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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907165/management-of-ocular-human-herpesvirus-1-infection-in-a-white%C3%A2-faced-saki-monkey-pithecia-pithecia
#1
Kendra L Bauer, James C Steeil, Elizabeth A Adkins, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan, Kenton L Kerns, Steven J Sarro, Kali A Holder
A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs werepositive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolvedwith supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902492/analytical-validation-of-viral-cns-flow-chip-kit-for-detection-of-acute-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#2
Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz, Irene Pedrosa-Corral, Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Cristina Gómez-Camarasa, José María Navarro-Marí
A new molecular assay (Viral CNS Flow Chip kit, Master Diagnóstica, Spain) has been developed for the detection of eight viruses causing acute meningitis and encephalitis, i.e. herpes simplex viruses 1-2, varicella zoster virus, human enterovirus, human parechovirus, Toscana virus, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus. The new assay is a multiplex one-step RT-PCR followed by automatic flow-through hybridization, colorimetric detection and image analysis. The limit of detection was 50 copies/reaction, and 10 copies/reaction for human enterovirus and the other seven viruses, respectively...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899785/association-between-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#3
Archana Ramgopal, Aravind Thavamani, Abdulla Ghori
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a microbe known to affect numerous organ systems, and in particular, can cause neurological manifestations. We describe an otherwise healthy child who presented with acute onset intractable headache with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), a neurological manifestation that presents with headache, vision changes, altered mental status, or seizures. Our patient did not have any of the common etiologies for PRES reported but tested positive for acute M...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898712/transmission-of-rabies-through-solid-organ-transplantation-a-notable-problem-in-china
#4
Jian Zhang, Jun Lin, Ye Tian, Linlin Ma, Wen Sun, Lei Zhang, Yichen Zhu, Wei Qiu, Lujia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of DCD transplantations since 2015, the transmission of rabies through solid organ transplantation has become a notable problem in China and has attracted the attention of the public. CASE PRESENTATION: From 2015 to 2017, four solid organ recipients in our centre were successively diagnosed with rabies that was considered to have been transmitted from two donors who died due to viral encephalitis of unknown cause and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
June 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895163/evidence-of-hepatitis-a-virus-infection-in-the-patients-with-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-gorakhpur-region-north-india
#5
M S Joshi, B V Tandale, M M Gore, S Bhalla, Y K Gurav, G N Sapkal, K P Kushwaha A, S D Chitambar
The etiological agent remained unidentified in a large number of patients hospitalized for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in 2008-2009 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, north India. All patients were found to present with fever and altered sensorium, while 28%, 19% and 13% showed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and meningeal signs, respectively. Involvement mostly of children with abnormal hepatic features prompted us to undertake an exploratory study on viral hepatitis A to determine its association, if any, with hepatic derangements...
2018: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891405/long-term-outcomes-in-motor-and-cognitive-impairment-with-acute-encephalopathy
#6
Yuri Matsubara, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata, Ryusuke Ae, Jun Shimizu, Noriko Oguro
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalopathy causes various sequelae, including motor disabilities and intellectual delays. Previous studies reported that cognitive impairments can also occur after acute encephalitis. Although the incidence of acute encephalopathy is high in Japan, there have been few reports on its sequelae. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the neurological outcomes of pediatric patients who sought motor rehabilitation for motor dysfunction after acute encephalopathy...
June 8, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886429/beyond-the-limbic-system-disruption-and-functional-compensation-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-patients-with-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#7
Josephine Heine, Harald Prüss, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Thomas Münte, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch, Carsten Finke
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis causes memory deficits, seizures and behavioural abnormalities. Recent findings suggest that extralimbic brain areas are additionally affected and that patients also suffer from non-limbic cognitive symptoms. Moreover, up to 60% of patients show no structural MRI abnormalities in the acute disease stage. We therefore investigated whether functional connectivity analyses can identify brain network changes underlying disease-related symptoms...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878345/headache-and-ophthalmoparesis-case-report-of-an-atypical-incomplete-miller-fisher-syndrome
#8
David Moreno-Ajona, Pablo Irimia, Marta Fernández-Matarrubia
OBJECTIVE: To expand the differential diagnosis of headache and ophthalmoparesis by describing a case report in which anti-GQ1b was demonstrated to be the cause. BACKGROUND: Anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome refers to a clinical spectrum of conditions that share common mechanisms and overlapping manifestations, including the Miller-Fisher syndrome, pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness, and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. Rare atypical cases presenting as acute ophthalmoparesis (AO) without ataxia or areflexia have been described...
