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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336953/palmitoylethanolamide-induces-microglia-changes-associated-with-increased-migration-and-phagocytic-activity-involvement-of-the-cb2-receptor
#1
F Guida, L Luongo, S Boccella, M E Giordano, R Romano, G Bellini, I Manzo, A Furiano, A Rizzo, R Imperatore, F A Iannotti, E D'Aniello, F Piscitelli, F Sca Rossi, L Cristino, V Di Marzo, V de Novellis, S Maione
The endogenous fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory actions mainly through inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory molecules from mast cells, monocytes and macrophages. Indirect activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is among the several mechanisms of action that have been proposed to underlie the different effects of PEA in vivo. In this study, we used cultured rat microglia and human macrophages to evaluate whether PEA affects eCB signaling. PEA was found to increase CB2 mRNA and protein expression through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326930/effects-of-jwh015-in-cytokine-secretion-in-primary-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts-and-its-suitability-for-topical-transdermal-delivery
#2
Alicia Bort, Perla A Alvarado-Vazquez, Carolina Moracho-Vilrriales, Kristopher G Virga, Giuseppe Gumina, Alfonso Romero-Sandoval, Scott Asbill
Background JWH015 is a cannabinoid (CB) receptor type 2 agonist that produces immunomodulatory effects. Since skin cells play a key role in inflammatory conditions and tissue repair, we investigated the ability of JWH015 to promote an anti-inflammatory and pro-wound healing phenotype in human primary skin cells. Methods Human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined using RT-PCR. The effects of JWH015 (0.05, 0...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320859/2-arachidonoylglycerol-ameliorates-inflammatory-stress-induced-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#3
Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Ilvy Geraets, Yilin Liu, Xiaoqing Zhu, Jieyi Li, Miranda Nabben, Will Coumans, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Dietbert Neumann
Several studies have linked impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance (IR) to functional impairment of the heart. Recently, endocannabinoids have been implicated in cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms involving endocannabinoid signaling, glucose uptake and IR in cardiomyocytes are understudied. Here, we report the endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via stimulation of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor and Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase β (CaMKKβ) activates AMPK leading to increased glucose uptake...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317181/cyclic-bisporphyrin-based-flexible-molecular-containers-controlling-guest-arrangements-and-supramolecular-catalysis-by-tuning-cavity-size
#4
Sankar Prasad Rath, Pritam Mondal, Sabyasachi Sarkar
Three cyclic zinc(II) bisporphyrins (CB) with highly flexible linkers are employed as artificial molecular containers that efficiently encapsulate/coordinate various aromatic aldehydes within their cavities. Interestingly, the arrangements of the guests and their reactivity inside the molecular clefts are significantly influenced by the cavity size. In presence of polycyclic aromatic aldehydes such as 3-formylperylene as a guest, the cyclic bisporphyrin host having smaller cavity (CB1) forms 1:1 sandwich complex...
March 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315398/hepatic-expressions-of-cannabinoid-receptors-cb1-and-cb2-correlate-with-the-fibrogenesis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#5
Erhei Dai, Lianshan Zhang, Lihong Ye, Shiqing Wan, Lulu Feng, Qi Qi, Fang Yao, Zhen Li
AIM: The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. However, most of the findings come from experiment researches on animal model or clinical trial on chronic hepatitis C. The roles of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in hepatofibrosis on patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) have not been studied universally. This study aimed to explore the relationship between liver fibrosis and expressions of CB1 and CB2 on patients with CHB...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289947/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-identification-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-periodontal-tissues-and-their-potential-role-in-local-pathophysiology
#6
Anna Konermann, Andreas Jäger, Stefanie A E Held, P Brossart, Anne Schmöle
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) with its binding receptors CB1 and CB2 impacts multiple pathophysiologies not only limited to neuronal psychoactivity. CB1 is assigned to cerebral neuron action, whereas CB2 is mainly expressed in different non-neuronal tissues and associated with immunosuppressive effects. Based on these tissue-selective CB receptor roles, it was the aim of this study to analyze potential expression in periodontal tissues under physiological conditions and inflammatory states. In vivo, CB receptor expression was investigated on human periodontal biopsies with or without bacterial inflammation and on rat maxillae with or without sterile inflammation...
