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acute pediatric encephalitis

Jacob Peacock, Idris Amin, Syed Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Jun-Ichi Kawada, Yusuke Okuno, Yuka Torii, Ryo Okada, Satoshi Hayano, Shotaro Ando, Yasuko Kamiya, Seiji Kojima, Yoshinori Ito
Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome that is occasionally associated with viral infection. Comprehensive virus detection assays are desirable because viral pathogens have not been identified in many cases. We evaluated the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detecting viruses in clinical samples of encephalitis/encephalopathy patients. We first determined the sensitivity and quantitative performance of NGS by comparing the NGS-determined number of sequences of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) in clinical serum samples with the HHV-6 load measured using real-time PCR...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Sevda Erer Özbek, Zuhal Yapıcı, Erdem Tüzün, Murat Giriş, Selcen Duran, Özlem Taşkapılıoğlu, Mehmet Okan
Encephalitis associated with leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is often encountered in elderly male patients and may infrequently present with isolated syndromes. A 6-year-old boy was admitted with acute onset severe oral and facial stereotypic and choreiform movements. On his neurologic examination, he had repetitive and rhythmic movements in orolingual muscles including tongue protrusion, limb chorea and minimal facial stereotypic movements. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers were found severely elevated in several measurements...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Carolina Carballo, Magdalena Cabana, Francisca Ledezma, Carolina Pascual, Claudia Cazes, Alicia Mistchenko, Eduardo López
Saint Louis encephalitis is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. In Argentina sporadic cases are registered. Symptomatic illness is unusual in children. We present a case of meningoencephalitis caused by an uncommon viral infection. The clinical signs and symptoms are unusual for pediatric patients and the bilateral thalamic compromise showed on magnetic resonance has not been described previously. An 8-year-old girl consulted due to fever, behavior disorders and ataxia. Clonus and neck stiffness were detected at physical exam...
August 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Jessica Kammer, Stefan Ziesing, Lukas Aguirre Davila, Eva Bültmann, Sabine Illsinger, Anibh M Das, Dieter Haffner, Hans Hartmann
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale...
October 2016: Neuropediatrics
Scott A McLeod, Wallace Wee, Francois D Jacob, Isabelle Chapados, Francois V Bolduc
Introduction. Acute complete external ophthalmoplegia is a rare finding in clinical practice that is associated with diseases affecting the neuromuscular junction, the oculomotor nerves, or the brainstem. Ophthalmoplegia has been reported with acute ataxia in Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE). Up to 95% of these cases are associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies. Only a small number of cases of anti-GQ1b negative MFS have been documented in pediatric patients. This is the first case reporting a recurrence of ocular symptoms in an anti-GQ1b antibody negative patient with BBE...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Clayton D Hinkle, James N Porter, Eric J Waldron, Hannah Klein, Daniel Tranel, Amy Heffelfinger
OBJECTIVE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute, immune-mediated paraneoplastic syndrome that often presents with psychobehavioral changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. While the disease continues to be more readily identified and appropriately treated, the course of cognitive deficits from the acute to post-acute to chronic phase has not been well described, particularly in the pediatric population...
June 13, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Kamini Gupta, Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar, Archana Ahluwalia, Karan Saggar
BACKGROUND: Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are common and routinely encountered. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroimaging features of the various infections of the CNS so as to differentiate them from tumoral, vascular, and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy. AIMS: Our aim was to analyze the biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in CNS infections. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a longitudinal, prospective study over a period of 1½ years...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Melissa Van Arsdall, Ikram Haque, Yuying Liu, J Marc Rhoads
Twenty years ago, there was profound, international interest in developing oral human, bovine, or chicken egg-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) for the prevention and nutritional treatment of childhood malnutrition and gastrointestinal disease, including acute diarrhea and necrotizing enterocolitis. Although such Ig products were shown to be effective, with both nutritional and antidiarrheal benefits, interest waned because of their cost and because of the perceived risk of bovine serum encephalitis (BSE). BSE is no longer considered a barrier to use of oral Ig, because the WHO has declared the United States to be BSE-free since the early 2000s...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Tamer Celik, Umit Celik, Mustafa Kömür, Orkun Tolunay, Riza Dincer Yildizdas, Begul Yagci-Kupeli, Fulya Kücük, İsmail Eroglu
OBJECTIVES: Lyme disease is a vector-associated infectious disease, caused by the agent, spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Neurologic findings are observed in approximately 12% of the cases and termed Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Lyme neuroborreliosis may manifest with different clinical neurologic manifestations. METHODS: The study was conducted at tertiary training and research hospital. From January 2014 to September 2015, a total of 75 patients diagnosed with encephalitis, ataxia, Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), facial paralysis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), pseudotumorcerebri were evaluated for inclusion to the study...
