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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#1
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209905/diagnostic-value-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-versus-mri-in-the-setting-of-antibody-specific-autoimmune-encephalitis
#2
Lilja B Solnes, Krystyna M Jones, Steven P Rowe, Puskar Pattanayak, Abhinav Nalluri, Arun Venkatesan, John C Probasco, Mehrbod Som Javadi
Introduction: Diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis presents some challenges in the clinical setting due to varied clinical presentations and delay in obtaining antibody panel results. We examined the role of neuroimaging in the setting of autoimmune encephalitides comparing the utility (18)F-FDG PET/CT versus conventional brain imaging with MRI. Methods: A retrospective study was performed assessing the positivity rate of MRI versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT during the initial work-up of 23 patients proven to have antibody positive autoimmune encephalitis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208912/chikungunya-and-myositis-a-case-report-in-brazil
#3
Hugo Andre Martins, Silvya Nery Bernardino, Camila Cordeiro Santos, Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas
Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is a well-described alpha virus that causes infection in humans. The main symptoms are fever, rash and arthralgia and recently neurological disorders have been reported, in particular encephalitis. It is uncertain whether neurological symptoms are due to persistence of the virus or an ineffective immune response. One rarely described neurologic syndrome is myositis. In this paper, we report the case of a 19-year-old woman with mental confusion and aggressiveness two days after complaints of fever and arthralgia...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201953/acute-hiv-1-infection-presenting-with-fulminant-encephalopathy
#4
Eun J Lee, Young H Kim, Jeong Y Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Se Y Park, Tae H Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 directly affects the nervous system, causes distinct neurological symptoms, and indirectly results in opportunistic infections, which include herpes virus simplex (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis caused by immunodeficiency. Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system is also possible, and acute encephalopathy is a potentially lethal complication. We encountered a case of fulminant encephalopathy as a primary presentation of acute HIV-1 infection, in which highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in a full clinical recovery...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194064/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-patients-with-neurologic-disorders-review-of-63-cases
#5
Anil Tombak, Mehmet Ali Uçar, Aydan Akdeniz, Arda Yilmaz, Hakan Kaleagası, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Eyup Naci Tiftik
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that reduces circulating autoantibodies of the patients. TPE is commonly used in neurological disorders where autoimmunity plays a major role. We report our experience with regard to the indications, adverse events and outcomes of plasma exchange in neurological disorders. Sixty-three patients were included to this retrospective study. Median age was 48 years (range 1-85), there was a predominance of males. Neurological indications included Guillain-Barrè syndrome (n = 22), myasthenia gravis (n = 21), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 7), polymyositis (n = 3), multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), neuromyelitis optica (n = 2), multiple sclerosis (n = 2), limbic encephalitis (n = 1) and transverse myelitis (n = 1)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191384/delayed-temporal-lobe-hemorrhage-after-initiation-of-acyclovir-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-with-herpes-simplex-virus-2-encephalitis-a-case-report
#6
Kyle Mueller, Joshua E Ryan, Alex Tai, Rocco A Armonda
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of non-epidemic, sporadic, acute focal encephalitis in the United States. Inflammation of the vasculature makes them friable and susceptible to hemorrhage. Massive hemorrhage, though rare, can present in a delayed fashion after initiation of acyclovir and often requires surgical intervention. We report a unique case of delayed temporal lobe hemorrhage after initiation of acyclovir in an immunocompetent patient, specifically for its presentation, virology, and surgical management...
January 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187808/diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-encephalitis
#7
J J Halperin
Encephalitis is typically viral (approximately half of diagnosed cases) or autoimmune (about a quarter) with the remainder remaining undiagnosable at this time. All require general supportive care but only a minority requires intensive care admission - in these intubation, to protect the airway or to treat status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs, may be needed. In some dysautonomia with wide blood pressure fluctuations is the principal concern. Remarkably, in addition to supportive care, specific treatment options are available for the majority - immune-modulating therapy for those with autoimmune disorders, antiviral therapy for herpes simplex 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster encephalitis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184218/live-attenuated-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-tc83-causes-persistent-brain-infection-in-mice-with-non-functional-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#8
Katherine Taylor, Olga Kolokoltsova, Shannon E Ronca, Mark Estes, Slobodan Paessler
Intranasal infection with vaccine strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (TC83) caused persistent viral infection in the brains of mice without functional αβ T-cells (αβ-TCR -/-). Remarkably, viral kinetics, host response gene transcripts and symptomatic disease are similar between αβ-TCR -/- and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice during acute phase of infection [0-13 days post-infection (dpi)]. While WT mice clear infectious virus in the brain by 13 dpi, αβ-TCR -/- maintain infectious virus in the brain to 92 dpi...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174559/zika-virus-chikungunya-virus-and-dengue-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-adults-with-neurological-manifestations-guayaquil-ecuador
#9
Nathalie Acevedo, Jesse Waggoner, Michelle Rodriguez, Lissette Rivera, José Landivar, Benjamin Pinsky, Hector Zambrano
Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) have been associated with clinical presentations that involve acute neurological complaints. In the current study, we identified ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients admitted to the Hospital Luis Vernaza (Guayaquil, Ecuador) to the Emergency Room or the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological symptoms and/or concern for acute arboviral infections. Viral RNA from one or more virus was detected in 12/16 patients...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164489/multiplex-pcr-for-the-detection-of-10-viruses-causing-encephalitis-encephalopathy-and-its-application-to-clinical-samples-collected-from-japanese-children-with-suspected-viral
#10
