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Aabid Hussain Mir, Zulfiqar Ali, Bashir Ahmad Dar, Imtiaz A Naqash, Samreena Bashir
Congenital heart defects are associated with various physiological disturbances. They pose anesthetic challenges for both cardiac and noncardiac surgeries. Atrioventricular septal defects are due to a developmental failure in the separation of atria and the ventricles into separate chambers and failure in the separation of mitral and tricuspid valves. We present a case of a child (1½ years), weighing 10 kg, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus who was planned for ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Child was having an oxygen saturation of 76% on room air...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ursula Ravens, Katja E Odening
Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K(+)) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Farhood Saremi, Cameron Hassani, Damián Sánchez-Quintana
The septal atrioventricular junction is a centrally located region of the heart where the septal components of the atria and ventricles meet the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valves. Important structures in this region include the membranous septum, the central fibrous body, the Koch triangle, the inferior pyramidal space, and the base of the interventricular septum. This small area is the home of the atrioventricular node and the atrioventricular conduction axis and has enormous importance to electrophysiologists owing to its prime role in the conduction system of the heart...
October 14, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Rajashree Madabushi, Anil Agarwal, Saipriya Tewari, Sujeet K S Gautam, Sandeep Khuba
Wolff Parkinson White (WPW) syndrome is a condition in which there is an aberrant conduction pathway between the atria and ventricles, resulting in tachycardia. A 42-year-old patient, who was treated for WPW syndrome previously, presented with chronic somatic pain. With her cardiac condition in mind, she was thoroughly worked up for a recurrence of disease. As part of routine screening of all patients at our pain clinic, she was found to have severe depression as per the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) criteria...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
Alicia M Maceira, Juan Cosin-Sales, Sanjay K Prasad, Dudley J Pennell
BACKGROUND: Left and right atrial function show a different pattern in advanced age in order to maintain adequate ventricular filling. It has been shown that left atrial (LA) function has a prognostic value in a number of heart conditions. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides high quality images of the left and right atria using high temporal resolution steady state free precession (SSFP) cine sequences. We used SSFP cines to characterize atrial function in healthy, normotensive, volunteers...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Zhaoye Zhou, Qi Jin, Long Yu, Liqun Wu, Bin He
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of atrial electrophysiological properties is crucial for clinical intervention of atrial arrhythmias and the investigation of the underlying mechanism. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a novel noninvasive cardiac electrical imaging technique in imaging bi-atrial activation sequences from body surface potential maps (BSPMs). METHODS: The study includes 7 subjects, with 3 atrial flutter patients, and 4 healthy subjects with normal atrial activations...
2016: PloS One
Maureen E Czick, Christine L Shapter, David I Silverman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia in the world, due both to its tenacious treatment resistance, and to the tremendous number of risk factors that set the stage for the atria to fibrillate. Cardiopulmonary, behavioral, and psychological risk factors generate electrical and structural alterations of the atria that promote reentry and wavebreak. These culminate in fibrillation once atrial ectopic beats set the arrhythmia process in motion. There is growing evidence that chronic stress can physically alter the emotion centers of the limbic system, changing their input to the hypothalamic-limbic-autonomic network that regulates autonomic outflow...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Kalie Kebed, Eric Kruse, Karima Addetia, Boguslawa Ciszek, Minnie Thykattil, Brittney Guile, Roberto M Lang, Victor Mor-Avi
