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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738635/microwave-induced-combustion-thermal-and-morphological-aspects-for-understanding-the-mechanism-of-ignition-process-for-analytical-applications
#1
Matheus F Pedrotti, Leticia S F Pereira, Cezar A Bizzi, Jose N G Paniz, Juliano S Barin, Erico M M Flores
In the present work, for the first time a systematic study was performed using an infrared camera and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) to evaluate the mechanisms involved in microwave-induced combustion method, which has been extensively used for sample preparation. Cellulose and glass fiber discs, wetted with the igniter solution (6molL(-1) NH4NO3), were evaluated under microwave field in a monomode system. The temperature of the discs surface was recorded during microwave irradiation and the effect of NH4NO3 concentration and irradiation time on cellulose oxidation was evaluated...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738544/a-xylanase-aided-enzymatic-pretreatment-facilitates-cellulose-nanofibrillation
#2
Lingfeng Long, Dong Tian, Jinguang Hu, Fei Wang, Jack Saddler
Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment...
July 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738385/pharmacological-and-nonpharmacological-interventions-to-arrest-neuroprogression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#3
Fotini Boufidou, Angelos Halaris
The concept of neuroprogression describes the progressive course of the disorder and stresses the progressive, recurrent, and chronic course of the disease entity under consideration. It subsumes clinical manifestations of the disease process and may also entail morphological, biochemical, neurochemical, immunological, physiological, and genetic aspects that contribute to the progressive course of the disease in question. In an attempt to identify the appropriate agent or method that could arrest neuroprogression in psychiatric patients, we conducted an evaluation of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs under the perspective of current pharmacological and neurophysiological data...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738358/innovative-surgery-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-nerve-stimulator
#4
J Ulrich Sommer, Karl Hörmann
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a multifactorial disease is treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as the gold standard. Yet, if patients suffer from CPAP incompliance, traditional OSA surgery only targets morphological changes of the upper airway while neglecting functional issues. With the advent of upper airway stimulation, and in particular hypoglossal nerve stimulation as a treatment option, a highly effective, clinically proven and functional therapy with good evidence is available. This article gives a comprehensive overview of current and upcoming hypoglossal nerve stimulation systems (Inspire, ImThera, and Nyxoah), the specific advantages of this approach, the selection criteria and screening process, relevant clinical data, and a description of the different implantation procedures...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738309/irradiation-by-blue-light-in-the-presence-of-a-photoacid-confers-changes-to-colony-morphology-of-the-plant-pathogen-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides
#5
Ron Simkovitch, Oren Gajst, Einat Zelinger, Oded Yarden, Dan Huppert
We used the photoacid 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate (HPTS) that converts blue photons to acidic protons in water, with an efficiency of close to 100%, and determined that this treatment conferred changes to colony morphology of the plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The time elapsed until hyphal collapse is noticed depends on both the laser intensity in mW/cm(2), and the concentration of HPTS in the Agar hydrogel. The time elapsed until hyphal collapse is noticed varies by only ±8% at HPTS concentrations of 500μM and at lower concentrations of HPTS the variance increases as the inverse of the concentration...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737907/in-situ-solid-gas-reactivity-of-nanoscaled-metal-borides-from-molten-salt-synthesis
#6
Guillaume Gouget, Damien P Debecker, Ara Kim, Giorgia Olivieri, Jean-Jacques Gallet, Fabrice Bournel, Cyril Thomas, Ovidiu Ersen, Simona Moldovan, Clément Sanchez, Sophie Carenco, David Portehault
Metal borides have mostly been studied as bulk materials. The nanoscale provides new opportunities to investigate the properties of these materials, e.g., nanoscale hardening and surface reactivity. Metal borides are often considered stable solids because of their covalent character, but little is known on their behavior under a reactive atmosphere, especially reductive gases. We use molten salt synthesis at 750 °C to provide cobalt monoboride (CoB) nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous layer of cobalt(II) and partially oxidized boron as a model platform to study morphological, chemical, and structural evolutions of the boride and the superficial layer exposed to argon, dihydrogen (H2), and a mixture of H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) through a multiscale in situ approach: environmental transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron-based near-ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy...
