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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074260/rattling-the-border-wall-pathophysiological-implications-of-functional-and-proteomic-venom-variation-between-mexican-and-us-subspecies-of-the-desert-rattlesnake-crotalus-scutulatus
#1
James Dobson, Daryl Yang, Bianca Op den Brouw, Chip Cochran, Tam Huynh, Sanjaya Kurrupu, Elda E Sánchez, Daniel J Massey, Kate Baumann, Timothy N W Jackson, Amanda Nouwens, Peter Josh, Edgar Neri-Castro, Alejandro Alagón, Wayne C Hodgson, Bryan G Fry
While some US populations of the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are infamous for being potently neurotoxic, the Mexican subspecies C. s. salvini (Huamantlan rattlesnake) has been largely unstudied beyond crude lethality testing upon mice. In this study we show that at least some populations of this wide-ranging snake are as potently neurotoxic as its northern cousin. Testing of the Mexican antivenom Antivipmyn showed a complete lack of neutralisation for the neurotoxic effects of C. s. salvini venom, while the neurotoxic effects of the US subspecies C...
October 23, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063276/the-infamous-famous-sulfonylureas-and-cardiovascular-safety-much-ado-about-nothing
#2
REVIEW
Laurentiu M Pop, Ildiko Lingvay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sulfonylureas (SUs) are one of the most commonly used glucose-lowering agents worldwide. While their efficacy is undisputed, their cardiovascular safety has been debated since the 1970's. RECENT FINDINGS: With no dedicated cardiovascular studies to definitively answer this question, observational studies and meta-analyses abound and have reported divergent results, fueling the controversy. Studies that compared SUs to metformin or newer agents, like GLP-1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, suggest a difference in cardiovascular events, yet this is likely the result of beneficial effects of the latter...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855209/therapeutic-targeting-of-oncogenic-tyrosine-phosphatases
#3
REVIEW
Rochelle Frankson, Zhi-Hong Yu, Yunpeng Bai, Qinglin Li, Ruo-Yu Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are exciting and novel targets for cancer drug discovery that work in concert with protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) in controlling cellular homeostasis. Given the activating role that some PTKs play in initiating growth factor-mediated cellular processes, PTPs are usually perceived as the negative regulators of these events and therefore tumor suppressive in nature. However, mounting evidence indicate that PTPs do not always antagonize the activity of PTKs in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation, but can also play dominant roles in the initiation and progression of signaling cascades that regulate cell functions...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769045/arsenic-exposure-impels-cd4-commitment-in-thymus-and-suppress-t-cell-cytokine-secretion-by-increasing-regulatory-t-cells
#4
Ruchi Gera, Vikas Singh, Sumonto Mitra, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Alok Singh, Arunava Dasgupta, Dhirendra Singh, Mahadeo Kumar, Pankaj Jagdale, Satyakam Patnaik, Debabrata Ghosh
Arsenic is globally infamous for inducing immunosuppression associated with prevalence of opportunistic infection in exposed population, although the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we investigate the effect of arsenic exposure on thymocyte lineage commitment and the involvement of regulatory T cells (Treg) in arsenic-induced immunosuppression. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to 0.038, 0.38 and 3.8 ppm sodium arsenite for 7, 15 and 30 days through oral gavage. Arsenic exposure promoted CD4 lineage commitment in a dose dependent manner supported by the expression of ThPOK in thymus...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751210/melamine-beyond-the-kidney-a-ubiquitous-endocrine-disruptor-and-neurotoxicant
#5
REVIEW
Ashley L Bolden, Johanna R Rochester, Carol F Kwiatkowski
Melamine is commonly used in a variety of consumer products such as furniture, dining ware, and food utensils. The chemical infamously gained worldwide attention by its illegal addition to a variety of foodstuffs in order to falsify protein content, which led to serious, sometimes fatal, health impacts in children and pets. This resulted in a large amount of published primary studies and reviews of the impacts of melamine exposure on kidney function. However, a growing body of literature suggests that melamine may have impacts beyond renal dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746410/environmental-factors-influencing-the-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-carybdea-marsupialis-lineo-1978-cubozoa-in-south-western-mediterranean-coasts