Current guidelines recommend that the atria be measured in 2D echocardiographic (2DE) apical views using the method-of-disks (MOD) or area-length (AL) technique as an alternative, although no definitive data exists that these are interchangeable. However, standard apical views maximize the long-axis of the left ventricle, rather than the dimensions of the atria, resulting in atrial foreshortening. We hypothesized that the increase in normal values of atrial volumes in the recent guidelines update was driven by data obtained using either the AL technique or dedicated atrial-focused views, which maximize the longitudinal dimension of the atria and thus provide larger volumes than the MOD measurements in standard apical views...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Denis V Abramochkin, Matti Vornanen
Fishes of north-temperate latitudes exhibit marked seasonal changes in electrical excitability of the heart partly as an outcome of temperature-dependent changes in the density of major K(+) ion currents: delayed rectifiers (IKr, IKs) and background inward rectifier (IK1). In the arctic teleost, navaga cod (Eleginus navaga), IKr and IK1 are strongly up-regulated in winter. The current study tests the hypothesis that the ligand-gated K(+) current, the acetylcholine-activated inward rectifier, IKACh, is also modified by seasonal acclimatization in atrial myocytes of navaga...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Rishi Arora, Gary L Aistrup, Stephen Supple, Caleb Frank, Jasleen Singh, Shannon Tai, Anne Zhao, Laura Chicos, William Marszalec, Ang Guo, Long-Sheng Song, J Andrew Wasserstrom
BACKGROUND: The peculiarities of T-tubule morphology and distribution in the atrium - and how they contribute to excitation-contraction coupling - are just beginning to be understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine T-tubule density in the intact, live right and left atria in a large animal and to determine intra-regional differences in T-tubule organization within each atrium. METHODS: Using confocal microscopy, T-tubules were imaged in both atria in intact, Langendorf-perfused normal dog hearts loaded with di-4-ANEPPS...
September 23, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Zewei Sun, Dongchen Zhou, Xudong Xie, Shuai Wang, Zhen Wang, Wenting Zhao, Hongfei Xu, Liangrong Zheng
Increased macrophage accumulation occurs in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the phenotype and functions of the macrophages in AF remain unclear. We investigated the macrophage-atrial myocyte interaction in AF patients and found that the increased macrophages were mainly pro-inflammatory macrophages (iNOS(+), Arg1(-)). Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial myocytes also led to pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pro-inflammatory macrophages-induced atrial electrical remodeling, evidenced by increased AF incidence and decreased atrial effective refractory period and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L) in both canine and mouse AF models...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Lamei Yu, Kuichang Yuan, Hoang Thi Ai Phuong, Byung Mun Park, Suhn Hee Kim
Angiotensin-(1-5) [Ang-(1-5)], which is a metabolite of Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is a pentapeptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). It has been reported that Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9) stimulate the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) via Mas receptor (Mas R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R), respectively. However, it still remains unknown whether Ang-(1-5) has a similar function to Ang-(1-7). We investigated the effect of Ang-(1-5) on ANP secretion and to define its signaling pathway using isolated perfused beating rat atria...
September 20, 2016: Peptides
Inger Njølstad, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Henrik Schirmer, Dag Steinar Thelle
The rapid increase of coronary heart disease mortality in Northern Norway during 1951-1970 was why the newly established University of Tromsø decided to start a study to identify major operating cardiovascular risk factors. The first Tromsø survey in 1974 suggested that the relatively high cardiovascular mortality was associated with elevated cholesterol levels and high prevalence of smoking, while high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was identified as a preventive factor. After 1974, six more surveys including both genders (aged 20 to 89 years) were undertaken...
September 21, 2016: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
V Nagibin, T Egan Benova, C Viczenczova, B Szeiffova Bacova, I Dovinova, M Barancik, N Tribulova
Mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, particularly in aged population, are not fully elucidated. We have previously shown an increased propensity of old guinea pigs (GPs) heart to inducible AF when comparing to young animals. This study aimed to verify our hypothesis that susceptibility of aged heart to AF may be attributed to abnormalities in myocardial connexin-43 (Cx43) and extracellular matrix that affect cardiac electrical properties. Experiments were conducted on male and female 4-week-old and 24-week-old GPs...
