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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215577/acute-encephalitis-in-an-adult-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-secondary-involvement-of-the-central-nervous-system-infectious-or-non-infectious-etiology
#1
Surinder S Moonga, Kenneth Liang, Burke A Cunha
Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting case of a 61-year-old male with a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL). He presented with acute encephalitis: altered mental status, fever, leukocytosis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiple unchanged brain lesions on computed tomography scan of the head, and EEG showed mild to moderate diffuse slowing with low-moderate polymorphic delta and theta activity...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208406/macrophage-depletion-by-liposome-encapsulated-clodronate-suppresses-seizures-but-not-hippocampal-damage-after-acute-viral-encephalitis
#2
Inken Waltl, Christopher Käufer, Sonja Bröer, Chintan Chhatbar, Luca Ghita, Ingo Gerhauser, Muneeb Anjum, Ulrich Kalinke, Wolfgang Löscher
Viral encephalitis is a major risk factor for the development of seizures and epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. Mouse models such as viral encephalitis induced by intracerebral infection with Theiler's virus in C57BL/6 (B6) mice allow advancing our understanding of the immunological and virological aspects of infection-induced seizures and their treatment. Previous studies using the Theiler's virus model in B6 mice have indicated that brain-infiltrating inflammatory macrophages and the cytokines released by these cells are key to the development of acute seizures and hippocampal damage in this model...
December 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207707/diagnostic-approach-to-viral-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-aes-in-paediatric-age-group-a-study-from-new-delhi
#3
Shipra Goel, Anita Chakravarti, Mukta Mantan, Surinder Kumar, Md Anzar Ashraf
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205199/seroprevalence-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-west-nile-virus-in-alappuzha-district-kerala
#4
Anukumar Balakrishnan, Romy Jose Thekkekare, Gajanan Sapkal, Babasaheb V Tandale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Several outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala State, India, in the past. The aetiology of these outbreaks was either inconclusive or concluded as probable Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection based on clinical presentation. The role of West Nile virus (WNV) in AES outbreaks was also determined. However, the extent of WNV infection has not been studied in this region previously. A population-based cross-sectional serosurvey study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of JEV and WNV in Alappuzha district...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202854/neuronal-ccl2-expression-drives-inflammatory-monocyte-infiltration-into-the-brain-during-acute-virus-infection
#5
Charles L Howe, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Emma N Goddery, Renee K Johnson, Kanish Mirchia
BACKGROUND: Viral encephalitis is a dangerous compromise between the need to robustly clear pathogen from the brain and the need to protect neurons from bystander injury. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of C57Bl/6 mice is a model of viral encephalitis in which the compromise results in hippocampal damage and permanent neurological sequelae. We previously identified brain-infiltrating inflammatory monocytes as the primary driver of this hippocampal pathology, but the mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to the brain were unclear...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199039/the-coronavirus-nucleocapsid-protein-is-adp-ribosylated
#6
Matthew E Grunewald, Anthony R Fehr, Jeremiah Athmer, Stanley Perlman
ADP-ribosylation is a common post-translational modification, although how it modulates RNA virus infection is not well understood. While screening for ADP-ribosylated proteins during coronavirus (CoV) infection, we detected a ~55kDa ADP-ribosylated protein in mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-infected cells and in virions, which we identified as the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N proteins of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV were also ADP-ribosylated...
November 30, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198411/epileptic-spasms-secondary-to-acute-cerebral-and-cerebellar-encephalitis
#7
Tohru Okanishi, Ayataka Fujimoto, Risa Hashimoto, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Miho Ogawa, Takayuki Suzuki, Hirotaka Motoi, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Hideo Enoki
BACKGROUND: Patients with infection-related acute encephalitis sometimes develop epilepsy in the chronic phase of the disease. Patients with postencephalitic epilepsy usually develop partial seizures due to the lesions generated by the encephalitis. We report a case who developed late-onset epileptic spasms after acute cerebral and cerebellar encephalitis. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old girl showed severe tremor, gait ataxia, partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, hyperactivity, and panic attacks after a mild enterocolitis...