July 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737752/mechanical-strain-sensing-implicated-in-cell-shape-recovery-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Felix Wong, Lars D Renner, Gizem Özbaykal, Jayson Paulose, Douglas B Weibel, Sven van Teeffelen, Ariel Amir
The shapes of most bacteria are imparted by the structures of their peptidoglycan cell walls, which are determined by many dynamic processes that can be described on various length scales ranging from short-range glycan insertions to cellular-scale elasticity(1-11). Understanding the mechanisms that maintain stable, rod-like morphologies in certain bacteria has proved to be challenging due to an incomplete understanding of the feedback between growth and the elastic and geometric properties of the cell wall(3,4,12-14)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737725/optimization-of-the-silver-nanoparticles-peald-process-on-the-surface-of-1-d-titania-coatings
#8
Aleksandra Radtke, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Wiesław Kozak, Beata Sadowska, Marzena Więckowska-Szakiel, Ewa Talik, Maarit Mäkelä, Markku Leskelä, Piotr Piszczek
Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silver nanoparticles on the surface of 1-D titania coatings, such as nanotubes (TNT) and nanoneedles (TNN), has been carried out. The formation of TNT and TNN layers enriched with dispersed silver particles of strictly defined sizes and the estimation of their bioactivity was the aim of our investigations. The structure and the morphology of produced materials were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM)...
July 24, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737723/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-structural-plasticity-and-cognitive-function
#9
REVIEW
Crystal C Y Leung, Yung H Wong
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737465/the-effect-of-ozone-gas-sterilization-on-the-properties-and-cell-compatibility-of-electrospun-polycaprolactone-scaffolds
#10
Carolina Fracalossi Rediguieri, Paul A De Bank, Maria Helena Ambrosio Zanin, Patrícia Leo, Natalia Neto Pereira Cerize, Adriano Marim de Oliveira, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto
The growing area of tissue engineering has the potential to alleviate the shortage of tissues and organs for transplantation, and electrospun biomaterial scaffolds are extremely promising devices for translating engineered tissues into a clinical setting. However, to be utilized in this capacity, these medical devices need to be sterile. Traditional methods of sterilization are not always suitable for biomaterials, especially as many commonly used biomedical polymers are sensitive to chemical-, thermal- or radiation-induced damage...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737435/investigation-on-influence-of-wurster-coating-process-parameters-for-development-of-delayed-release-minitablets-of-naproxen
#11
Neha Shah, Rahul Aware, Vasant Shetty, Tejal Mehta
The present work aims at studying process parameters affecting coating of minitablets (3 mm in diameter) through Wurster coating process. Minitablets of Naproxen with high drug loading were manufactured using 3 mm multi-tip punches. The release profile of core pellets (published) and minitablets was compared with that of marketed formulation. The core formulation of minitablets was found to show similarity in dissolution profile with marketed formulation and hence was further carried forward for functional coating over it...
July 24, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736927/pituitary-thyroid-axis-development-during-the-larval-juvenile-transition-in-the-pejerrey-odontesthes-bonariensis
#12
T Chalde, L A Miranda
The morphological development of the thyroid gland of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis during larval-juvenile transition was studied and related to whole-body concentrations of thyroxine (T4 ) and tri-iodothyronine (T3 ). A complementary (c)DNA fragment of the thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit (tshb) was sequenced and transcript levels quantified during this period. Follicles with eosinophilic and T4 -immunoreactive colloids were detected at hatching together with tshb transcript levels and whole-body concentrations of T4 and T3 hormones...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736808/comparative-cranial-ontogeny-of-tapirus-mammalia-perissodactyla-tapiridae
#13
S Rocio Moyano, Norberto P Giannini
Skull morphology in tapirs is particularly interesting due to the presence of a proboscis with important trophic, sensory and behavioral functions. Several studies have dealt with tapir skull osteology but chiefly in a comparative framework between fossil and recent species of tapirs. Only one study examined an aspect of cranial ontogeny, development of the sagittal crest (Holbrook. J Zool Soc Lond 2002; 256; 215). Our goal is to describe in detail the morphological changes that occur during the postnatal ontogeny of the skull in two representative tapir species, Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus indicus, and to explore possible functional consequences of their developmental trajectories...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736742/unique-morphological-characteristics-of-mitochondrial-subtypes-in-the-heart-the-effect-of-ischemia-and-ischemic-preconditioning
#14
Siavash Beikoghli Kalkhoran, Peter Munro, Fan Qiao, Sang-Bing Ong, Andrew R Hall, Hector Cabrera-Fuentes, Bibhas Chakraborty, William A Boisvert, Derek M Yellon, Derek J Hausenloy
RATIONALE: Three subsets of mitochondria have been described in adult cardiomyocytes - intermyofibrillar (IMF), subsarcolemmal (SSM), and perinuclear (PN). They have been shown to differ in physiology, but whether they also vary in morphological characteristics is unknown. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), but whether IPC can also modulate mitochondrial morphology is not known. AIMS: Morphological characteristics of three different subsets of adult cardiac mitochondria along with the effect of ischemia and IPC on mitochondrial morphology will be investigated...