May 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873694/the-compartmentalized-inflammatory-response-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-brain-is-composed-of-tissue-resident-cd8-t-lymphocytes-and-b-cells
#9
Joana Machado-Santos, Etsuji Saji, Anna R Tröscher, Manuela Paunovic, Roland Liblau, Galina Gabriely, Christian G Bien, Jan Bauer, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which active demyelination and neurodegeneration are associated with lymphocyte infiltrates in the brain. However, so far little is known regarding the phenotype and function of these infiltrating lymphocyte populations. In this study, we performed an in-depth phenotypic characterization of T and B cell infiltrates in a large set of multiple sclerosis cases with different disease and lesion stages and compared the findings with those seen in inflammatory, non-inflammatory and normal human controls...
June 4, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871023/effectiveness-of-homeopathic-medicines-as-add-on-to-institutional-management-protocol-for-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-children-an-open-label-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Praveen Oberai, Roja Varanasi, Maya Padmanabhan, Alok Upadhyaya, Supriya Singh, Samarendra Pratap Singh, Deepika Vikram, Tariq Khan, Ramesh Prasad, A K Gupta, J R Singh, Raj K Manchanda
BACKGROUND:  Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is endemic to certain parts of India, with limited treatment options. In our initial exploratory comparative observational study of 151 patients with AES, there was significantly reduced mortality with adjunctive homeopathy compared to institutional management protocol (IMP). The present randomized placebo-controlled trial brings more statistical rigor to this research program. METHODS:  This study was conducted at a pediatric unit from 2013 to 2015...
June 5, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868498/human-kinase-phosphatase-wide-rnai-screening-identified-checkpoint-kinase-2-as-a-cellular-factor-facilitating-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#11
Yi-Lin Chan, Ching-Len Liao, Yi-Ling Lin
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes acute encephalitis in humans with high mortality. Not much is known about the interactions between viral and cellular factors that regulate JEV infection. By using a kinase/phosphatase-wide RNAi screening approach, we identified a cell cycle-regulating molecule, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), that plays a role in regulating JEV replication. JEV infection induced G1 arrest and activated CHK2. Inactivation of CHK2 and its upstream ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase in JEV-infected cells by using inhibitors reduced virus replication...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796657/the-possibility-of-using-isolated-alkaloid-compounds-and-crude-extracts-of-piper-retrofractum-piperaceae-as-larvicidal-control-agents-for-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae-larvae
#12
Phatcharaphon Wiwattanawanichakun, Atcharee Ratwatthananon, Waraporn Poonsri, Thitaree Yooboon, Wanchai Pluempanupat, Narisara Piyasaengthong, Saksit Nobsathian, Vasakorn Bullangpoti
Culex quinquefasciatus is a common domestic mosquito that is widespread in many areas of Thailand and serves as a southeastern vector of Japanese encephalitis. The present study investigated the acute toxicity of crude extracts and alkaloid compounds of Piper retrofractum (Piperales: Piperaceae) in Cx. quinquefasciatus third instar larvae. P. retrofractum was sequentially extracted using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, and the crude extracts were tested on mosquito larvae. Detoxification and neuroenzymes were analyzed to establish the mode of action...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#13
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789537/detection-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-rna-in-human-throat-samples-in-laos-a-pilot-study
#14
Tehmina Bharucha, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Malee Seephonelee, Malavanh Vongsouvath, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Géraldine Piorkowski, Marc Lecuit, Christopher Gorman, Jean-David Pommier, Paul N Newton, Xavier de Lamballerie, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most commonly identified cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Asia. The WHO recommended test is anti-JEV IgM-antibody-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). However, data suggest this has low positive predictive value, with false positives related to other Flavivirus infections and vaccination. JEV RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum is highly specific, but is rarely positive; 0-25% of patients that fulfil the WHO definition of JE (clinical Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and JEV MAC-ELISA positive)...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785583/the-effect-of-delayed-anti-nmdar-encephalitis-recognition-on-disease-outcome
#15
