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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451044/endemic-and-emerging-acute-virus-infections-in-indonesia-an-overview-of-the-past-decade-and-implications-for-the-future
#1
Wesley de Jong, Musofa Rusli, Soerajja Bhoelan, Sofie Rohde, Fedik A Rantam, Purwati A Noeryoto, Usman Hadi, Eric C M van Gorp, Marco Goeijenbier
Being the largest archipelago country in the world, with a tropical climate and a unique flora and fauna, Indonesia habitats one of the most diverse biome in the world. These characteristics make Indonesia a popular travel destination, with tourism numbers increasing yearly. These characteristics also facilitate the transmission of zoonosis and provide ideal living and breading circumstances for arthropods, known vectors for viral diseases. A review of the past 10 years of literature, reports of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia and ProMED-mail shows a significant increase in dengue infection incidence...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443773/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-associated-with-acute-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-a-case-report
#2
Xiaotang Cai, Hui Zhou, Yongmei Xie, Dan Yu, Zhiling Wang, Haitao Ren
RATIONALE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been recognized as the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in children. Several infectious agents have been implicated in anti-NMDA encephalitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy immunocompetent 9-year-old girl first presented with seizures, headaches and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. After one week onset, the patient gradually developed unexplained personality and behavior changes, accompanied by fever and seizures again...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440316/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-antibody-positive-meningoencephalomyelitis
#3
Angeliki Zarkali, Oliver Cousins, Dilan Athauda, Samuel Moses, Nicholas Moran, Sreedharan Harikrishnan
Glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody-positive meningoencephalomyelitis is a newly described, possibly under-recognised, severe inflammatory condition of the nervous system. The clinical presentation is variable but most commonly is a combination of meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis; other manifestations may include seizures, psychiatric symptoms and tremor. There is a significant association with malignancies, often occult, and with other autoimmune conditions. Although the disease responds well to corticosteroids acutely, it typically relapses when these are tapered, and so patients need long-term immunosuppression...
February 9, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435806/critical-west-nile-neuroinvasive-disease
#4
Maximiliano A Hawkes, Ivan D Carabenciov, Eelco F M Wijdicks, Alejandro A Rabinstein
BACKGROUND: Data to guide neurointensivists seeing patients with West Nile Neuroinvasive disease (WNND) are lacking. We present a comparatively large series of patients with WNND admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and provide data on their early diagnosis, triage to the ICU and predictors of short-term outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients aged ≥ 18 years old with WNND from January 1999 to November 2016. Demographic and clinical data, the modified Rankin Scale at discharge and disposition were collected...
February 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433947/antiglutamic-acid-decarboxylase-65-gad65-antibody-associated-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Ahmad Daif, Rimas V Lukas, Naoum P Issa, Adil Javed, Stephen VanHaerents, Anthony T Reder, James X Tao, Peter Warnke, Sandra Rose, Vernon L Towle, Shasha Wu
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated encephalitis causes both acute seizures and chronic epilepsy with predominantly temporal lobe onset. This condition is challenging in diagnosis and management, and the incidence of GAD antibody (Ab)-related epilepsy could be much higher than commonly believed. Imaging and CSF evidence of inflammation along with typical clinical presentations, such as adult onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unexplained etiology, should prompt testing for the diagnostic antibodies...
February 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426675/the-use-of-cerebral-imaging-for-investigating-delirium-aetiology
#6
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424413/-acute-polyradiculoneuropathy-associated-with-human-herpes-virus-7-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report
#7
Paula Jara, José Manuel Matamala, Renato Verdugo, Luis Thompson
Human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) is a cause of encephalitis, meningitis and myeloradiculoneuropathy in adults who are immunocompetent or with immunosuppression. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is always associated with myelitis. We report a case of acute polyradiculoneuropathy due to HHV-7, without involvement of central nervous system, in an immunocompetent patient. A 35-years-old man complained of lumbar pain radiating to both buttocks. On examination muscle strength and tendon reflexes were normal...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423617/human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-htlv-associated-encephalopathy-an-under-recognised-cause-of-acute-encephalitis-case-series-and-literature-review
#8
Ania A Crawshaw, Divya Dhasmana, Brynmor Jones, Carolyn M Gabriel, Steve Sturman, Nicholas W S Davies, Graham P Taylor
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is well described. Clinical features are predominantly consistent with cord pathology, though imaging and autopsy studies also demonstrate brain inflammation. In general, this is subclinical; however, six cases have previously been reported of encephalopathy in HTLV-1-infected patients, without alternative identified aetiology. We describe three further cases of encephalitis in the UK HAM cohort (n = 142), whereas the annual incidence of acute encephalitis in the general population is 0...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420464/potential-confounding-of-diagnosis-of-rabies-in-patients-with-recent-receipt-of-intravenous-immune-globulin
#9
Neil M Vora, Lillian A Orciari, J Bradford Bertumen, Inger Damon, James A Ellison, Vance G Fowler, Richard Franka, Brett W Petersen, P S Satheshkumar, Stephen M Schexnayder, Todd G Smith, Ryan M Wallace, Susan Weinstein, Carl Williams, Pamela Yager, Michael Niezgoda
Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed human rabies case as an illness compatible with rabies that meets at least one of five different laboratory criteria.* Four of these criteria do not depend on the patient's rabies vaccination status; however, the remaining criterion, "identification of Lyssavirus-specific antibody (i...
