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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443089/japanese-encephalitis-virus-exploits-dopamine-d2-receptor-phospholipase-c-to-target-dopaminergic-human-neuronal-cells
#1
Yogy Simanjuntak, Jian-Jong Liang, Yi-Ling Lee, Yi-Ling Lin
Despite the availability of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the re-emerging virus remains a clinically important pathogen that causes acute encephalitis and permanent neuropsychiatric sequels. JEV highly targets dopaminergic neuron-rich brain regions including the thalamus and midbrain. The molecular mechanism contributing to the high susceptibility of these particular brain regions remains largely unclear. This study addressed whether this tissue tropism of JEV is associated with signaling of dopaminergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440879/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-patients-vaccinated-against-this-disease
#2
S Lotrič-Furlan, P Bogovič, T Avšič-Županc, M Jelovšek, L Lusa, F Strle
BACKGROUND: Information on tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in patients already vaccinated against the disease is limited. OBJECTIVES: To compare the course and outcome in patients with vaccination breakthrough TBE with findings in patients who developed TBE without previous vaccination. METHODS: All adult patients diagnosed with TBE at a single medical centre during a 16-year period and who had received at least two doses of TBE vaccine before the onset of illness qualified for the study...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439892/cerebrospinal-fluid-cyto-chemokine-profile-during-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-in-chronic-neurological-sequelae
#3
Kavitha Kothur, Deepak Gill, Melanie Wong, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sushil Bandodkar, Susan Arbunckle, Louise Wienholt, Russell C Dale
AIM: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. METHOD: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439196/clinical-differences-of-influenza-subspecies-among-hospitalized-children
#4
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Metin Uysalol, Sevim Meşe, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
AIM: Clinical findings, mortality, and morbidity rates differ among influenza subspecies. Awareness of these differences will lead physicians to choose the proper diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and to foresee possible complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical differences of influenza subspecies among hospitalized children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospitalized children with proven influenza infection by polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab specimens in our clinic, between December 2013 and March 2016, were enrolled...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438128/viral-aetiologies-of-acute-encephalitis-in-a-hospital-based-south-asian-population
#5
Janarthani Lohitharajah, Neelika Malavige, Carukshi Arambepola, Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Ranjanie Gamage, Padma Gunaratne, Pyara Ratnayake, Thashi Chang
BACKGROUND: The aetiological spectrum of acute encephalitis shows inter- and intra-geographical variations. We aimed to identify the viruses that cause infectious encephalitis in Sri Lanka, which represents a South Asian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 99 patients with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis admitted to two tertiary-care hospitals in Colombo. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum were tested for conventional and emerging encephalitogenic viruses...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#6
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418206/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Xue Xiao, Shunping Gui, Peng Bai, Yi Bai, Dan Shan, Yayi Hu, Tri M Bui-Nguyen, Rong Zhou
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDA-R) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that was first described by Dr Vitaliani in 2005. In 2007, Dalmau et al. found anti-NMDA-R antibody expressed both in the hippocampus and prefrontal nerve cell membrane, finally proposing the diagnosis of autoimmune anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. Most of the patients are female (91%), with ages ranging from 4 to 76 years. The average age is 23 years, a birth peak age, although anti-NMDA-R encephalitis is rare during pregnancy...
April 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412926/acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-geriatric-patients-with-multiple-risk-factors-a-diagnostic-challenge
#8
Ralf Landwehr, Robert Liszka
Acute symptomatic seizures and epileptic disorders are frequent health problems of elderly patients. An early and reliable distinction of the seizure etiology is important to ensure adequate treatment, and to prevent unwarranted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The most common causes of acute symptomatic seizures - acute cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, traumatic brain injury, meningo-encephalitis, cerebral tumors, and withdrawal of alcohol and other central agents - are well-defined and seem to permit straightforward diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
April 13, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407741/the-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-promotes-development-of-brain-resident-memory-t-cells-following-acute-viral-encephalitis
#9
Sujata Prasad, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Priyanka Chauhan, Amar Singh, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that during acute viral brain infection, glial cells modulate antiviral T cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation. Here, we evaluated the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway in development of brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM) following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. METHODS: Flow cytometric analysis of immune cells was performed at 7, 14, and 30 days post-infection (dpi) to assess the shift of brain-infiltrating CD8(+) T cell populations from short-lived effector cells (SLEC) to memory precursor effector cells (MPEC), as well as generation of bTRMs...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404683/brain-eating-amoebae-predilection-sites-in-the-brain-and-disease-outcome
#10
Timothy Yu Yee Ong, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection lasting few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016 in order to explore affinity of these amoebae towards particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities, treatment options and the disease outcome in a comparative manner...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403718/early-recognition-of-encephalitis-in-acute-settings
#11
Kellie-Ann Mower
Encephalitis is a life-threatening condition in which inflammation of the brain tissue occurs. Although it is relatively rare, misdiagnosis or delays in recognition and treatment can have devastating consequences for patients, and there is a high mortality rate. People who survive are often left with neuropsychological impairment. This article describes the pathophysiology of the condition, as well as clinical presentation and treatment, and explains why it can be easily missed. It includes a case study that describes a situation in which the condition was not considered initially as a differential diagnosis, and considers implications for practice...
April 13, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401625/fatal-case-of-cutaneous-sparing-oro-laryngeal-zoster-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#12
Elie Helou, Matthew Grant, Marie Landry, Xinyu Wu, Jon S Morrow, Maricar F Malinis
Herpesvirus infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) in a kidney transplant recipient while receiving belatacept, a CTLA-4 inhibitor that prevents acute rejection. The patient presented with oropharyngolaryngeal mucosal lesions that subsequently disseminated resulting in pneumonitis and meningo-encephalitis. Very late-onset HZ can occur and can present atypically in SOT recipients. Delayed recognition and treatment may result in poor outcomes, as illustrated by this case...
