd-patients-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Eleonora Riccio, Massimo Sabbatini, Dario Bruzzese, Lucia Grumetto, Cristina Marchetiello, Maria Amicone, Michele Andreucci, Bruna Guida, Davide Passaretti, Giacomo Russo, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of p-cresol, a metabolic product of aromatic amino acids generated by intestinal microbiome, increases the cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies to reduce plasma p-cresol levels are highly demanded. It has been reported that the phosphate binder sevelamer (SEV) sequesters p-cresol in vitro, while in vivo studies on dialysis patients showed controversial results. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels in non-dialysis CKD patients...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158964/ginsenoside-rk1-bioactivity-a-systematic-review
#20
Abdelrahman Elshafay, Ngo Xuan Tinh, Samar Salman, Yara Saber Shaheen, Eman Bashir Othman, Mohamed Tamer Elhady, Aswin Ratna Kansakar, Linh Tran, Le Van, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Ginsenoside Rk1 (G-Rk1) is a unique component created by processing the ginseng plant (mainly Sung Ginseng (SG)) at high temperatures. The aim of our study was to systematically review the pharmacological effects of G-Rk1. We utilized and manually searched eight databases to select in vivo and in vitro original studies that provided information about biological, pharmaceutical effects of G-Rk1 and were published up to July 2017 with no restriction on language or study design. Out of the 156 papers identified, we retrieved 28 eligible papers in the first skimming phase of research...
2017: PeerJ
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