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Paola Altieri, Maria Bertolotto, Patrizia Fabbi, Elena Sportelli, Manrico Balbi, Francesco Santini, Claudio Brunelli, Marco Canepa, Fabrizio Montecucco, Pietro Ameri
The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled "Thrombin induces protease-activated receptor 1 signaling and activation of human atrial fibroblasts and dabigatran prevents these effects" (Altieri et al., 2018) [1]. Data show that silencing of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) prevents the activation of Fib isolated from atrial appendages of patients without atrial fibrillation (AF), as assessed by immunofluorescence for α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and Picro-Sirius red staining...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Nikhil Yegya-Raman, Kyle Wang, Sinae Kim, Meral Reyhan, Matthew P Deek, Mutlay Sayan, Diana Li, Malini Patel, Jyoti Malhotra, Joseph Aisner, Lawrence B Marks, Salma K Jabbour
HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that higher cardiac doses correlates with clinically significant cardiotoxicity after standard-dose chemoradiation therapy (CRT) (∼60 Gy) for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 140 patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with concurrent CRT from 2007-2015. Extracted data included baseline cardiac status, dosimetric parameters to the whole heart (WH) and cardiac substructures, and the development of post-CRT symptomatic cardiac events (acute coronary syndrome [ACS], arrhythmia, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, and congestive heart failure [CHF])...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Vincent W W van Eif, Harsha D Devalla, Gerard J J Boink, Vincent M Christoffels
The rate and rhythm of heart muscle contractions are coordinated by the cardiac conduction system (CCS), a generic term for a collection of different specialized muscular tissues within the heart. The CCS components initiate the electrical impulse at the sinoatrial node, propagate it from atria to ventricles via the atrioventricular node and bundle branches, and distribute it to the ventricular muscle mass via the Purkinje fibre network. The CCS thereby controls the rate and rhythm of alternating contractions of the atria and ventricles...
June 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Eduardo Jorge Godoy, Miguel Lozano, Ignacio García-Fernández, Ana Ferrer-Albero, Rob MacLeod, Javier Saiz, Rafael Sebastian
Introduction: Focal atrial tachycardia is commonly treated by radio frequency ablation with an acceptable long-term success. Although the location of ectopic foci tends to appear in specific hot-spots, they can be located virtually in any atrial region. Multi-electrode surface ECG systems allow acquiring dense body surface potential maps (BSPM) for non-invasive therapy planning of cardiac arrhythmia. However, the activation of the atria could be affected by fibrosis and therefore biomarkers based on BSPM need to take these effects into account...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zach Rozenbaum, Orit Kliuk Ben-Bassat, Yitzhak Hadad, Moshe Iluz, Yoav Granot, Tomer Ziv-Baran, Shlomo Berliner, Galit Aviram
BACKGROUND: Cardiac chambers' sizes were previously studied by echocardiography, among patients with progressive kidney disease only. We aimed to explore the relations between all heart chambers' volumes as assessed by CT pulmonary angiography and renal function - throughout all ranges. METHODS: Using a novel technology of automatic four chamber volumetric analysis, we analyzed CT pulmonary angiographies of 744 consecutive patients (between January 1st and December 31st , 2014) without pulmonary embolism, and correlated the chambers' volumes indexed to body surface area, to the estimated glomerular filtration rates...
May 30, 2018: Chest
Nicholas Child, Richard H Clayton, Caroline R Roney, Jacob I Laughner, Allan Shuros, Petr Neuzil, Jan Petru, Tom Jackson, Bradley Porter, Julian Bostock, Steven A Niederer, Reza S Razavi, Christopher A Rinaldi, Peter Taggart, Matthew J Wright, Jaswinder Gill
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms that initiate and sustain persistent atrial fibrillation are not well characterized. Ablation results remain significantly worse than in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in which the mechanism is better understood and subsequent targeted therapy has been developed. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify patterns of activation during atrial fibrillation using contact mapping. METHODS: Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (n=14; mean age, 61±8 years; ejection fraction, 59±10%) underwent simultaneous biatrial contact mapping with 64 electrode catheters...