September 19, 2016: Physiological Research
B Szeiffová Bačová, T Egan Beňová, C Viczenczová, T Soukup, H Rauchová, S Pavelka, V Knezl, M Barančík, N Tribulová
Thyroid hormones are powerful modulators of heart function and susceptibility to arrhythmias via both genomic and non-genomic actions. We aimed to explore expression of electrical coupling protein connexin-43 (Cx43) in the heart of rats with altered thyroid status and impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) supplementation. Adult male Lewis rats were divided into following six groups: euthyroid controls, hyperthyroid (treated with T(3)) and hypothyroid (treated with methimazol) with or without six-weeks lasting supplementation with omega-3 (20 mg/100 g/day)...
September 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Thomas J Hund, Peter J Mohler
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia that arises from electrical and contractile dysfunction in the atria. Atrial function is regulated by a variety of intracellular signaling networks that facilitate rapid communication and coordinate responses of atrial myocytes. In this issue of the JCI, Brandenburg and colleagues describe the identification and characterization of "super-hub" signaling nodes located on atrial axial tubules that regulate atrial contraction. Together, the results of this study provide important insight into the regulation of atrial contraction and describe potential therapeutic targets to be explored in future studies...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sören Brandenburg, Tobias Kohl, George S B Williams, Konstantin Gusev, Eva Wagner, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Elke Hebisch, Miroslav Dura, Michael Didié, Michael Gotthardt, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Gerd Hasenfuss, Peter Kohl, Christopher W Ward, W Jonathan Lederer, Stephan E Lehnart
The canonical atrial myocyte (AM) is characterized by sparse transverse tubule (TT) invaginations and slow intracellular Ca2+ propagation but exhibits rapid contractile activation that is susceptible to loss of function during hypertrophic remodeling. Here, we have identified a membrane structure and Ca2+-signaling complex that may enhance the speed of atrial contraction independently of phospholamban regulation. This axial couplon was observed in human and mouse atria and is composed of voluminous axial tubules (ATs) with extensive junctions to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that include ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) clusters...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xiongfei Liang, Yifeng Yang
The clinical data for a patient with sick sinus syndrome was retrospectively analyzed. The patient was treated because of his heart palpitations and the increased chest pain. The patient admitted to the hospital under consideration for the left atrial tumor dependent on the echocardiography findings. After the CT scan and the dynamic ECG examination, the patient successfully underwent the left atrial tumor resection, atrial septal repair and cardiac pacing lead installation. The postoperative pathological diagnosis showed that the infective endocarditis and left atrial thrombus in left atrium was cured...
September 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Rohan S Wijesurendra, Alexander Liu, Christian Eichhorn, Rina Ariga, Eylem Levelt, William T Clarke, Christopher T Rodgers, Theodoros D Karamitsos, Yaver Bashir, Matthew Ginks, Kim Rajappan, Tim Betts, Vanessa M Ferreira, Stefan Neubauer, Barbara Casadei
BACKGROUND: Lone atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect a subclinical cardiomyopathy that persists after sinus rhythm (SR) restoration, providing a substrate for AF recurrence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of restoring SR by catheter ablation on left ventricular (LV) function and energetics in patients with AF but no significant comorbidities. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with symptomatic paroxysmal or persistent AF and without significant valvular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, coronary artery disease, uncontrolled thyroid disease, systemic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, or obstructive sleep apnea (ie, lone AF) undergoing ablation and 25 matched control subjects in SR were investigated...
October 11, 2016: Circulation
Elizabeth Kaufman, Michelle Hunter-Behrend, Eric Leroux, Laleh Gharahbaghian, Viveta Lobo
We report a cardiac mass detected by point-of-care ultrasound performed within the emergency department on a 65-year-old male with thymic cancer who presented with chronic cough and fever. Results from the initial emergency workup, which included blood tests, urinalysis, and a computerized tomography with angiography scan with venous phasing of the chest, did not result in a definitive diagnosis. A point-of-care echocardiogram was performed to evaluate for possible infective endocarditis, but alternatively identified a large mass in the right atria and ventricle...
August 4, 2016: Curēus
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