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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448548/altered-striatal-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#1
Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Mariluz Hernández-Gálvez, Cecilia J Hillard, Patricia Maciel, Sara Valdeolivas, José A Ramos, María Gómez-Ruiz, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA-3) is the most prevalent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia. We recently found that the endocannabinoid system is altered in the post-mortem cerebellum of SCA-3 patients, and similar results were also found in the cerebellar and brainstem nuclei of a SCA-3 transgenic mouse model. Given that the neuropathology of SCA-3 is not restricted to these two brain regions but rather, it is also evident in other structures (e.g., the basal ganglia), we studied the possible changes to endocannabinoid signaling in the striatum of these transgenic mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446875/cannabinoid-modulation-of-memory-consolidation-in-rats-beyond-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-subtype-1
#2
Patrizia Ratano, Maura Palmery, Viviana Trezza, Patrizia Campolongo
The effects induced by exogenous manipulation of endocannabinoid neurotransmission on emotion and memory are often contradictory. Among the different factors involved, of particular interest is the binding affinity of endocannabinoids, and their analogs, for other receptor families beyond cannabinoid receptors, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). The aim of this study was to investigate which receptor subtype mediates cannabinoid effects on memory consolidation for emotionally arousing experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440188/trp-channels-as-novel-targets-for-endogenous-ligands-focus-on-endocannabinoids-and-nociceptive-signalling
#3
Maksim V Storozhuk, Alexander V Zholos
The endocannabinoid system is gaining steadily increasing research interest as its important role in the regulation of many fundamental physiological processes becomes more and more evident. One area which received particularly significant attention concerns targeting the endocannabinoid system as a useful strategy in pain control, especially in refractory, difficult to treat cases of chronic pain. Apart from the classical targets of cannabinoids, the CB1 and CB2 receptors, several members of the large TRP family of Ca2+-permeable cation channels have been designated as "ionotropic cannabinoid receptors" to highlight their role in cannabinoid signalling...
April 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439004/endocannabinoid-system-acts-as-a-regulator-of-immune-homeostasis-in-the-gut
#4
Nandini Acharya, Sasi Penukonda, Tatiana Shcheglova, Adam T Hagymasi, Sreyashi Basu, Pramod K Srivastava
Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are small molecules biosynthesized from membrane glycerophospholipid. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous intestinal cannabinoid that controls appetite and energy balance by engagement of the enteric nervous system through cannabinoid receptors. Here, we uncover a role for AEA and its receptor, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), in the regulation of immune tolerance in the gut and the pancreas. This work demonstrates a major immunological role for an endocannabinoid. The pungent molecule capsaicin (CP) has a similar effect as AEA; however, CP acts by engagement of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1, causing local production of AEA, which acts through CB2...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437860/chronic-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-by-urb597-produces-differential-effects-on-cardiac-performance-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats
#5
Anna Pedzinska-Betiuk, Jolanta Weresa, Marek Toczek, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Irena Kasacka, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Malinowska
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are postulated to possess anti-hypertensive potential, because their acute injection decreases blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) partially through normalization of cardiac contractile function. Here, we examined whether the potential hypotensive effect of chronic FAAH inhibition by URB597 in hypertensive rats correlates with changes in cardiac performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed using perfused hearts and left atria isolated from 8-10 week old SHR, age-matched deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt) rats and normotensive controls chronically treated with URB597 (1 mg kg(-1) ) or vehicle...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434446/revisiting-pulmonary-vein-isolation-alone-for-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Jeremy T Moskovitch, Nadav Harel, Prashanthan Sanders, Peter M Kistler, Jonathan M Kalman
BACKGROUND: Early studies demonstrated relatively low success rates for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF). However, the advent of new technologies and the observation that additional substrate ablation does not improve outcomes have created a new focus on PVI alone for treatment of PeAF. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the recent medical literature to determine current medium-term outcomes when a PVI-only approach is used for PeAF...
