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Vinita Tiwari, Shradha Bagaria, Anjali A Karande
Abrin, a type II ribosome inactivating protein from the Abrus precatorius plant, is extremely toxic. It has been shown to be 75 times more potent than its infamous sister toxin, ricin and their potential use in bio-warfare is a cause of major concern. Although several vaccine candidates are under clinical trials for ricin, none are available against abrin. The present study proposes a chimeric protein, comprising of 1-123 amino acids taken from the A chain of abrin and 124-175 amino acids from Abrus precatorius agglutinin A chain, as a vaccine candidate against abrin intoxication...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Monika Rużycka, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Marcin Fudalej, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Wroczyński
Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in biological matrix...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Thierry Soussi, Peter E M Taschner, Yardena Samuels
Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) are the most frequent genetic changes found in human cancer. Most driver alterations are missense and nonsense variants localized in the coding region of cancer genes. Unbiased cancer genome sequencing shows that synonymous SNVs (sSNVs) can be found clustered in the coding regions of several cancer oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes suggesting purifying selection. sSNVs are currently underestimated, as they are usually discarded during analysis. Furthermore, several public databases do not display sSNVs, which can lead to analytical bias and the false assumption that this mutational event is uncommon...
December 27, 2016: Human Mutation
Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, Michelle L Kirtley, Jian Sha, Tatiana E Erova, Sadhana Chauhan, Vladimir L Motin, Ashok K Chopra
The Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the infamous Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, have a highly conserved interbacterial signaling system that is mediated by the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing molecule. The AI-2 system is implicated in regulating various bacterial virulence genes in diverse environmental niches. Deletion of the gene encoding the synthetic enzyme for the AI-2 substrate, luxS, leads to either no significant change or, paradoxically, an increase in in vivo bacterial virulence...
November 2016: MSphere
Na Xu, Tao Qian, Xuejun Liu, Jie Liu, Yu Chen, Chenglin Yan
The high solubility of long-chain lithium polysulfides and their infamous shuttle effect in lithium sulfur battery lead to rapid capacity fading along with low Coulombic efficiency. To address above issues, we propose a new strategy to suppress the shuttle effect for greatly enhanced lithium sulfur battery performance mainly through the formation of short-chain intermediates during discharging, which allows significant improvements including high capacity retention of 1022 mAh/g with 87% retention for 450 cycles...
December 15, 2016: Nano Letters
Jacob O'Brien, Heyam Hayder, Chun Peng
The National Institute of Health's ImageJ is a powerful, freely available image processing software suite. ImageJ has comprehensive particle analysis algorithms which can be used effectively to count various biological particles. When counting large numbers of cell samples, the hemocytometer presents a bottleneck with regards to time. Likewise, counting membranes from migration/invasion assays with the ImageJ plugin Cell Counter, although accurate, is exceptionally labor intensive, subjective, and infamous for causing wrist pain...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jason B Liu, Marshall S Baker
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms infamous for their endocrinopathies. Up to 90% of PNETs, however, are nonfunctional and are frequently detected incidentally on axial imaging during the evaluation of vague abdominal symptoms. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy for patients diagnosed with both functional and nonfunctional PNETs. However, the multifaceted nature of PNETs challenges treatment decision making. In general, resection is recommended for patients with acceptable perioperative risk and amenable lesions...
December 2016: Surgical Clinics of North America
Martin Bayer, Daniel Slane, Gerd Jürgens
In nearly all flowering plants, the basic body plan is laid down during embryogenesis. In Arabidopsis, the crucial cell types are established extremely early as reflected in the stereotypic sequence of oriented cell divisions in the developing young embryo. Research into early embryogenesis was especially focused on the role of the infamous tryptophan derivative auxin in establishing embryo polarity and generating the main body axis. However, it is becoming obvious that the mere link to auxin does not provide any mechanistic understanding of early embryo patterning...
October 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Adam M Kubas, Daniel Berger, Harald Oberhofer, Dimitrios Maganas, Karsten Reuter, Frank Neese
Coupled cluster theory with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) is widely considered to be the 'gold standard' of ab initio quantum chemistry. Using the domain-based pair natural orbital local correlation concept (DLPNO-CCSD(T)), these calculations can be performed on systems with hundreds of atoms at an accuracy of about 99.9% of the canonical CCSD(T) method. This allows for ab initio calculations providing reference adsorption energetics at solid surfaces with an accuracy approaching 1 kcal/mol...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tanapon Phenrat, Pimpawat Teeratitayangkul, Isarawut Prasertsung, Rattapoohm Parichatprecha, Peerapong Jitsangiam, Narong Chomchalow, Siriwan Wichai
This research evaluated the feasibility of using vetiver plantlets (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) on a floating platform with aeration to degrade phenol (500 mg/L) in illegally dumped industrial wastewater (IDIWW). The IDIWW sample was from the most infamous illegal dumping site at Nong Nae subdistrict, Phanom Sarakham district, Chachoengsao province, Thailand. Laboratory results suggested that phenol degradation by vetiver involves two phases: Phase I, phytopolymerization and phyto-oxidation assisted by root-produced peroxide (H2O2) and peroxidase (POD), followed by phase II, a combination of phase I with enhanced rhizomicrobial degradation...
