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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302316/defining-nervous-system-susceptibility-during-acute-and-latent-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection
#1
REVIEW
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic human pathogens that infect and establish latency in peripheral sensory neurons of the host. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) readily infects the facial mucosa that can result in the establishment of a latent infection in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). From latency, HSV-1 can reactivate and cause peripheral pathology following anterograde trafficking from sensory neurons. Under rare circumstances, HSV-1 can migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cause Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), a devastating disease of the CNS...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291542/molecular-mechanisms-of-neuroinflammation-and-injury-during-acute-viral-encephalitis
#2
REVIEW
Katherine D Shives, Kenneth L Tyler, J David Beckham
Viral infections in the central nervous system are a major cause of encephalitis. West Nile virus (WNV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most common causes of viral encephalitis in the United States. We review the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of WNV and HSV infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss the role of the innate and cell-mediated immune responses in peripheral control of viral infection, viral invasion of the CNS, and in inflammatory-mediated neuronal injury...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284628/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-diagnosis-and-control-in-domestic-animals
#3
REVIEW
Karen L Mansfield, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279803/japanese-encephalitis-virus-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-and-modulates-apoptosis-proteins-in-thbmec-cells
#4
Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Azadeh Bahadoran, Lee Sau Har, Wang Seok Mui, Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, Keivan Zandi, Rishya Manikam, Shamala Devi Sekaran
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes inflammation in central nervous system (CNS), neuronal death and also compromises the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the BBB disruption and apoptotic process in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-infected transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells (THBMECs). THBMECs were overlaid by JEV with different MOIs (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0) and monitored by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) in a real-time manner in order to observe the barrier function of THBMECs...
March 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278415/paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-inaugural-annual-report-2014
#5
Yvonne A Zurynski, Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Nicholas J Wood, Kristine K Macartney
INTRODUCTION: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child. METHODS: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273989/healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#6
Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Saikumar Doradla, Harish Narasimha Belgode, Harichandra Kumar, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
INTRODUCTION: Health Care associated Infections (HAI) are the most common complications affecting the hospitalized patients. HAI are more common in developing and under developed countries. However, there are no systematic surveillance programs in these countries. AIM: To find out the burden, predisposing factors and multidrug resistant organisms causing HAI in a resource limited setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was done at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272206/limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-anti-nh2-terminal-of-%C3%AE-enolase-antibodies-a-clinical-subtype-of-hashimoto-encephalopathy
#7
Toru Kishitani, Akiko Matsunaga, Masamichi Ikawa, Kouji Hayashi, Osamu Yamamura, Tadanori Hamano, Osamu Watanabe, Keiko Tanaka, Yasunari Nakamoto, Makoto Yoneda
Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268128/mr-imaging-of-adult-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#8
REVIEW
A Bertrand, D Leclercq, L Martinez-Almoyna, N Girard, J-P Stahl, T De-Broucker
BACKGROUND: Imaging is a key tool for the diagnosis of acute encephalitis. Brain CT scan must be urgently performed to rule out a brain lesion with mass effect that would contraindicate lumbar puncture. Brain MRI is less accessible than CT scan, but can provide crucial information with patients presenting with acute encephalitis. METHOD: We performed a literature review on PubMed on April 1, 2015 with the search terms "MRI" and "encephalitis". RESULTS: We first described the various brain MRI abnormalities associated with each pathogen of acute encephalitis (HSV, VZV, other viral agents targeting immunocompromised patients or travelers; tuberculosis, listeriosis, other less frequent bacterial agents)...
March 3, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264652/insight-into-snps-and-epitopes-of-e-protein-of-newly-emerged-genotype-i-isolates-of-jev-from-midnapur-west-bengal-india
#9
Shyamashree Banerjee, Parth Sarthi Sen Gupta, Amal Kumar Bandyopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in humans. Genotype-I (as co-circulating cases with Genotype-III) was isolated in 2010 (JEV28, JEV21) and then in 2011 (JEV45) from Midnapur district, West Bengal (WB) for the first time from clinical patients who were previously been vaccinated with live attenuated SA14-14-2 strain. We apply bioinformatics and immunoinformatics on sequence and structure of E protein for analysis of crucial substitutions that might cause the genotypic transition, affecting protein-function and altering specificity of epitopes...