May 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433484/corrigendum-to-biological-characterization-of-pm226-a-chromenoisoxazole-as-a-selective-cb2-receptor-agonist-with-neuroprotective-profile-pharmacol-res-110-august-2016-2016-205-215
#7
M Gómez-Cañas, P Morales, L García-Toscano, C Navarrete, E Muñoz, N Jagerovic, J Fernández-Ruiz, M García-Arencibia, M R Pazos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431968/cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors-differentially-modulate-l-and-t-type-ca-2-channels-in-rat-retinal-ganglion-cells
#8
Wen-Jing Qian, Ning Yin, Feng Gao, Yanying Miao, Qian Li, Fang Li, Xing-Huai Sun, Xiong-Li Yang, Zhongfeng Wang
Endocannabinoid signaling system is involved in regulating multiple neuronal functions in the central nervous system by activating G-protein coupled cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1Rs and CB2Rs). Growing evidence has shown that CB1Rs and CB2Rs are extensively expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, modulation of L- and T-types Ca(2+) channels by activating CB1Rs and CB2Rs in RGCs was investigated. Triple immunofluorescent staining showed that L-type subunit CaV1.2 was co-localized with T-type subunits (CaV3...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428743/editorial-the-cb2-cannabinoid-system-a-new-strategy-in-neurodegenerative-disorder-and-neuroinflammation
#9
EDITORIAL
Marialessandra Contino, Elena Capparelli, Nicola A Colabufo, Ashley I Bush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428264/cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-drives-oocyte-maturation-and-embryo-development-via-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-pathways
#10
Angela Patricia López-Cardona, Serafín Pérez-Cerezales, Raúl Fernández-González, Ricardo Laguna-Barraza, Eva Pericuesta, Naiara Agirregoitia, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Ekaitz Agirregoitia
Endocannabinoids have been recognized as mediators of practically all reproductive events in mammals. However, little is known about the role of this system in oocyte maturation. In a mouse model, we observed that activation of the cannabinoid receptor (CB)1 during in vitro oocyte maturation modulated the phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2 and enhanced the subsequent embryo production. In the absence of the CB1 receptor, in vivo oocyte maturation was impaired and embryo development delayed. The CB2 receptor was unable to rescue these effects...
April 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425013/cannabinoids-as-modulators-of-cell-death-clinical-applications-and-future-directions
#11
B M Fonseca, N A Teixeira, G Correia-da-Silva
Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that modulate various physiological processes through G-protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and other putative targets. By sharing the activation of the same receptors, some phytocannabinoids and a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids mimic the effects of endocannabinoids. In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of cannabinoids properties for their analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In addition to these well-recognized effects, various studies suggest that cannabinoids may affect cell survival, cell proliferation or cell death...
April 20, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416971/a-multicenter-study-of-the-need-of-additional-freezing-for-cryoballoon-ablation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-the-ad-balloon-study
#12
Koji Miyamoto, Atsushi Doi, Naoki Amaya, Yoshiaki Morita, Takashi Noda, Masanori Asakura, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Hiroshi Tada, Masahiko Takagi, Satoshi Yasuda, Kengo Kusano
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone of catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), and balloon-based ablation has been recently performed worldwide. Ablation using the second-generation cryoballoon (CB2) (Arctic Front Advance(TM), Medtronic, MN, USA) is useful for PVI; however, there is some debate concerning the optimal freezing time and number of cycles after PVI is achieved. METHODS: The AD-Balloon study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the optimal strategy (freezing cycles) of CB2 ablation (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000020130)...