Ngan T K Pham, Hiroshi Ushijima, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang D Trinh, Pattara Khamrin, Chikako Arakawa, Wakako Ishii, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is a serious neurological condition having a high mortality rate and affecting both children and adults. This study aimed to develop a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous screening of clinical samples for the presence of the 10 viruses presently considered as the major viral causes of acute encephalitis/ encephalopathy in Asia. METHODS: Using previously published primers that have been widely used to screen for herpes virus-6, influenza A virus, human parechovirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, group A rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and dengue virus in clinical samples, a single-tube multiplex PCR assay was developed and was tested for its sensitivity and specificity...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141506/antiviral-activity-of-acid-beta-glucosidase-1-on-enterovirus-71-a-causative-agent-of-hand-foot-mouth-disease
#11
Keiko Nakata, Satoshi Takeda, Atsushi Tanaka, Jimmy Kwang, Jun Komano
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). EV71 causes fever, rash, diarrhea, and, in some cases, acute encephalopathy/encephalitis, which can be fatal. No specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Here, we conducted a cDNA library screen and identified acid β-glucosidase 1 (GBA1; also known as β-glucocerebrosidase) as an EV71 resistance factor. The anti-EV71 function of GBA1 was verified by gene transduction and knockdown experiments. Cerezyme, a molecular drug used to treat Gaucher's disease having recombinant human GBA1 as the active ingredient, protected against EV71 infection...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131199/first-reported-cases-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-in-vietnamese-adolescents-and-adults
#12
Mai Nguyen Thi Hoang, Phu Nguyen Hoan, Tan Le Van, Angela McBride, Nghia Ho Dang Trung, Thanh Tran Tan, Hong Nguyen Thi Thu, Dorothee Heemskerk, Jeremy Day, Angela Vincent, Chau Nguyen Van Vinh, Guy Thwaites
INTRODUCTION: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is increasingly recognised as an important differential diagnosis in patients with encephalitis of unknown aetiology. We report the first case series of patients diagnosed in Vietnam. METHODS: Samples of CSF from patients with presumed encephalitis but negative microbiological investigations, who exhibited dyskinesia, autonomic instability or psychosis were tested for antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the glutamate (type-NMDA) receptor using an indirect immunofluorescence assay...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129450/viral-encephalitis-after-haplo-identical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-causative-viral-spectrum-characteristics-and-risk-factors
#13
Xiao-Hui Zhang, Jia-Min Zhang, Wei Han, Huan Chen, Yu-Hong Chen, Feng-Rong Wang, Jing-Zhi Wang, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Xiao-Dong Mo, Yao Chen, Yu Wang, Ying-Jun Chang, Lan-Ping Xu, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively identify characteristics and risk factors of viral encephalitis (VE) in patients who underwent a haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). METHODS: A nested case-control study was designed. Cases with VE and controls were identified from a cohort composed of 1274 patients who underwent a haplo-identical HSCT from 2012 to 2015. RESULTS: VE was identified in 30 patients (2.4%).The median time from HSCT to diagnosis was 144...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125598/a-feasibility-study-of-quantifying-longitudinal-brain-changes-in-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-encephalitis-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-stereology
#14
Sylviane Defres, Simon S Keller, Kumar Das, Rishma Vidyasagar, Laura M Parkes, Girvan Burnside, Michael Griffiths, Michael Kopelman, Neil Roberts, Tom Solomon
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe volume and total oedema volumes in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis as a preliminary to a trial of corticosteroid therapy. METHODS: The study analysed serially acquired magnetic resonance images (MRI), of patients with acute HSV encephalitis who had neuroimaging repeated within four weeks of the first scan. We performed volumetric measurements of the left and right temporal lobes and of cerebral oedema visible on T2 weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images using stereology in conjunction with point counting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110082/acute-larvicidal-toxicity-of-five-essential-oils-pinus-nigra-hyssopus-officinalis-satureja-montana-aloysia-citrodora-and-pelargonium-graveolens-against-the-filariasis-vector-culex-quinquefasciatus-synergistic-and-antagonistic-effects
#15
Giovanni Benelli, Roman Pavela, Angelo Canale, Kevin Cianfaglione, Giampiero Ciaschetti, Fabio Conti, Marcello Nicoletti, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Heinz Mehlhorn, Filippo Maggi
Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J...
April 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109263/common-and-uncommon-neurological-manifestations-of-neuroborreliosis-leading-to-hospitalization
#16
Philipp Schwenkenbecher, Refik Pul, Ulrich Wurster, Josef Conzen, Kaweh Pars, Hans Hartmann, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Ludwig Sedlacek, Martin Stangel, Corinna Trebst, Thomas Skripuletz
BACKGROUND: Neuroborreliosis represents a relevant infectious disease and can cause a variety of neurological manifestations. Different stages and syndromes are described and atypical symptoms can result in diagnostic delay or misdiagnosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to define the pivotal neurological deficits in patients with neuroborreliosis that were the reason for admission in a hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data of patients with neuroborreliosis...
January 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106787/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-vaccination
#17
Hsiuying Wang
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103598/coronavirus-infections-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-tract-show-distinct-features-in-hospitalized-children
#18
Yuanyuan Li, Haipeng Li, Ruyan Fan, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaojie Li, Xinjun Lv, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients...
January 20, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103209/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2015
#19
Elisabeth Krow-Lucal, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101180/acute-renal-injury-induced-by-valacyclovir-hydrochloride-a-case-report
#20
Yanning Zhang, Yuxi Cong, Yan Teng
Acyclovir has been a frequently used antiviral agent in the clinical treatment of leukemia, acute encephalitis, malignant tumor and herpes simplex. The adverse effects of this drug have been widely described in clinical practice. In the present study, a case of a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed with herpes simplex, who developed acute renal injury following treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride, is described. Kidney biopsy, light microscopy and laboratory examination were performed, and all findings revealed the signs of evident vacuolar degeneration of capillary endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells, erythrocyte aggregation in partial renal tubule and microvilli exfoliation from epithelial cells...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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