#6
Antonio Canepa, Verónica Fuentes, Mar Bosch-Belmar, Melissa Acevedo, Kilian Toledo-Guedes, Antonio Ortiz, Elia Durá, César Bordehore, Josep-Maria Gili
Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733711/a-brief-history-of-neurological-botulinum-toxin-therapy-in-germany
#7
REVIEW
Dirk Dressler, Peter Roggenkaemper
Botulinum toxin (BT) has long been infamous in food safety and biological warfare. In the early 1970s, Alan B Scott of San Francisco invented its therapeutic use originally in extraocular eye muscles to treat strabismus using a therapeutic BT type A preparation provided by Edward J Schantz and Eric A Johnson. Subsequently a large number of medical indications based on motor and glandular hyperactivity and-most recently-chronic migraine are now treated by BT therapy. BT's highly specific and elaborate mechanism of action represents a completely novel therapeutic principle which will have consequences far beyond existing indications...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731295/biogeochemistry-of-lead-its-release-to-the-environment-and-chemical-speciation
#8
Jay T Cullen, Jason McAlister
Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683741/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-cystic-echinococcosis-and-sheep-herding-in-peru-a-mixed-methods-approach
#9
Veronika Merino, Christopher M Westgard, Angela M Bayer, Patricia J García
BACKGROUND: The parasitic disease, cystic echinococcosis (CE), is prevalent in low-income, livestock-raising communities and 2000 new people will be diagnosed this year in South America alone. The disease usually passes from livestock to dogs to humans, making it a zoonotic disease and part of the One Health Initiative. Control of CE has been infamously difficult; no endemic areas of South America have succeeded in maintaining sustainable eradication of the parasite. For the current study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of rural sheep farmers and other community leaders regarding their sheep herding practices and perspectives about a control program for CE...
July 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631594/human-picornaviruses-associated-with-neurological-diseases-and-their-neutralization-by-antibodies
#10
REVIEW
Maria Anastasina, Aušra Domanska, Kaia Palm, Sarah Butcher
Picornaviruses are the most commonly encountered infectious agents in mankind. They typically cause mild infections of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract, but sometimes also invade the central nervous system. There, they can cause severe diseases with long-term sequelae and even be lethal. The most infamous picornavirus is poliovirus, for which significant epidemics of poliomyelitis were reported from the end of the nineteenth century. A successful vaccination campaign has brought poliovirus close to eradication, but neurological diseases caused by other picornaviruses have increasingly been reported since the late 1990s...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598280/pathogens-and-glioma-a-history-of-unexpected-discoveries-ushering-in-novel-therapy
#11
Ashish H Shah, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Michael E Ivan, Ricardo J Komotar, Noriyuki Kasahara
In the late 19th century, Dr. William B. Coley introduced the theory that infections may aid in the treatment of malignancy. With the creation of Coley's toxin, reports of remission during viral illnesses for systemic malignancies soon emerged. A few decades after this initial discovery, Austrian physicians performed intravascular injections of Clostridium to induce oncolysis in patients with glioblastoma. Since then, suggestions between improved survival and infectious processes have been reported in several patients with glioma, which ultimately marshaled the infamous use of intracerebral Enterobacter...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579926/defeating-buffer-overflow-a-trivial-but-dangerous-bug
#12
Paul E Black, Irena Bojanova
The C programming language was invented more than 40 years ago. It is infamous for buffer overflows. We have learned a lot about computer science, language design, and software engineering since then. Because it is unlikely that we will stop using C any time soon, we present some ways to deal with BOF. Many of these techniques are also useful for other programing languages and other classes of vulnerabilities.