March 6, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264024/anti-japanese-encephalitis-virus-igm-positivity-among-patients-with-acute-encephalitic-syndrome-admitted-to-different-hospitals-from-all-over-nepal
#10
Anupama Bhattarai, Narayan Dutt Pant, Krishus Nepal, Sailaja Adhikari, Mukunda Sharma, Pramila Parajuli
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is one of the major public health problems in Nepal because of its increasing disease morbidity and mortality. The main purpose of this study was to determine the anti-JEV IgM positivity among acute encephalitis syndromic cases from all over Nepal. The present study was conducted at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2015 to October 2015. A total of 671 (418 CSF and 253 serum) samples were collected from 625 patients with acute encephalitic syndrome, admitted to different hospitals from all over Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259863/-review-of-the-psychiatric-aspects-of-anti-nmda-n-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-receptor-encephalitis-case-report-and-our-plans-for-a-future-study
#11
Levente Herman, Ildiko Reka Zsigmond, Laszlo Peter, Janos M Rethelyi
Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) encephalitis, first described in 2007, is a rare, autoimmune limbic encephalitis. In half of the cases anti-NMDAR antibodies are paraneoplastic manifestations of an underlying tumor (mostly ovarian teratoma). In the early stage of the disease psychiatric symptoms are prominent, therefore 60-70% of the patients are first treated in a psychiatric department. In most of the cases, typical neurological symptoms appear later. Besides the clinical picture and typical symptoms, verifying presence of IgG antibodies in the serum or CSF is necessary to set up the diagnosis...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259789/evaluation-of-a-serological-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-disease-in-europe
#12
Setareh Jahfari, Denis S Sarksyan, Nadezda M Kolyasnikova, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Alexander E Platonov
BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi causes systemic febrile illness and is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus. We describe a serological test using a fragment of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) as an antigen, and determined its performance in well-defined patient categories. METHODS: Serum of patients with PCR-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD), Lyme borreliosis (LB), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and healthy blood donors (HBD) were collected in Udmurt Republic, Russia...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255964/mr-imaging-of-acute-cerebellar-involvement-in-pediatric-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#13
Bruno P Soares, Sonia F Calloni, Shai Shrot, Andrea Poretti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251511/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-an-update
#14
REVIEW
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? RECENT FINDINGS: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250116/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a6-infection-for-evaluation-of-antiviral-and-vaccine-efficacy
#15
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qingjuan Wei, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus 71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD, however, a third enterovirus A species, CoxsackievirusA6 (CVA6), has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We have developed and characterized a murine model of CVA6 infection which was employed to evaluate the antiviral activities of different drugs and the protective efficacies of CVA6-inactivated vaccines...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247269/dynamic-of-csf-and-serum-biomarkers-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-encephalitis-with-cns-genetic-compartmentalization-case-study
#16
Sergio M de Almeida, Indianara Rotta, Clea E Ribeiro, Michelli F Oliveira, Antoine Chaillon, Ana Paula de Pereira, Ana Paula Cunha, Marise Zonta, Joao França Bents, Sonia M Raboni, Davey Smith, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis
Despite the effective suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy, HIV can still replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). This was a longitudinal study of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum dynamics of several biomarkers related to inflammation, the blood-brain barrier, neuronal injury, and IgG intrathecal synthesis in serial samples of CSF and serum from a patient infected with HIV-1 subtype C with CNS compartmentalization.The phylogenetic analyses of plasma and CSF samples in an acute phase using next-generation sequencing and F-statistics analysis of C2-V3 haplotypes revealed distinct compartmentalized CSF viruses in paired CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246518/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-mumps-meningoencephalitis-with-bilateral-hippocampal-lesions-without-preceding-acute-parotitis-a-case-report
#17
Ah Reum Woo, Ha Young Lee, Myung Kwan Lim, Young Hye Kang, Soon Gu Cho, Seong Hye Choi, Ji Hyeon Baek
Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228902/mri-diagnosis-of-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-in-an-elderly-man-with-nonspecific-symptoms
#18
Benjamin J Croll, Zachary M Dillon, Kevin R Weaver, Marna Rayl Greenberg
A 78-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department complaining of a 1-week onset of increasing fatigue and anorexia. The patient was previously well but had a history of depression, chronic diarrhea, and hypertension. His examination was remarkable for mild fever (100.1°F). He had no acute neurologic deficits. The patient felt better after intravenous fluids and was discharged to follow-up with the primary care provider. With no resolution of symptoms and new memory loss, the patient's primary care doctor ordered an MRI which revealed abnormal signal/patchy enhancement of the left temporal lobe indicative (pathognomonic) of herpes simplex encephalitis...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226083/dengue-infection-in-the-nervous-system-lessons-learned-for-zika-and-chikungunya
#19
Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Natalia Roveroni, Carolina Rosadas, Fernando Ferry, Jose Mauro Peralta, Amilcar Tanuri
Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly...
February 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222132/correction-induction-of-multiple-mir-200-182-members-in-the-brains-of-mice-are-associated-with-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-1-encephalitis
#20
Anna Majer, Kyle A Caligiuri, Kamilla K Gale, Yulian Niu, Clark S Phillipson, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169081.].
2017: PloS One
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