September 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Séverine Martin-Lannerée, Sophie Halliez, Théo Z Hirsch, Julia Hernandez-Rapp, Bruno Passet, Céline Tomkiewicz, Ana Villa-Diaz, Juan-Maria Torres, Jean-Marie Launay, Vincent Béringue, Jean-Luc Vilotte, Sophie Mouillet-Richard
The prion protein is infamous for its involvement in a group of neurodegenerative diseases known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. In the longstanding quest to decipher the physiological function of its cellular isoform, PrP(C) , the discovery of its participation to the self-renewal of hematopoietic and neural stem cells has cast a new spotlight on its potential role in stem cell biology. However, still little is known on the cellular and molecular mechanisms at play. Here, by combining in vitro and in vivo murine models of PrP(C) depletion, we establish that PrP(C) deficiency severely affects the Notch pathway, which plays a major role in neural stem cell maintenance...
September 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Stefanie Hechler, Franz J Neyer, Thomas Kessler
People remember uncooperative individuals better than cooperative ones. We hypothesize that this is particularly true when uncooperative individuals belong to one's ingroup, as their behavior violates positive expectations. Two studies examined the effect of minimal group categorization on reputational memory of the social behavior of particular ingroup and outgroup members. We manipulated uncooperative behavior as the unfair sharing of resources with ingroup members (Study 1), or as descriptions of cheating (Study 2)...
December 2016: Cognition
Lok R Pokhrel, Nicholas Ettore, Zachary L Jacobs, Asha Zarr, Mark H Weir, Phillip R Scheuerman, Sushil R Kanel, Brajesh Dubey
Infamous for "Mad hatter syndrome" and "Minamata disease", mercury (Hg) is ranked high on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's priority list of hazardous substances for its potent neurologic, renal, and developmental toxicities. Most typical exposures are via contaminated water and food. Although regulations and advisories are exercised at various levels, Hg pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources has remained a major public health and safety concern. Rapid detection of solvated aqueous Hg(2+) ions at low levels is critical for immediate response and protection of those who are vulnerable (young children, pregnant and breast-feeding women) to acute and chronic exposures to Hg(2+)...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wilson R Lourenço
The aim of this contribution is to bring general information on the classification and in particular on the specific identification of scorpion species dangerous to humans. Several generic groups are taken into consideration, but the Neotropical genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 is used as a major example. The content of this paper is mostly addressed to non-specialists whose research embraces scorpions in several fields such as venom toxins and public health. Although efforts have been made in the last 20 years to create better links between 'true scorpion experts' and non-specialists who use scorpions in their research, such exchanges had never led to a consensus among those different branches of biological and medical research...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Katarina Starkl Renar, Jernej Iskra, Igor Križaj
Recognized since antiquity, malaria is one of the most infamous and widespread infectious diseases in humans and, although the death rate during the last century has been diminishing, it still accounts for more than a half million deaths annually. It is caused by the Plasmodium parasite and typical symptoms include fever, shivering, headache, diaphoresis and nausea, all resulting from an excessive inflammatory response induced by malarial toxins released into the victim's bloodstream. These toxins are hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lech Kaczmarczyk, Ylva Mende, Branko Zevnik, Walker S Jackson
The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp) is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems...
2016: PloS One
A Mulchrone, M Shokoueinejad, J Webster
Although almost completely unknown half a century ago, sleep disorders are gaining recognition as major issues to public health due to their growing prevalence and dire societal consequences. Despite being linked to several infamous catastrophic events such as Chernobyl, it is estimated that 90% of sufferers fail to get diagnosed and receive treatment, and a significant portion of the ones that do are often non-compliant due to the side effects of current treatments. This article presents a review of the current standard treatment for central sleep apnea, and investigates the advantages and possible consequences of using inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) as an alternative treatment option...
May 2016: Physiological Measurement
Barron H Lerner, Arthur L Caplan
Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons...
April 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Saswati Chand, Kevin O'Hayer, Fernando F Blanco, Jordan M Winter, Jonathan R Brody
Pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, PDA) is infamously moving to the top of the list as one of the most lethal cancers with an overall 5 year survival rate of 7%. Multiple genomic-based and molecular characterization studies of PDA specimens and established animal models have provided the field with multiple targets and a progression model of this disease. Still, to date, the best therapeutic options are surgery and combination cytotoxic therapies. In general, even in the best case scenario (i...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Sara Aljohani, Maria Bustillo, Sergey Pisklakov
On January 24, 1848, delirious from chloroform, Horace Wells rushed from his house and office on 120 Chambers St into the street and threw acid on 2 alleged prostitutes. He was arrested and committed to New York's infamous Tombs Prison (currently Manhattan Detention Complex), where he committed suicide. Remodeled and reconstructed, this house, 120 Chambers St, is still standing in Tribeca District.
January 2016: Journal of Anesthesia History
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