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Morphological processing

S-R Zhang, D-B Li, J-W Xue
OBJECTIVE: Given the important functions of TP53 pathway in various biological processes, this study aimed to investigate the expression of TP53 pathway-related proteins in ovarian carcinoma transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice with and without the presence of p53 inhibitor and to explore possible roles of p53 in the development of ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty BALB/c-nu female nude mice were randomly divided into model group, control group and p53 inhibitor group (Pftα group)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Juliana Naldoni, Antônio A M Maia, Lincoln L Correa, Marcia R M da Silva, Edson A Adriano
Myxozoans are a diverse group of parasitic cnidarians, with some species recognized as serious pathogens to their hosts. The present study describes 2 new myxobolid species (Myxobolus figueirae sp. nov. and Henneguya santarenensis sp. nov.) infecting skin and gill filaments of the Amazonian pimelodid fish Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, based on ultrastructural, histology and phylogenetic analysis. The fish were caught in the Amazon River, Pará, Brazil. The plasmodial development of M. figueirae sp. nov. was in the dermis and those of H...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
D Funes-Hernando, M Pelaez-Fernandez, D Winterauer, J-Y Mevellec, R Arenal, T Batten, B Humbert, J L Duvail
This study reports on the plasmon-mediated remote Raman sensing promoted by specially designed coaxial nanowires. This unusual geometry for Raman study is based on the separation, by several micrometres, of the excitation laser spot, on one tip of the nanowire, and the Raman detection at the other tip. The very weak efficiency of Raman emission makes it challenging in a remote configuration. For the proof-of-concept, we designed coaxial nanowires consisting of a gold core to propagate surface plasmon polaritons and a Raman-emitting shell of poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Brittany L Daughtry, Shawn L Chavez
The use of time-lapse microscopic imaging has proven to be a powerful tool for the study of mitotic divisions and other cellular processes across diverse species and cell types. Although time-lapse monitoring (TLM) of human preimplantation development was first introduced to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) community several decades ago, it was not until relatively recently that TLM systems were commercialized for clinical embryology purposes. Traditionally, human IVF embryos are assessed by successful progression and morphology under a stereomicroscope at distinct time points prior to selection for transfer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lisa L Hua, Takashi Mikawa
Chromosome painting enables the visualization of chromosomes and has been used extensively in cytogenetics. Chromosome paint probes, which consist of a pooled composite of DNA-FISH probes, bind to nonrepetitive sequences for individual chromosomes [1, 2]. Here we describe the process of using chromosome paint to study the organization of chromosomes without fragmenting the nucleus. This method can be used to analyze chromosome position, and identify translocations and ploidy within the nucleus. The preservation of nuclear morphology is crucial in understanding interchromosomal interactions and dynamics in the nucleus during the cell cycle...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lijun Chi, Paul Delgado-Olguin
Isolation and culture of endothelial cells (ECs) is a useful tool to study the cellular processes involved in vascular development and vascular maturation. In this chapter, we describe a method to isolate and culture endothelial cells from placentae. This method takes advantage of two transgenes: ROSA26mT/mG , which drives the expression of GFP upon Cre-mediated recombination, and Tie2-Cre, which expresses Cre driven by the Tie2 promoter in endothelial progenitors and their descendants. GFP-expressing endothelial cells are isolated through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Parul Bansal, Yusuf Khan, Gaurav Kumar Nim, Prasenjit Kar
We demonstrated a facile method to grow organometal halide perovskite quantum dots in a solid silica matrix. The photoluminescence measurements of the MAPbBr3 quantum dots and corresponding large particles show a shift from blue to green emission with morphological changes. The nanocrystals impregnated on the silica matrix improve the stability and may be useful as functional materials in all solid state light emitting devices.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Matthew Chojnacki, Lori K Fenton
The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity engaged in a monthlong campaign investigating the Bagnold dune field in Gale crater. What represents the first in situ investigation of a dune field on another planet has resulted in a number of discoveries. Collectively, the Curiosity rover team has compiled the most comprehensive survey of any extraterrestrial aeolian system visited to date with results that yield important insights into a number of processes, including sediment transport, bed form morphology and structure, chemical and physical composition of aeolian sand, and wind regime characteristics...
