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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033632/review-of-viral-encephalitis-cases-seen-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-turkey-focus-on-herpes-simplex-type-1
#1
Beyza Çiftçi Kavaklioğlu, Eda Çoban, Aysu Şen, Elif Söylemezoğlu, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Dilek Atakli, Aysun Soysal
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), known as the most common, potentially mortal, and treatable cause of sporadic encephalitis, in a sample Turkish population. METHODS: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, electrophysiology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA results of patients examined with a pre-diagnosis of encephalitis were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026850/disappearance-of-anopheles-minimus-and-anopheles-dirus-from-certain-malaria-endemic-areas-of-assam-india
#2
Kavita Yadav, Sunil Dhiman, Bipul Rabha, Diganta Goswami, P K Saikia, Vijay Veer
BACKGROUND: Orang Primary Health Centre (OPHC) and Balipara Primary Health Centre (BPHC) of Assam (India) report mosquito borne diseases annually. Current study was performed to ascertain the prevalence of known malaria and Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vectors and their possible role in disease transmission. METHODS: Malaria epidemiological data for 2006-2010 and JE data for 2008-2013 of Assam, India were obtained from the health authority. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC light traps and identified morpho-taxonomically...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018774/influenza-a-virus-as-a-predisposing-factor-for-cryptococcosis
#3
Lorena V N Oliveira, Marliete C Costa, Thaís F F Magalhães, Rafael W Bastos, Patrícia C Santos, Hellem C S Carneiro, Noelly Q Ribeiro, Gabriella F Ferreira, Lucas S Ribeiro, Ana P F Gonçalves, Caio T Fagundes, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Julianne T Djordjevic, Tania C Sorrell, Daniele G Souza, Alexandre M V Machado, Daniel A Santos
Influenza A virus (IAV) infects millions of people annually and predisposes to secondary bacterial infections. Inhalation of fungi within the Cryptococcus complex causes pulmonary disease with secondary meningo-encephalitis. Underlying pulmonary disease is a strong risk factor for development of C. gattii cryptococcosis though the effect of concurrent infection with IAV has not been studied. We developed an in vivo model of Influenza A H1N1 and C. gattii co-infection. Co-infection resulted in a major increase in morbidity and mortality, with severe lung damage and a high brain fungal burden when mice were infected in the acute phase of influenza multiplication...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017268/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#4
Philip N Britton, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Russell C Dale, Jean Li-Kim-Moy, Gulam Khandaker, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Robert Booy, Allen C Cheng, Cheryl A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza-associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern Hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from 2 studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987176/immune-mediated-disorders
#5
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis comprise a group of immune-mediated disorders that are associated with different immune effector mechanisms. Classic paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are triggered by an antitumor immune response. The disease is considered to result from a T-cell response; in addition, patients harbour high titers of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens that are considered as epiphenomenon but are useful diagnostic markers. Neuropathology consists of T-cell-dominated inflammation, marked neuronal loss, and microglial activation with upregulation of HLA-DR...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987172/acute-and-chronic-viral-infections
#6
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Werner Stenzel
A large number of viruses belonging to various families are able to cause central nervous system (CNS) infections and contribute significantly to burden of disease in humans globally. Most viral CNS infections are benign and self-limiting, and most remain undiagnosed. However, some viruses can cause severe inflammation, leading to morbidity and mortality, and result in severe long-term residual damage and neurologic dysfunction in patients. The potential of viruses to cause CNS inflammation greatly varies depending on host factors, such as age, sex, and genetic background, as well as viral factors...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982346/mog-antibody-seropositivity-in-a-patient-with-encephalitis-beyond-the-classical-syndrome
#7
Sara Mariotto, Salvatore Monaco, Patrick Peschl, Ilaria Coledan, Romualdo Mazzi, Romana Höftberger, Markus Reindl, Sergio Ferrari
BACKGROUND: The presence of circulating anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) has been described in sera of patients with different inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system. In adults the core clinical feature is usually characterised by acute myelitis and/or optic neuritis. We here report an atypical case with serum and cerebrospinal fluid MOG-Abs and a clinical picture suggestive for acute encephalitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old Indian man presented with altered mental status, slight fever, and ataxia...