April 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412921/synthetic-cannabinoids-psychopharmacology-clinical-aspects-and-psy-chotic-onset
#13
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Duccio Papanti, Yasmine Elgharably, Mariya Prilutskaya, Ornella Corazza
Synthetic Cannabinoids (SC) are the widest and most diffused class of Novel Psychoactive Substances. SC are chemically heterogeneous and structurally dissimilar from delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, being full agonists of the endocannabinoid system receptors CB1 and CB2. Desired effects include euphoria, talkativeness, feelings of joy and laughter, relaxation. With respect to cannabis, SC intake may also be associated with quicker arise of the effects, shorter duration of action, and larger levels of hangover...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392296/anxious-behavior-induces-elevated-hippocampal-cb2-receptor-gene-expression
#14
James M Robertson, Justin K Achua, Justin P Smith, Melissa A Prince, Clarissa D Staton, Patrick J Ronan, Tangi R Summers, Cliff H Summers
Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386998/metabolic-syndrome-induced-bladder-cannabinoid-receptor-changes-in-the-fructose-fed-rats
#15
I-Hung Chen, Juei-Tang Cheng, Yat-Ching Tong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome on the bladder cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1/CB2) expression and function in the fructose-fed rats (FR). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: (i) Control rats fed with normal chow; and (ii) Rats fed with high-fructose diet (FR) for 9 weeks. The body weight, blood pressure, plasma sugar, insulin, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured. Bladder muscle strips were prepared in organ bath and pre-contracted with 1 µM/L acetylcholine (ACh) or 50 mM/L KCl...
April 6, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384999/pathogenesis-of-coxsackievirus-b2-in-mice-characterisation-of-clinical-isolates-of-the-coxsackievirus-b2-from-patients-with-myocarditis-and-aseptic-meningitis-in-korea
#16
JiYoung Hong, BungHak Kang, SangGu Yeo, Youngmee Jee, Jae-Hak Park
Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) are a group of common human pathogens causing various clinical symptoms. Although the virology of CVB is well known, there is limited information on viral pathogenesis and the relationship between clinical symptoms and viral phenotype, particularly for CVB type 2 (CVB2). In this study, two CVB2 strains were isolated: CB2/04/279 from a stool of an acute myocarditis patient with heart failure; and CB2/04/243 from an aseptic meningitis patient in 2004 in Korea. A high degree of homology was observed between the CB2/04/279 and CB2/04/243 full genome sequences...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374590/binding-site-characterization-of-am1336-a-novel-covalent-inverse-agonist-at-human-cannabinoid-2-receptor-using-mass-spectrometric-analysis
#17
Srikrishnan Mallipeddi, Simion Kreimer, Nikolai Zvonok, V Kiran Vemuri, Barry L Karger, Alexander R Ivanov, Alexandros Makriyannis
Cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R), a Class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), is a promising drug target in a wide array of pathological conditions. Rational drug design has been hindered due to our poor understanding of the structural features involved in ligand binding. Binding of a high-affinity biarylpyrazole inverse agonist AM1336 to a library of the human CB2 receptor (hCB2R) cysteine-substituted mutants provided indirect evidence that two cysteines in transmembrane helix-7 (H7) were critical for the covalent attachment...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373843/antihyperalgesic-activities-of-endocannabinoids-in-a-mouse-model-of-antiretroviral-induced-neuropathic-pain
#18
Neha Munawar, Mabayoje A Oriowo, Willias Masocha
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs. Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368293/-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-a-cb2-receptor-selective-phytocannabinoid-suppresses-motor-paralysis-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Thaís Barbosa Alberti, Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa, José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo, Rafael Cypriano Dutra
(-)-β-caryophyllene (BCP), a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2)-selective phytocannabinoid, has already been shown in precedent literature to exhibit both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Herein, we endeavored to investigate the therapeutic potential of BCP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, we sought to demonstrate some of the mechanisms that underlie the modulation BCP exerts on autoimmune activated T cells, the pro-inflammatory scenery of the central nervous system (CNS), and demyelination...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364261/regulation-of-cell-surface-cb2-receptor-during-human-b-cell-activation-and-differentiation
#20
Julie T Castaneda, Airi Harui, Michael D Roth
Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is the primary receptor pathway mediating the immunologic consequences of cannabinoids. We recently reported that human peripheral blood B cells express CB2 on both the extracellular membrane and at intracellular sites, where-as monocytes and T cells only express intracellular CB2. To better understand the pattern of CB2 expression by human B cells, we examined CD20(+) B cells from three tissue sources. Both surface and intracellular expression were present and uniform in cord blood B cells, where all cells exhibited a naïve mature phenotype (IgD(+)/CD38(Dim))...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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