April 12, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396782/small-cell-lung-carcinoma-and-acute-onset-of-antiglial-nuclear-antibody-positive-limbic-encephalitis
#13
Melvin Chan, Rajesh Rangaswamy, Yen-Yi Peng
Limbic encephalitis (LE) can present as a nonspecific manifestation preceding neoplastic disease. Having high clinical suspicion and using newer onconeural antibodies, like antiglial nuclear antibody (AGNA), can lead to an earlier diagnosis. We report a patient with AGNA-positive LE who is later diagnosed and treated for small-cell lung carcinoma.
April 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393593/a-study-of-hyponatremia-in-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-a-prospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#14
Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency and causes of hyponatremia in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and its effect on outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with AES were subjected to neurological evaluation including Glasgow Coma Scale, focal weakness, movement disorder, and reflex changes. The etiology of AES was based on blood and cerebrospinal fluid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We have categorized patients into neurological or systemic AES...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389991/genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-18-egyptian-patients-with-glutaric-acidemia-type-i
#15
Ahmed Mosaeilhy, Magdy M Mohamed, George Priya Doss C, Heba S A El Abd, Radwa Gamal, Osama K Zaki, Hatem Zayed
Glutaric acidemia I (GAI) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme (GCDH). Patients with GAI are characterized by macrocephaly, acute encephalitis-like crises, dystonia and frontotemporal atrophy. In this study, we investigated 18 Egyptian patients that were diagnosed with GAI based on their clinical, neuroradiological, and biochemical profiles. Of the 18 patients, 16 had developmental delay and/or regression, dystonia was prominent in 75% of the cases, and three patients died...
April 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386807/acute-human-herpes-virus-7-hhv-7-encephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Nicoletta Riva, Iacopo Franconi, Marianna Meschiari, Erica Franceschini, Cinzia Puzzolante, Gianluca Cuomo, Alessandro Bianchi, Francesca Cavalleri, Maurilio Genovese, Cristina Mussini
We report a case of an acute HHV-7 encephalitis involving the nucleus of the VI cranial nerve in an immunocompetent host. The patient was an adult male admitted to our Clinic with headache, diplopia, fever, nausea, vertigo, asthenia and general malaise. PCR for viral and bacterial genomes was run on both serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) after performing lumbar puncture, resulting positive only for HHV-7 DNA on CSF. MRI showed hyperintensity in FLAIR signal in the dorsal pons, in the area of the VI cranial nerve nucleus...
April 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367948/human-herpesvirus-6-encephalitis-followed-by-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult
#17
Junichi Horie, Keisuke Suzuki, Toshiki Nakamura, Madoka Okamura, Akio Iwasaki, Koichi Hirata
A 26-year-old, otherwise healthy man presented with visual abnormality followed by loss of consciousness and convulsion. The patient then developed headache and fever 14 days later. Brain MRI showed hyperintensities in the left cingulate cortex. The cerrebrospinal fluid examinations showed mononuclear pleocytosis and positive PCR results for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). A diagnosis of HHV-6 encephalitis and symptomatic epilepsy was made. The patient's clinical symptoms improved promptly following acyclovir treatment...
March 30, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364664/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-to-changes-in-11-c-flumazenil-binding-in-the-rat-brain-evaluation-of-the-inflamed-pons-as-reference-tissue
#18
Andrea Parente, David Vállez García, Alexandre Shoji, Isadora Lopes Alves, Bram Maas, Rolf Zijlma, Rudi Ajo Dierckx, Carlos A Buchpiguel, Erik Fj de Vries, Janine Doorduin
INTRODUCTION: [(11)C]Flumazenil is a well-known PET tracer for GABAA receptors and is mainly used as an imaging biomarker for neuronal loss. Recently, GABAA receptors on immune cells have been investigated as target for modulation of inflammation. Since neuronal loss is often accompanied by neuroinflammation, PET imaging with [(11)C]flumazenil is potentially affected by infiltrating immune cells. This may also compromise the validity of using the pons as reference tissue in quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis...
March 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363946/emergence-of-new-onset-psychotic-disorder-following-recovery-from-lgi1-antibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis
#19
Thomas A Pollak, Nick Moran
Neuronal autoantibodies targeting cell surface antigens have been described in association with autoimmune encephalitides which frequently feature psychosis and other psychiatric disturbances alongside neurological signs and symptoms. Little has been written however about the long-term psychiatric status of individuals following recovery from the acute phase of autoimmune encephalitis, despite case series and anecdotal evidence suggesting this may be a cause of considerable disability. Here, we describe a man aged 58 years with no psychiatric history who developed a severe and acute psychotic disorder following resolution of a protracted course of limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 protein...
March 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361829/genetic-characterization-of-human-herpesvirus-type-1-full-length-genome-sequence-of-strain-obtained-from-an-encephalitis-case-from-india
#20
Vijay P Bondre, Vasudha Sankararaman, Vijaysinh Andhare, Manisha Tupekar, Gajanan N Sapkal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in humans that contributes to >10 per cent of the encephalitis cases occurring worldwide. Availability of limited full genome sequences from a small number of isolates resulted in poor understanding of host and viral factors responsible for variable clinical outcome. In this study genetic relationship, extent and source of recombination using full-length genome sequence derived from a newly isolated HSV-1 isolate was studied in comparison with those sampled from patients with varied clinical outcome...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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