2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
J Nicholas Brenton, Joshua Kim, Richard H Schwartz
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a treatable cause of autoimmune encephalitis. It remains unclear if the natural history of this disease is altered by choice of acute therapy or the employment of chronic immunotherapy. Chart review was undertaken for pediatric patients diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Data obtained included patient demographics, disease manifestations, treatment course, and clinical outcomes. Ten patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis were identified...
August 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Kyung Yeon Lee, Myoung Sook Lee, Dong Bin Kim
Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014...
April 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Keitaro Yamada, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Shunsuke Ogaya, Naoko Kurahashi, Ayako Umemura, Yoshiki Kawamura, Mihoko Kato, Koichi Maruyama, Masato Nagasaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K L Wong
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T1 signal and T2 signal on sagittal view without enhancement during (1) acute stage, and (2) convalescence stage of pediatric patients with Enterovirus 71 related brainstem encephalitis (BE), and with respect to (3) healthy normal. METHODS: Our subjects were hospitalized between March 2010 and October 2012, and underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI studies. The research question to be answered is whether the comparison of the MRI image intensity histograms and relevant statistical quantification can add new knowledge to the diagnosis of BE patients...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Shih-Yun Lan, Jainn-Jim Lin, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Huei-Shyong Wang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Kuang-Lin Lin
BACKGROUND: Acute pediatric encephalitis with fulminant cerebral edema can rapidly become fatal or result in devastating neurological sequelae. METHODS: All cases coded with the discharge diagnosis of acute encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Of the 1038 children with acute pediatric encephalitis, 25 were enrolled in our study with ages ranging from 5 months to 16 years. RESULTS: The major neurological symptoms included an altered level of consciousness (72%), vomiting (60%), and headache (48%)...
January 6, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Keith K Abe, Roshni L Koli, Loren G Yamamoto
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder that presents with acute to subacute psychiatric and/or neurological complaints including new onset behavioral changes that may evolve to psychosis and catatonia, cognitive decline, new onset seizures, progressive encephalopathy, and/or movement disorders. Female teens and adults often have an associated ovarian teratoma as an underlying etiology, but most pediatric patients do not have an identifiable associated neoplasm...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ichiro Kuki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Shin Okazaki, Yuka Hattori, Asako Horino, Osamu Higuchi, Shunya Nakane
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to systemic autonomic failure. Autoantibodies to the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) are detected in 50% of AAG patients. We report the first pediatric case of AAG presenting with acute encephalitis. The patient was a 13-year-old boy who presented with orthostatic hypotension, followed by rapidly progressing disturbance of consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed significant pleocytosis and increased neopterin concentration...
June 2016: Brain & Development
Madhu Nagappa, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Anita Mahadevan, Sanjib Sinha, Pavagada S Mathuranath, Arun B Taly
AIM: To describe the clinical features in pediatric anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis with specific reference to the spectrum of involuntary movements, and therapeutic response to pulsed intravenous methyl prednisolone. METHOD: A total of 13 children with anti-NMDAR antibody positivity were evaluated. RESULTS: Abnormal behavior, global regression, and seizures were universal. Movement disorder was characterized by hyperkinetic large amplitude, complex, multidirectional movements involving the limbs and orofacial musculature...
January 2016: Neuropediatrics
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