March 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289139/longitudinal-predictors-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#7
Andrew L Ninnemann, Hye Jeong Choi, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a large, heterogeneous group of chemicals that are structurally similar to δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Many SCs are high-efficacy full agonists of the CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors, resulting in a potent group of chemicals with a variety of negative health effects, including death. SCs are available to adolescents at convenience stores and smoke shops and on the Internet. However, little is known about the risk factors that contribute to eventual use of SCs in adolescents, and no research has examined the psychiatric, personality, and substance-use risk factors that prospectively predict SC use...
March 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285077/multilayer-photodynamic-therapy-for-highly-effective-and-safe-cancer-treatment
#8
Ling Yang, Shaojuan Zhang, Xiaoxi Ling, Pin Shao, Ningyang Jia, Mingfeng Bai
Recent efforts to develop tumor-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizers (PSs) have greatly advanced the potential of PDT in cancer therapy, although complete eradication of tumor cells by PDT alone remains challenging. As a way to improve PDT efficacy, we report a new combinatory PDT therapy technique that specifically targets multilayers of cells. Simply mixing different PDT PSs, even those that target distinct receptors (this may still lead to similar cell-killing pathways), may not achieve ideal therapeutic outcomes...
March 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284861/biological-evaluation-of-pyridone-alkaloids-on-the-endocannabinoid-system
#9
Andrea Chicca, Regina Berg, Henning J Jessen, Nicolas Marck, Fabian Schmid, Patrick Burch, Jürg Gertsch, Karl Gademann
Naturally occurring pyridone alkaloids as well as synthetic derivatives were previously shown to induce neurite outgrowth. However, the molecular basis for this biological effect remains poorly understood. In this work, we have prepared new pyridones, and tested the effect of thirteen 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone derivatives on the components of the endocannabinoid system. Investigation of binding affinities towards CB1 and CB2 receptors led to the identification of a compound binding selectively to CB1 (12). Compound 12 and a closely related derivative (11) also inhibited anandamide (AEA) hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase...
February 17, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283967/exercise-training-and-high-fat-diet-elicit-endocannabinoid-system-modifications-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-and-hippocampus
#10
François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Enrico Mazzarella, Teresa Aveta, Melissa Leriche, Erwan Dupont, Caroline Cieniewski-Bernard, Erwan Leclair, Bruno Bastide, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Elsa Heyman
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic exercise on the hypothalamus and hippocampus levels of the endocannabinoids (eCBs) anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and of two AEA congeners and on the expression of genes coding for CB1, CB2 receptors (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively), and the enzymes responsible for eCB biosynthesis and degradation, in rats fed with a standard or high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 28) were placed on a 12-week high-fat (HFD) or standard diet period, followed by 12 weeks of exercise training for half of each group...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261100/endocannabinoids-a-promising-impact-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Lesley D Schurman, Aron H Lichtman
The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system regulates a diverse array of physiological processes and unsurprisingly possesses considerable potential targets for the potential treatment of numerous disease states, including two receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2 receptors) and enzymes regulating their endogenous ligands N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Increases in brain levels of endocannabinoids to pathogenic events suggest this system plays a role in compensatory repair mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260338/-genotyping-by-crispr-and-regional-distribution-of-yersinia-pestis-in-qinghai-plateau-from-1954-to-2011
#12
X Q Xu, Y Q Xin, X Li, Q W Zhang, X Y Yang, Y Jin, H H Zhao, X Jin, Z Z Qi
Objective: To investigate the CRISPR genotypes (clusters) and regional distribution of Yersinia pestis in Qinghai-plateau. Methods: One hundred and two isolates of Y. pestis isolated from human plague patients, host animal and insect vectors from Qinghai-plateau were selected. The DNAs were extracted using the traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate decomposition and phenol-chloroform method. Three CRISPR loci YPa, YPb and YPc of 102 isolates of Y. pesits were amplified and sequenced, and then the CRISPR sequence analysis was carried out by comparing the latest published CRISPR spacer dictionary and the NCBI database to identify the spacer and spacer array...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254562/cb1-receptor-mediated-respiratory-depression-by-endocannabinoids
#13
András Iring, László Hricisák, Zoltán Benyó
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are bioactive lipid mediators acting on two distinct cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), which are ubiquitously expressed in many tissues including the respiratory system. Despite numerous experimental data showing that cannabinomimetics influence respiration, the role of endogenously produced ECs in respiratory control has not been verified yet. Pulse oximetry was used in the present study to directly measure changes in respiratory parameters during elevation of EC levels. The cannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM-404 (10mgkg(-1), i...