November 2016: IT Professional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571033/how-to-develop-intelligence-gathering-in-efficient-and-practical-anti-doping-activities
#13
Mathieu Holz, Jack Robertson
Prior to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the fight against doping in sport was not unified; instead, it relied on individual approaches established by various stakeholders to make it effective. The scandal of the Festina Affair, during the Tour de France 1998, and other drug doping scandals revealed the ineffectiveness and inadequacy of such an approach. The resulting media scandal raised public authorities' awareness about the necessity to deal with doping in sport with a harmonized and a more effective approach...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435885/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-the-oomycete-phylogeny-derived-from-37-genomes
#14
Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the Stramenopiles-Alveolata-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup which includes ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens, most infamously the causative agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic studies both of individual oomycete genera and of members of the larger class have resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning species phylogenies within the oomycetes, particularly for the large Phytophthora genus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414070/the-unhealthy-attraction-of-plasmodium-vivax-to-reticulocytes-expressing-transferrin-receptor-1-cd71
#15
REVIEW
Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Bruce Russell
The majority of malaria parasite species prefer to invade reticulocytes, the most infamous being Plasmodium vivax. While the absence of an in vitro continuous culture method has hampered the study of P. vivax invasion biology, studies utilising primate models and ex vivo assays have provided some important insights. Most importantly, P. vivax merozoites have a strong preference for a subset of immature erythrocytes characterised by the expression of the transferrin receptor (CD71). This current opinion piece on P...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398668/-the-legacy-of-thalidomide-a-multidisciplinary-meeting-held-at-the-university-of-york-united-kingdom-on-september-30-2016
#16
Elizabeth Newbronner, Neil Vargesson, Karl Atkin
BACKGROUND: Between 1957 and 1962 thalidomide was used as a nonaddictive, nonbarbiturate sedative that also was successful in relieving the symptoms of morning sickness in early pregnancy. Infamously, thousands of babies were subsequently born with severe birth defects. The drug is used again, today, to successfully treat leprosy, and tragically, there is a new generation of thalidomide damaged children in Brazil. While the outward damage in babies has been documented, the effects of the damage upon the survivors as they grow up, the lifestyle changes and adaptations required to be made, as well as studies into ageing in survivors, has received little attention and remains understudied...
March 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394281/was-jack-the-ripper-a-slaughterman-human-animal-violence-and-the-world-s-most-infamous-serial-killer
#17
Andrew Knight, Katherine D Watson
Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of "Jack the Ripper". His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife-and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs-led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic...
April 10, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377812/psychiatric-reform-in-greece-an-overview
#18
George Giannakopoulos, Dimitris C Anagnostopoulos
Leros became infamous worldwide in the 1980s because of a scandal in its mental institution, the Leros asylum. The scandal provoked universal outrage and the international pressure triggered the Greek mental health reform. Under the reform projects Leros I and Leros II (1990-1994), numerous interventions took place in the Leros asylum as part of deinstitutionalisation. Following that, the Psychargos programme advanced developments for community-based services. Deinstitutionalisation and development of community mental health services have advanced significantly since the 1980s...
December 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363023/reconstructing-early-industrial-contributions-to-legacy-trace-metal-contamination-in-southwestern-pennsylvania
#19
Robert J Rossi, Daniel J Bain, Aubrey L Hillman, David P Pompeani, Matthew S Finkenbinder, Mark B Abbott
Early industrial trace metal loadings are poorly characterized but potentially substantial sources of trace metals to the landscape. The magnitude of legacy contamination in southwestern Pennsylvania, the cradle of North American fossil fuel industrialization, is reconstructed from trace metal concentrations in a sediment core with proxies including major and trace metal chemistry, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Trace metal chemistry in this sediment record reflects 19th and 20th century land use and industry...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280720/strategies-to-inhibit-myc-and-their-clinical-applicability
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan R Whitfield, Marie-Eve Beaulieu, Laura Soucek
Myc is an oncogene deregulated in most-perhaps all-human cancers. Each Myc family member, c-, L-, and N-Myc, has been connected to tumor progression and maintenance. Myc is recognized as a "most wanted" target for cancer therapy, but has for many years been considered undruggable, mainly due to its nuclear localization, lack of a defined ligand binding site, and physiological function essential to the maintenance of normal tissues. The challenge of identifying a pharmacophore capable of overcoming these hurdles is reflected in the current absence of a clinically-viable Myc inhibitor...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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