February 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411187/effect-of-prior-dengue-infection-on-severity-and-outcome-of-japanese-encephalitis
#10
A Verma, A Jain, C Kumar, M Agarwal, R Kumar
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and dengue virus are closely related flaviviruses but interaction between them is scarcely studied in humans. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of JE patients who are positive and negative for dengue IgG antibodies. Patients of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) fulfilling predecided inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent a detailed standardized workup incorporating JE IgM testing in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum. Dengue IgG in serum was tested in all...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407332/antibody-drug-treatment-for-steroid-resistant-rejection-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#11
Y Hirata, Y Sanada, T Urahashi, Y Ihara, N Yamada, N Okada, T Katano, S Otomo, K Ushijima, K Mizuta
BACKGROUND: Antibody drugs have been used to treat steroid-resistant rejection (SRR) after liver transplantation. Although anti-thymocyte globulin has been used for SRR after liver transplantation in place of muromonab-CD3 since 2011 in Japan, the effectiveness of anti-thymocyte globulin after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antibody drug treatment for SRR after pediatric LDLT in our single center...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405145/aetiological-study-of-viruses-causing-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-north-west-india
#12
Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Bharti Malhotra, Aradhana Chauhan, Hemant Malhotra, Pratibha Sharma, Farah Deeba, Khushbu Trivedi, Anjenya M Swamy
CONTEXT: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study is a hospital-based descriptive, observational study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402867/focal-encephalitis-meningitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-associated-with-influenza-a-infection
#13
Chih-Yu Liang, Chih-Hui Yang, Jiun-Nong Lin
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of influenza A infection complicated with focal encephalitis, meningitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 35-year-old woman presented with fever, headache, cough, and body aches. Seizures, altered consciousness, and dyspnea occurred later. The nasopharyngeal swab revealed a positive reaction for influenza A antigen. The magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a T2 prolongation at left frontoparietal subcortical white matter, which was consistent with focal encephalitis...
February 5, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398757/atypical-kawasaki-disease-presenting-with-hemiparesis-and-aphasia-a-case-report
#14
Ali Nikkhah
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory vasculitis. KD is classified into two groups based on clinical characteristics criteria, namely classic and incomplete. Cerebral vascular abnormality, especially arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is very rare and unusual in KD. Here, we report a 4-year-old boy who was referred to our tertiary pediatric center with abrupt right hemiparesis and aphasia. At admission time, he had febrile illness and was toxic. On physical examination, we found unilateral left submandibular lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398166/encephalitis-and-thalamic-injury-from-neuroinvasive-west-nile-virus-in-children-on-treatment-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#15
Lauge Farnaes, Deborah Schiff, Anita K McElroy, Nicole G Coufal, John R Crawford, Christopher Cannavino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396169/pediatric-nmdar-encephalitis-a-single-center-observation-study-with-a-closer-look-at-movement-disorders
#16
Tiziana Granata, Sara Matricardi, Francesca Ragona, Elena Freri, Federica Zibordi, Francesca Andreetta, Simona Binelli, Nardo Nardocci
Anti-N-Methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in pediatric age. This retrospective observational study was aimed at describing the clinical characteristics of the disease in a cohort of children and teenagers. Eighteen patients (10 females and 8 males), with a median age of 12.4 years at symptom onset were enrolled. The clinical presentation of the disease was marked by neurological manifestations in 13 patients and by severe psychiatric and behavioral symptoms in 5...
January 26, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384559/neurobrucellosis-diagnostic-and-clinical-management-of-an-atypical-case
#17
Marco Rossi, Carlo Tascini, Novella Carannante, Giovanni Di Caprio, Sonia Sofia, Carmelo Iacobello
Brucellosis is the most common zoonosis in the world and it is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated by Brucella spp. that is able to avoid the immune system and can involve every organ system. The bacteria may affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) directly or using phagocytic cells with the way of the "Trojan Horse Model". Meningitis is the most common form of neuro-brucellosis (NB) but other neurological manifestation, with variable onset, such as severe encephalic involvement, neuropathy, vascular damage, radiculitis and hydrocephalus might happened...
January 31, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380794/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-acute-retinal-necrosis-following-encephalitis
#18
Vinita Rao, Jyotirmay Biswas, Gopal Lingam
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) following herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in an immunocompetent patient is a rare condition. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has made it possible to identify and quantify viral genome. We report a case of ARN following HSE managed with the help of qPCR. A 45-year-old man developed ARN following HSE and was treated with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The retinitis did not respond initially and the qPCR demonstrated a rise in the number of copies of the HSV-1 viral genome...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373305/first-detection-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-rna-in-clinical-specimens-of-acutely-ill-patients-in-hungary
#19
Anna Nagy, Orsolya Nagy, Katalin Tarcsai, Ágnes Farkas, Mária Takács
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the endemic flaviviruses in Hungary, which is responsible for human infections every year. Neurological involvement in the disease is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis which can result in long-term neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae. Microbiological diagnosis of acute cases is predominantly based on serological tests due to the limited duration of viremia and long incubation period, however, the application of molecular methods can also supplement the serological diagnosis and provides epidemiological data...
January 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366609/surgical-treatment-of-enterovirus-d68-brainstem-encephalitis-induced-dysphagia
#20
Takafumi Togashi, Hironori Baba, Meiko Kitazawa, Nao Takahashi, Yasuhiro Samejima, Eiji Yumoto, Arata Horii
Cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction was associated with a 2014 outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory illness in US. We describe a 33 year-old male patient of refractory dysphagia due to EV-D68-induced brainstem encephalitis successfully treated by surgery. Following acute upper respiratory tract infection, he developed dysphagia and bilateral facial paralysis. A coughing reflex was readily produced when the laryngopharyngeal fiberscope touched the epiglottis, however, water infusion induced only very weak and slow swallowing reflex, suggesting that only motor component was impaired but sensory function was preserved during swallowing...
January 20, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
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