October 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978693/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-inhibit-t-follicular-helper-cell-immune-response-in-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#8
Chong Wang, Nan Zhang, Luting Qi, Jiaolong Yuan, Ke Wang, Kunlun Wang, Sicong Ma, Haili Wang, Wenjuan Lou, Pingdong Hu, Muhammad Awais, Shengbo Cao, Zhen F Fu, Min Cui
Resolution of viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. In this study, we examined Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection leading to acute encephalopathy depending on suppression of the adaptive immune responses mediated by innate cells. Infection with P3 strains of JEV enhanced myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations, and the survival rate of JEV-infected mice improved after MDSC depletion. Mechanically, P3-induced MDSCs suppressed CD4(+) T cell immune responses, especially responses of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, leading to decreased splenic B cells (CD19(+)) and blood plasma cells (CD19(+)CD138(+)) and reduced levels of total IgM and JEV-specific neutralizing Abs...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964257/the-contribution-of-the-acute-phase-response-to-the-pathogenesis-of-relapse-in-chronic-relapsing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Silvy Mardiguian, Emma Ladds, Roberta Turner, Hazel Shepherd, Sandra J Campbell, Daniel C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Increased relapse rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a consequence of peripheral immune system activation, owing to infection for example, have been widely reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. Acute brain injury models can be exacerbated by augmenting the hepatic acute phase response (APR). Here, we explored the contribution of the hepatic APR to relapse in two rodent models of MS. METHODS: Mice with MOG-CFA-induced chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis (CR-EAE) were killed before, during and after the first phase of disease, and the brain and liver chemokine, cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) mRNA expression profile was determined...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962808/herpes-virus-encephalitis-in-adults-current-knowledge-and-old-myths
#10
REVIEW
Alejandro A Rabinstein
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is uncommon in clinical practice, but is frequently suspected in patients with acute alterations of consciousness. Symptoms and physical signs are nonspecific, and diagnostic confirmation typically hinges on demonstration of viral DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain MRI is helpful in diagnosis and provides prognostic information. Early initiation of intravenous acyclovir is essential to optimize the patient's chances of favorable recovery. HSV encephalitis can trigger an autoimmune reaction with the possible appearance of antibodies to neuronal surface antigens...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960454/genetic-characterization-of-enterovirus-a71-isolates-from-severe-neurological-cases-in-poland
#11
Magdalena Wieczorek, Mariola Purzyńska, Arleta Krzysztoszek, Agnieszka Ciąćka, Agnieszka Figas, Leszek Szenborn
The aim of this study was to report a minor outbreak of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection in Poland and characterize isolates from cases of severe neurological infection detected in 2013 and 2016. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Polish strains belonged to the C genogroup: C1, C2, and C4. Severe neurological manifestations as encephalitis or acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), were associated with all detected subgenogroups. The C2 subgenogroup was associated with the outbreak in Gdansk, with serious cases of AFP, myelitis, cerebellitis, encephalitis, but also with mild, sporadic cases of aseptic meningitis, in other Polish cities...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954347/-clinical-analysis-of-7-patients-with-epstein-barr-virus-encephalitis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#12
P Ke, X Ma, X B Bao, Y J Liu, X J Wu, S L Xue, X H Hu, X F He, D P Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of patients with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) . Methods: The clinical data of 7 patients with EBV encephalitis who had undergone allo-HSCT in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed. Results: The incidence of EBV encephalitis was 0.70% (7/998) , and the median time was 63 (10-136) d after allo-HSCT. Seven patients had fever and mental disorder, of whom 4 cases of brain MRI were positive...
August 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948950/a-mini-review-of-bunyaviruses-recorded-in-india
#13
REVIEW
Pragya D Yadav, Gouri Y Chaubal, Anita M Shete, Devendra T Mourya
Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948947/acute-encephalitis-in-india-an-unfolding-tragedy
#14
EDITORIAL
Jai Prakash Narain, A C Dhariwal, C Raina MacIntyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948076/peripheral-neuropathy-in-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-glutamate-receptor-antibodies-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#15
Yi-Chia Wei, Chin-Chang Huang, Chi-Hung Liu, Hung-Chou Kuo, Jainn-Jim Lin
INTRODUCTION: Autoantibodies to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to be the causes of autoimmune encephalitis particularly limbic encephalitis. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is rarely reported. METHODS: We analyzed the serial nerve conduction studies of a previously reported case of anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis, who was presented with conscious disturbance and quadriplegia...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934197/updated-estimation-of-the-impact-of-a-japanese-encephalitis-immunization-program-with-live-attenuated-sa-14-14-2-vaccine-in-nepal
#16
Shyam Raj Upreti, Nicole P Lindsey, Rajendra Bohara, Ganga Ram Choudhary, Sushil Shakya, Mukunda Gautam, Jagat Narain Giri, Marc Fischer, Susan L Hills
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in many Asian countries. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of the JE immunization program using SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine implemented in Nepal during 2006 through 2011. A previous assessment after the initial program implementation phase described a significantly lower post-campaign JE incidence compared to expected incidence; however, the previous evaluation had limited post-campaign data for some districts...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#17
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930529/a-protocol-for-investigating-the-association-of-vaccination-and-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#18
Hsiuying Wang
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder that can be triggered by virus, H1N1/tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines or by presence of a tumor. The association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis vaccination was examined and a general protocol of phylogenetic method which details the steps and code and an example of its utility is provided. The approach used here is potentially useful for analyzing the relationship between vaccines and diseases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928417/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-japan-republic-of-korea-and-china
#19
REVIEW
Kentaro Yoshii, Joon Young Song, Seong-Beom Park, Junfeng Yang, Heinz-Josef Schmitt
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes mild or moderate febrile illness in humans that may progress to encephalitis, leading to severe long-term complications and sometimes death. TBEV is prevalent in the Eurasian continent and has been isolated in China, Japan and Republic of Korea (ROK). The TBEV isolates from Japan are of the Far-Eastern subtype; in ROK, the isolates are of the Western subtype; and all TBEV isolates in China are of the Far-Eastern subtype, except one strain that was identified most recently as the Siberian subtype...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926420/seronegative-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-thymoma
#20
Jaime Toro, David Cuellar-Giraldo, Alejandra Duque, Karla Minota, Jorge Patiño, Manuel García
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome characterized by the acute or subacute onset of encephalopathy, memory loss, confusion, temporal lobe seizures, and behavioral and mood changes. Although most patients with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis have antineuronal antibodies, advances in the field now permit the diagnosis without autoantibody test results. In this case illustrating the new diagnostic criteria, we report a 70-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room after the acute onset of cognitive impairment, altered mental status, and choreoathetoid movements...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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