June 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Dipika Gopal, Jing Wang, Yuchi Han
Background: Indexed left atrial volume (LAVi) is a robust predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. A minority of patients with moderate-to-severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction maintain normal LAVi. We followed clinical and echocardiographic parameters for at least 6 months to understand how this population is different from patients with similar systolic dysfunction and dilated left atria. Methods and Results: We searched our electronic medical records for "normal" ( n =817) and "severely dilated" ( n =1094) LA size and LV ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35% on echocardiogram reports from 2009 to 2015...
2018: Cardiology Research and Practice
Yiwei Xu, Xiaofeng Ye, Zhaolong Li, Qiang Zhao
This case report illustrates a patient who underwent supra-annular mechanical aortic valve replacement then suffered from prosthesis dysfunction, increasing pressure gradient with aortic valve. She was successfully underwent aortic valve re-replacement, sub-annular pannus removing and aortic annulus enlargement procedures through combined cardiac incision passing through aortic root, right atrium (RA), and upper atrial septum. This incision provides optimal visual operative field and simplifies dissection.
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Leonid B Reshko, Noah S Kalman, Geoffrey D Hugo, Elisabeth Weiss
Background: The impact of radiation dose to the heart in early-stage lung cancer patients treated with definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is not well known. We, therefore, analyzed whether higher radiation dose to the heart would lead to an increase in cardiac toxicity and overall mortality. Methods: Seventy-four patients with 75 tumors treated definitively with SBRT for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and two cases of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with an average follow-up of 35 months (range, 1-130 months) were retrospectively analyzed...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hamza Zafar, Lisa Anderson, Andrew T Cox, Rachel Bastiaenen
A 59-year-old woman presented with a sudden onset of breathlessness and chest pain. An echocardiography and CT scan showed pulmonary embolism and infarction with a paradoxical thrombus visualised in both atria. For haemodynamically stable patients, the optimal management strategy is poorly defined. Three main strategies were considered: surgical thrombectomy, thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Surgery with reversal of anticoagulation may lead to further coagulation and increased risk of bleeding complications...
May 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
T Vandecasteele, P Cornillie, G van Steenkiste, K Vandevelde, I Gielen, K Vanderperren, G van Loon
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is the imaging technique of choice for the equine heart. Nevertheless, knowledge about ulrasonographic identification of dorsally located structures and vessels, related to the atria, in horses is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To describe the echocardiographic approach and the identification of structures and vessels in relation to the atria in healthy horses. METHODS: CT images from two equine hearts, casted with self-expanding foam, were segmented and used to identify atrial-related structures and vessels...
May 28, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Hua Shen, Jing Wang, Jie Min, Wang Xi, Yang Gao, Liang Yin, Yue Yu, Kai Liu, Jian Xiao, Yu-Feng Zhang, Zhi-Nong Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate whether galectin-3 (Gal-3) contributes actively to atrial fibrosis both in patients and experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) models. METHODS: Mouse HL-1 cardiomyocytes were subjected to rapid electrical stimulation (RES) to explore Gal-3 expression and secretion levels by western blotting (WB) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were treated with conditioned culture medium and recombinant human Gal-3 to evaluate the activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)/collagen I (Col I) profibrotic pathway (WB) and fibroblast proliferation with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)...
May 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chunxia Yao, Tina Veleva, Larry Scott, Shuyi Cao, Luge Li, Gong Chen, Prince Jeyabal, Xiaolu Pan, Katherina M Alsina, Issam Abu-Taha, Shokoufeh Ghezelbash, Corey L Reynolds, Ying H Shen, Scott A LeMaire, Wilhelm Schmitz, Frank U Müller, Ali El-Armouche, N Tony Eissa, Christine Beeton, Stanley Nattel, Xander H T Wehrens, Dobromir Dobrev, Na Li
Background -Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently associated with enhanced inflammatory response. The "NACHT, LRR and PYD domain containing protein 3" (NLRP3)-inflammasome mediates caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β release in immune cells, but is not known to play a role in cardiomyocytes (CMs). Here, we assessed the role of CM NLRP3-inflammasome in AF. Methods -NLRP3-inflammasome activation was assessed by immunoblot in atrial whole-tissue lysates and CMs from patients with paroxysmal (pAF) or long-standing persistent (chronic) AF (cAF)...