February 22, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253997/cb2-cannabinoid-receptors-modulate-hif-1%C3%AE-and-tim-3-expression-in-a-hypoxia-ischemia-mouse-model
#14
Elk Kossatz, Rafael Maldonado, Patricia Robledo
The role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) in global brain lesions induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI) insult is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of CB2R in the behavioural and biochemical underpinnings related to brain damage induced by HI in adult mice, and the mechanisms involved. CB2R knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT) underwent permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery and hypoxia. Behavioural measurements in the rotarod, beam walking, object recognition, open field, and Irwin tests were carried out 24h, 72h and 7 days...
December 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250664/potential-of-cannabidiol-for-the-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#15
Henry I C Lowe, Ngeh J Toyang, Wayne McLaughlin
Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) pose a major health problem globally and if untreated, both viruses lead to severe liver damage resulting in liver cirrhosis and cancer. While HBV has a vaccine, HCV has none at the moment. The risk of drug resistance, combined with the high cost of current therapies, makes it a necessity for cost-effective therapeutics to be discovered and developed. The recent surge in interest in Medical Cannabis has led to interest in evaluating and validating the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis and its metabolites against various diseases including viruses...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247204/changes-in-the-brain-endocannabinoid-system-in-rat-models-of-depression
#16
Irena Smaga, Joanna Jastrzębska, Magdalena Zaniewska, Beata Bystrowska, Dawid Gawliński, Agata Faron-Górecka, Żaneta Broniowska, Joanna Miszkiel, Małgorzata Filip
A growing body of evidence implicates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of changes in the eCB system, such as levels of neuromodulators, eCB synthesizing and degrading enzymes, and cannabinoid (CB) receptors, in different brain structures in animal models of depression using behavioral and biochemical analyses. Both models used, i.e., bulbectomized (OBX) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, were characterized at the behavioral level by increased immobility time...
April 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240187/the-endocannabinoid-system-modulating-levels-of-consciousness-emotions-and-likely-dream-contents
#17
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, José Carlos Pastrana-Trejo, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Miriel de-la-Cruz
Cannabinoids are derivatives that are either compounds occurring naturally in the plant, Cannabis sativa or synthetic analogs of these molecules. The first and most widely investigated of the cannabinoids is ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis and undergoes significant binding to cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors that received their name from the fact that they respond to cannabinoid compounds, including Δ9-THC...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237711/pharmacological-inhibition-of-faah-modulates-tlr-induced-neuroinflammation-but-not-sickness-behaviour-an-effect-partially-mediated-by-central-trpv1
#18
Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, Lisa E Flannery, Marykate Killilea, Edel M Hughes, Louise Corcoran, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Aberrant activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), key components of the innate immune system, has been proposed to underlie and exacerbate a range of central nervous system disorders. Increasing evidence supports a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating inflammatory responses including those mediated by TLRs, and thus this system may provide an important treatment target for neuroinflammatory disorders. However, the effect of modulating endocannabinoid tone on TLR-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and associated behavioural changes is largely unknown...
February 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235548/chronic-and-acute-adenosine-a2a-receptor-blockade-prevents-long-term-episodic-memory-disruption-caused-by-acute-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-activation
#19
Francisco M Mouro, Vânia L Batalha, Diana G Ferreira, Joana E Coelho, Younis Baqi, Christa E Müller, Luísa V Lopes, Joaquim A Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião
Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB1R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i...
February 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#20
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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