November 29, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191132/severe-disseminated-necrotizing-and-granulomatous-lymphadenitis-and-encephalitis-in-a-dog-due-to-sporotrichum-pruinosum-teleomorph-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#8
Drew R Magstadt, Amanda J Fales-Williams, Jean-Sébastien Palerme, Heather Flaherty, Tracy Lindquist, Kristina G Miles
A 9-year-old female mixed breed dog presented for an acute onset of anorexia, vomiting, and cough. Initial examination and diagnostics revealed a large multilobular cranial mediastinal mass with unidentified fungal organisms on cytology. The disease progressed in spite of therapy until the dog was euthanized 8 months later. Gross necropsy findings were a large multilobular intrathoracic mass, mild pleuritis, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Histologic evaluation showed granulomatous inflammation and necrosis with numerous 20- to 70-micron, periodic acid-Schiff- and Gomori methenamine silver-positive spherules effacing lymph node parenchyma, as well as severe inflammation within the midbrain...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187231/post-encephalitic-parkinsonism-following-dengue-viral-infection
#9
B V K M Bopeththa, U Ralapanawa
BACKGROUND: Incidence of dengue fever as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever is increasing in Sri Lanka especially among elderly population. As the number of cases is rising, rare complications of dengue illness also can be seen in clinical practice when compared to the past few years. Prompt identification and treatment of such complications is challenging due to lack of awareness and unavailability of standard treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: 69 years old man presented with acute onset fever and was diagnosed as having dengue illness...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181879/high-human-herpesvirus-6-viral-load-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-is-associated-with-detection-in-end-organs-and-high-mortality
#10
Lena E Winestone, Rajesh Punn, John S Tamaresis, Julia Buckingham, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jesse J Waggoner, Sandhya Kharbanda
Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation occurs in approximately half of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). While encephalitis and delayed engraftment are well-documented complications of HHV-6 following HSCT, the extent to which HHV-6 viremia causes disease in children is controversial. We performed a retrospective review of HHV-6 reactivation and possible manifestations in pediatric allogeneic HSCT patients at a single institution. Of 89 children and young adults who underwent allogeneic HSCT over a three-and-a-half-year period, 34 patients reactivated HHV-6 early post-transplant...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179785/toxoplasma-gondii-reorganizes-the-host-cell-architecture-during-spontaneous-cyst-formation-in-vitro
#11
T C Paredes-Santos, E S Martins-Duarte, W de Souza, M Attias, R C Vommaro
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a prevalent infection related to abortion, ocular diseases and encephalitis in immuno-compromised individuals. In the untreatable (and life-long) chronic stage of toxoplasmosis, parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs, containing T. gondii tachyzoites) transform into tissue cysts, containing slow-dividing bradyzoite forms. While acute-stage infection with tachyzoites involves global rearrangement of the host cell cytoplasm, focused on favouring tachyzoite replication, the cytoplasmic architecture of cells infected with cysts had not been described...
November 28, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179102/electroencephalographic-findings-in-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children-a-series-of-12-patients
#12
Mirac Yildirim, Bahadir Konuskan, Dilek Yalnizoglu, Haluk Topaloglu, Ilknur Erol, Banu Anlar
OBJECTIVE: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (a-NMDARe) is an acute or subacute encephalopathy where electroencephalogram (EEG) is frequently obtained as part of the workup. Although no diagnostic EEG finding has been described so far, the definition of specific or typical patterns might help to distinguish this group among various encephalopathies of childhood. We examined EEG recordings of our patients with a-NMDARe in order to describe the most frequent findings. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and digital EEG recordings of 12 pediatric patients diagnosed with a-NMDARe in two major child neurology centers are evaluated...