November 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Sarath Chandra Veerla, Da Reum Kim, Sung Yun Yang
Background: Controlled drug delivery system is highly important for not only prolonged the efficacy of drug but also cellular development for tissue engineering. A number of biopolymer composites and nanostructured carriers behave been used for the controlled drug delivery of therapeutics. Recently, in vitro microfluidic devices that mimic the human body have been developed for drug-delivery applications. Methods: A microfluidic channel was fabricated via a two-step process: (i) polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and curing agent were poured with a 10:2 mass ratio onto an acrylic mold with two steel pipes, and (ii) calcium alginate beads were synthesized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Kate M O'Neill, Katherine E Donohue, Anton Omelchenko, Bonnie L Firestein
The patterning of dendrites is regulated by many factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which our laboratory has previously shown alters the dendritic arbor uniquely depending on the mode of extracellular application. In the current work, we examine how BDNF affects dendritogenesis in hippocampal neurons when it is overexpressed intracellularly by transcripts previously reported to be transported to distinct cellular compartments. The BDNF gene is processed at two different polyadenylation sites, leading to mRNA transcription with two different length 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), and therefore, different mRNA localization preferences...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Oliver Edenharter, Stephan Schneuwly, Juan A Navarro
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most important recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. It is caused by a deficit of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Despite its pivotal effect on biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and mitochondrial energy production, little is known about the influence of frataxin depletion on homeostasis of the cellular mitochondrial network. We have carried out a forward genetic screen to analyze genetic interactions between genes controlling mitochondrial homeostasis and Drosophila frataxin...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jiulong Li, Bing Tian, Tao Li, Shang Dai, Yulan Weng, Jianjiang Lu, Xiaolin Xu, Ye Jin, Renjiang Pang, Yuejin Hua
Background: Biosynthesis of noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted significant interest due to their environmental friendly and biocompatible properties. Methods: In this study, we investigated syntheses of Au, Ag and Au-Ag bimetallic NPs using protein extracts of Deinococcus radiodurans , which demonstrated powerful metal-reducing ability. The obtained NPs were characterized and analyzed by various spectroscopy techniques. Results: The D...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Leigh Zerboni, Phillip Sung, Gordon Lee, Ann Arvin
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the skin-tropic human alphaherpesvirus responsible for both varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella and herpes zoster skin lesions have similar morphology but herpes zoster occurs disproportionally in older individuals and is often associated with a more extensive local rash and severe zoster-related neuralgia. We hypothesized that skin aging could also influence the outcome of the anterograde axonal transport of VZV to skin. We utilized human skin xenografts maintained in immunodeficient (SCID) mice to study VZV-induced skin pathology in vivo in fetal and adult skin xenografts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Hannah Brooks, Grant E Haines, M Carly Lin, S Laurie Sanderson
Vortical cross-step filtration in suspension-feeding fish has been reported recently as a novel mechanism, distinct from other biological and industrial filtration processes. Although crossflow passing over backward-facing steps generates vortices that can suspend, concentrate, and transport particles, the morphological factors affecting this vortical flow have not been identified previously. In our 3D-printed models of the oral cavity for ram suspension-feeding fish, the angle of the backward-facing step with respect to the model's dorsal midline affected vortex parameters significantly, including rotational, tangential, and axial speed...
2018: PloS One
Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Alena Lövy, Cecile C Reed, Martina Lisnerová, Tereza Tomková, Astrid S Holzer, Ivan Fiala
INTRODUCTION: Intertidal rock pools where fish and invertebrates are in constant close contact due to limited space and water level fluctuations represent ideal conditions to promote life cycles in parasites using these two alternate hosts and to study speciation processes that could contribute to understanding the roles of parasitic species in such ecosystems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gall bladder and liver samples from five clinid fish species (Blenniiformes: Clinidae) were morphologically and molecularly examined to determine the diversity, prevalence, distribution and host specificity of Ceratomyxa parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) in intertidal habitats along the coast of South Africa...
2018: PloS One
E S Radchenko, D V Anokhin, K L Gerasimov, A I Rodygin, A A Rychkov, E D Shabratova, S Grigorian, D A Ivanov
The control of structure formation in the active layers of organic solar cells allows for improvement in their processability and enhancement of the efficiency of the final devices. In the present work, in situ studies of film formation from binary toluene solutions of an electron donor, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and an electron acceptor such as [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) have been conducted. These experiments were carried out using GIWAXS with simultaneous electric current measurements...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Alexander Heiss, Daesung Park, Anna-Christin Joel
Spiders are natural specialists in fiber processing. In particular, cribellate spiders manifest this ability as they produce a wool of nanofibers to capture prey. During its production they deploy a sophisticated movement of their spinnerets to darn in the fibers as well as a comb-like row of setae, termed calamistrum, on the metatarsus which plays a key role in nanofiber processing. In comparison to the elaborate nanofiber extraction and handling process by the spider's calamistrum, the human endeavors of spinning and handling of artificial nanofibers is still a primitive technical process...
March 21, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Philip E B Nickerson, Arturo Ortin-Martinez, Valerie A Wallace
Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Gerald Guerin, Paul A Rupar, Ian Manners, Mitchell A Winnik
Enhanced control over crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) of coil-crystalline block copolymers has led to the formation of intricate structures with well-defined morphology and dimensions. While approaches to build those sophisticated structures may strongly differ from each other, they all share a key cornerstone: a polymer crystallite. Here we report a trapping technique that enables tracking of the change in length of one-dimensional (1D) polymer crystallites as they are annealed in solution at different temperatures...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Anja Joachim, Barbara Hinney, Georg Duscher, Ingrid Preusche, Petra Winter
In a changing world with rapidly evolving new technologies, even in the "sheltered world" of teachers and lecturers at universities, we are challenged by new developments. As diversification is increasing in many aspects of our professional life, there is also a need to employ new ways of teaching, learning and assessments in veterinary curricula, taking into account the increasing numbers of students and limited teaching resources. The "classical" Austrian veterinary curriculum, with a series of consecutive lectures followed by practical courses in the different disciplines, separated from each other in the curricular time table and by annual examinations, has been a long-standing concept for teaching in the past...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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