May 25, 2018: Circulation
Alan S Go, Kristi Reynolds, Jingrong Yang, Nigel Gupta, Judith Lenane, Sue Hee Sung, Teresa N Harrison, Taylor I Liu, Matthew D Solomon
Importance: Atrial fibrillation is a potent risk factor for stroke, but whether the burden of atrial fibrillation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation independently influences the risk of thromboembolism remains controversial. Objective: To determine if the burden of atrial fibrillation characterized using noninvasive, continuous ambulatory monitoring is associated with the risk of ischemic stroke or arterial thromboembolism in adults with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation...
May 16, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Nicolas Johner, Mehdi Namdar, Dipen Shah
The ECG provides information about heart rhythm and myocardial integrity, including the atria. The sinus P wave exhibits a 0‑90° axis and a generally biphasic morphology in lead V1. An amplitude >2 mm in lead II and >1 mm in lead V1 is a specific sign of right atrial enlargement, often related to pulmonary disease or pulmonary hypertension. Interatrial block (IAB) is defined as a P-wave ≥120 ms with, in the advanced form, a biphasic morphology in inferior leads. It is most commonly seen in the context of advanced age, cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery disease or valvulopathies...
May 23, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Jie Liu, Jason D Bayer, Roozbeh Aschar-Sobbi, Marianne Wauchop, Danna Spears, Michael Gollob, Edward J Vigmond, Robert Tsushima, Peter H Backx, Vijay S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: The SCN5A mutation, P1332L, is linked to a malignant form of congenital long QT syndrome, type 3 (LQT3), and affected patients are highly responsive to the Na+ channel blocking drug, mexiletine. In contrast, A647D is an atypical SCN5A mutation causing Brugada syndrome. An asymptomatic male with both P1332L and A647D presented with varying P wave/QRS aberrancy and mild QTc prolongation which did not shorten measurably with mexiletine. OBJECTIVE: We characterized the biophysical properties of P1332L, A647D and wild-type (WT) Na+ channels as well as their combinations in order to understand our proband's phenotype and to guide mexilitine therapy...
2018: PloS One
S L Smirnova, I M Roshchevskaya, M P Roshchevsky, I B Tsorin, V N Stolyaruk, M B Vititnova, L G Kolik, S A Kryzhanovskii
Chronotopography of atrial subepicardium depolarization has been studied in a rat model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Formation of independent sources of initial atrial activity has been detected in the right and left atria. These sources induced the formation of several depolarization fronts that propagated autonomously, and this can be regarded as the cause of atrial arrhythmia.
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Tristan B Raisch, Matthew S Yanoff, Timothy R Larsen, Mohammed A Farooqui, D Ryan King, Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Robert G Gourdie, Joseph W Baker, William S Arnold, Soufian T AlMahameed, Steven Poelzing
Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Previous evidence in animal models suggests that the gap junction (GJ) adjacent nanodomain - perinexus - is a site capable of independent intercellular communication via ephaptic transmission. Perinexal expansion is associated with slowed conduction and increased ventricular arrhythmias in animal models, but has not been studied in human tissue. The purpose of this study was to characterize the perinexus in humans and determine if perinexal expansion associates with AF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rajiv A Mohan, Bastiaan J Boukens, Vincent M Christoffels
The components of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) generate and propagate the electrical impulse that initiates cardiac contraction. These interconnected components share properties, such as automaticity, that set them apart from the working myocardium of the atria and ventricles. A variety of tools and approaches have been used to define the CCS lineages. These include genetic labeling of cells expressing lineage markers and fate mapping of dye labeled cells, which we will discuss in this review. We conclude that there is not a single CCS lineage, but instead early cell fate decisions segregate the lineages of the CCS components while they remain interconnected...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Almary Guerra, Raoul Fv Germano, Oliver Stone, Rima Arnaout, Stefan Guenther, Suchit Ahuja, Verónica Uribe, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Didier Yr Stainier, Sven Reischauer
The ultimate formation of a four-chambered heart allowing the separation of the pulmonary and systemic circuits was key for the evolutionary success of tetrapods. Complex processes of cell diversification and tissue morphogenesis allow the left and right cardiac compartments to become distinct but remain poorly understood. Here, we describe an unexpected laterality in the single zebrafish atrium analogous to that of the two atria in amniotes, including mammals. This laterality appears to derive from an embryonic antero-posterior asymmetry revealed by the expression of the transcription factor gene meis2b ...
May 15, 2018: ELife
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