January 2017: Discoveries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736303/the-good-and-the-bad-collagens-of-fibrosis-their-role-in-signaling-and-organ-function
#15
M A Karsdal, S H Nielsen, D J Leeming, L L Langholm, M J Nielsen, T Manon-Jensen, A Siebuhr, N S Gudmann, S Rønnow, J M Sand, S J Daniels, J H Mortensen, D Schuppan
Usually the dense extracellular structure in fibrotic tissues is described as extracellular matrix (ECM) or simply as collagen. However, fibrosis is not just fibrosis, which is already exemplified by the variant morphological characteristics of fibrosis due to viral versus cholestatic, autoimmune or toxic liver injury, with reticular, chicken wire and bridging fibrosis. Importantly, the overall composition of the ECM, especially the relative amounts of the many types of collagens, which represent the most abundant ECM molecules and which centrally modulate cellular functions and physiological processes, changes dramatically during fibrosis progression...
July 20, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736289/formation-mechanism-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-risperidone-containing-plga-microspheres-fabricated-by-ultra-fine-particle-processing-system
#16
Zhengwei Huang, Xiaona Chen, Han Fu, Xinguo Wen, Cheng Ma, Jiwen Zhang, Chuanyu Wu, Ying Huang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Ultra-fine particle processing system (UPPS) was developed previously by our group to provide a new solution to microspheres fabrication. The UPPS was supposed to possess many featured advantages, but the microspheres formation mechanism during UPPS processing was still unknown. The objective of this study was to perform the formation mechanism investigation and in vitro evaluation on risperidone-containing PLGA microspheres (RIS-PLGA MS) fabricated by UPPS. Evaporation profile and viscosity of the PLGA containing solutions were considered as the critical factors for the microspheres formation mechanism, and were determined in present study...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735626/differentiation-of-hmsc-and-hpdlsc-induced-by-pge2-or-bmp-7-in-3d-models
#17
Christina Ern, Tamara Berger, Iris Frasheri, Richard Heym, Reinhard Hickel, Matthias Folwaczny
Regenerative therapies of pathogenic tissue defects are gaining increasing importance in periodontology. Among others, the osteogenic effect of BMP-7 seems to play a major role in the development of teeth and alveolar bone. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSC), as well as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), show the ability to differentiate into various types of tissues. Regarding prostaglandin E2, many studies have confirmed that it is involved in the inflammation associated to periodontitis stimulating osteoclasts, which ultimately leads to resorption of tooth supporting bone...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735575/negotiating-the-complexities-of-exocrine-and-endocrine-dysfunction-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#18
Sinead N Duggan
Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterised by irreversible morphological change and typically causing pain and/or permanent loss of function. This progressive, irreversible disease results in destruction of healthy pancreatic tissue and the development of fibrous scar tissue. Gradual loss of exocrine and endocrine function follows, along with clinical manifestations such as steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and diabetes. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis has been described as a problem area and, until recently, there was little research on the topic...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735492/isolation-of-biologically-active-exosomes-from-plasma-of-patients-with-cancer
#19
Chang-Sook Hong, Sonja Funk, Theresa L Whiteside
A method for exosome isolation from human plasma was developed for rapid, high-throughput processing of plasma specimens obtained from patients with cancer. This method removes the bulk of plasma proteins associated with exosomes and can be used for comparative examinations of exosomes and their content in serial specimens of patients' plasma, allowing for monitoring changes in exosome numbers, profiles, and functions in the course of cancer progression or during therapy. The plasma-derived exosomes can be recovered in quantities sufficient for the characterization of their morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), size and concentration by qNano, protein/lipid ratios, nucleic acid extraction, molecular profiling by Western blots or immune arrays, and functional assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735412/variability-in-attachment-of-the-coracoacromial-ligament-in-relation-with-its-morphology
#20
Abdulrahman Alraddadi, Abduelmenem Alashkham, Clare Lamb, Roger Soames
PURPOSE: The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) presents with variable morphology and plays a significant role in the development of subacromial impingement syndrome. Sectioning the CAL has been suggested to relieve impingement of the rotator cuff. The aim of the current study was to investigate the CAL attachment in relation with ligament morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CAL was investigated in 220 cadaveric shoulders from 58 males and 59 females, with a median age of 82 years (range 53-102 years)...
July 22, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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