November 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175515/innate-immune-control-of-alphavirus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Kathryn S Carpentier, Thomas E Morrison
Alphaviruses are important human pathogens that cause diseases ranging from acute and chronic polyarthralgia to encephalitis. Transmitted by mosquito vectors, alphaviruses have high potential for emergence and have initiated several recent epidemics. The innate immune response is critical for controlling the acute phase of alphavirus disease, and the induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential in this response. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of innate host sensors that initiate antiviral responses following alphavirus infection, and the IFN-induced effector proteins that limit alphavirus replication and dissemination...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170534/increased-serum-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-is-associated-with-acute-viral-encephalitis-in-bangladeshi-children
#14
Daisuke Mori, Wahida Khanam, Rahamot Ali Sheikh, S M Shahnawaz Bin Tabib, Emi Ikebe, Mohammad Moshaddeque Hossain, Hidekatsu Iha, Kamruddin Ahmed
Encephalitis causes significant global morbidity and mortality. A large number of viruses cause encephalitis, and their geographic and temporal distributions vary. In many encephalitis cases, the virus cannot be detected, even after extensive testing. This is one challenge in management of the encephalitis patient. Since cytokines are pivotal in any form of inflammation and vary according to the nature of the inflammation, we hypothesized cytokine levels would allow us to discriminate between encephalitis caused by viruses and other aetiologies...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163407/a-therapeutic-antiviral-antibody-inhibits-the-anterograde-directed-neuron-to-cell-spread-of-herpes-simplex-virus-and-protects-against-ocular-disease
#15
Dirk Bauer, Mira Alt, Miriam Dirks, Anna Buch, Christiane S Heilingloh, Ulf Dittmer, Bernd Giebel, André Görgens, Vivien Palapys, Maren Kasper, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Beate Sodeik, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Michael Roggendorf, Adalbert Krawczyk
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a leading cause of blindness and viral encephalitis in the developed world. Upon reactivation from sensory neurons, HSV returns via axonal transport to peripheral tissues where it causes, e.g., severe, potentially blinding ocular diseases. In the present study we investigated whether the HSV-1/2 glycoprotein B-specific antibody mAb 2c or its humanized counterpart mAb hu2c can protect from ocular disease in a mouse model of HSV-1-induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN). In this model the viral spread from the initially infected to the contralateral eye resembles the routes taken in humans upon HSV reactivation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159001/a-unique-case-of-acute-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-secondary-to-primary-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#16
Syed F Imam, Omair Ul Haq Lodhi, Zainab Fatima, Saneeya Nasim, Waseem T Malik, Muhammad Sabih Saleem
Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. We present a case of a 39-year-old male who developed extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following primary VZV infection...
September 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158768/acute-pancreatitis-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-coxsackievirus-a16-case-report
#17
Byungsung Park, Hyuckjin Kwon, Kwanseop Lee, Minjae Kang
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which primarily causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), is associated with complications, such as encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and shock. However, no case of pancreatitis associated with CA16 has been reported in children. We report a case of CA16-associated acute pancreatitis in a 3-year-old girl with HFMD. She was admitted because of poor oral intake and high fever for 1 day. Maculopapular rashes on both hands and feet and multiple vesicles on the soft palate were observed on physical examination...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153996/clinical-presentation-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-and-anti-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies-in-children-a-series-of-24-cases
#18
Bahadir Konuskan, Mirac Yildirim, Haluk Topaloglu, Ilknur Erol, Ulkuhan Oztoprak, Huseyin Tan, Rahsan Gocmen, Banu Anlar
OBJECTIVE: The symptomatology and paraclinical findings of antibody-mediated encephalitis, a relatively novel disorder, are still being characterized in adults and children. A high index of suspicion is needed in order to identify these cases among children presenting with various neurological symptoms. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical, demographic and laboratory findings and outcome of children with anti-NMDAR and anti-VGKC encephalitis for any typical or distinctive features...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148587/experimental-infection-by-yersinia-ruckeri-o1-biotype-2-induces-brain-lesions-and-neurological-signs-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#19
H K Strøm, M Ohtani, B Nowak, T S Boutrup, B Jones, M K Raida, A M Bojesen
Pathological manifestations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental waterborne infection with Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 (strain 07111224) were investigated. Rainbow trout were exposed to 8 × 10(7)  CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri by bath for 6 hr, and mortality was then monitored for 22 days post-infection (dpi). Organs were sampled at 3 dpi and also from moribund fish showing signs of severe systemic infection such as bleeding, exophthalmia or erratic swimming behaviour. Y. ruckeri was observed in the meninges and diencephalon of the brain, and lamina propria of olfactory organ at 3 dpi...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#20
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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