Vlatko Sulentic, Zeljka Petelin Gadze, Filip Derke, Marija Santini, Danira Bazadona, Sibila Nankovic
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an acute form of brain inflammation that is potentially lethal but has a high probability for recovery with treatment. Although the clinical picture of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is usually recognizable due to its relatively well-known symptoms, the disorder can sometimes present itself in an unpredictable and atypical way. In this case report, we wish to present the influence of different delay times prior to the establishment of diagnosis. Thus, our first patient was diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis 4 years after the initial symptoms, the second one after 8 years, and the third one after 13 months...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784969/north-american-domestic-pigs-are-susceptible-to-experimental-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#16
So Lee Park, Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Victoria B Ayers, Susan M Hettenbach, D Scott McVey, Kenneth R Burton, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is capable of causing encephalitic diseases in children. While humans can succumb to severe disease, the transmission cycle is maintained by viremic birds and pigs in endemic regions. Although JEV is regarded as a significant threat to the United States (U.S.), the susceptibility of domestic swine to JEV infection has not been evaluated. In this study, domestic pigs from North America were intravenously challenged with JEV to characterize the pathological outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784816/encephalitis-is-mediated-by-rop18-of-toxoplasma-gondii-a-severe-pathogen-in-aids-patients
#17
Ran An, Yuewen Tang, Lijian Chen, Haijian Cai, De-Hua Lai, Kang Liu, Lijuan Wan, Linli Gong, Li Yu, Qingli Luo, Jilong Shen, Zhao-Rong Lun, Francisco J Ayala, Jian Du
The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan among mammalian hosts, including humans. During the course of infection, the CNS is the most commonly damaged organ among invaded tissues. The polymorphic rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) is a key serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) kinase that phosphorylates host proteins to modulate acute virulence. However, the basis of neurotropism and the specific substrates through which ROP18 exerts neuropathogenesis remain unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we performed proteomic analysis of proteins that selectively bind to active ROP18 and identified RTN1-C, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that is preferentially expressed in the CNS...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784468/vaccines-and-the-risk-of-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#18
Yong Chen, Fubao Ma, Yuanling Xu, Xuhua Chu, Jinlin Zhang
BACKGROUND: It is important to examine the risk of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study between January 2011 and December 2015. Four controls per case were matched for age, gender, address. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. The analyses were conducted with the use of conditional logistic regression...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783708/following-acute-encephalitis-semliki-forest-virus-is-undetectable-in-the-brain-by-infectivity-assays-but-functional-virus-rna-capable-of-generating-infectious-virus-persists-for-life
#19
Rennos Fragkoudis, Catherine M Dixon-Ballany, Adrian K Zagrajek, Lukasz Kedzierski, John K Fazakerley
Alphaviruses are mosquito-transmitted RNA viruses which generally cause acute disease including mild febrile illness, rash, arthralgia, myalgia and more severely, encephalitis. In the mouse, peripheral infection with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) results in encephalitis. With non-virulent strains, infectious virus is detectable in the brain, by standard infectivity assays, for around ten days. As we have shown previously, in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, infectious virus is detectable for months in the brain...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781194/paraneoplastic-autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-pleomorphic-lung-carcinoma-an-autopsy-case-report
#20
Takashi Ando, Yoji Goto, Kazuo Mano, Fumio Nomura, Masako Kurashige, Masafumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Masahisa Katsuno, Mari Yoshida
A 64-year-old man was admitted with acute onset disturbed consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and elevated protein, with negative cultures and PCR. Serum antibodies for autoimmune encephalitis were also negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable, but whole-body CT scan showed a tumor in the left lower lung lobe. Bronchial brush cytology demonstrated clusters of malignant cells, and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed multiple lesions and increased uptake in the lung tumor...
May 20, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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