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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150618/lexical-processing-of-chinese-sub-character-components-semantic-activation-of-phonetic-radicals-as-revealed-by-the-stroop-effect
#1
Su-Ling Yeh, Wei-Lun Chou, Pokuan Ho
Most Chinese characters are compounds consisting of a semantic radical indicating semantic category and a phonetic radical cuing the pronunciation of the character. Controversy surrounds whether radicals also go through the same lexical processing as characters and, critically, whether phonetic radicals involve semantic activation since they can also be characters when standing alone. Here we examined these issues using the Stroop task whereby participants responded to the ink color of the character. The key finding was that Stroop effects were found when the character itself had a meaning unrelated to color, but contained a color name phonetic radical (e...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147833/the-processing-costs-of-presupposition-accommodation
#2
Filippo Domaneschi, Simona Di Paola
The present study investigates the processing of presupposition accommodation. In particular, it concerns the processing costs and the time-course of accommodation as compared to presupposition satisfaction. Data collected in a self-paced word-by-word reading times experiment support three results. First, independently on the presupposition trigger in use, accommodation is costlier than satisfaction. Second, presupposition accommodation takes places immediately just as the trigger becomes available and proceeds incrementally during the sentence processing...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136002/the-role-of-character-positional-frequency-on-chinese-word-learning-during-natural-reading
#3
Feifei Liang, Hazel I Blythe, Xuejun Bai, Guoli Yan, Xin Li, Chuanli Zang, Simon P Liversedge
Readers' eye movements were recorded to examine the role of character positional frequency on Chinese lexical acquisition during reading and its possible modulation by word spacing. In Experiment 1, three types of pseudowords were constructed based on each character's positional frequency, providing congruent, incongruent, and no positional word segmentation information. Each pseudoword was embedded into two sets of sentences, for the learning and the test phases. In the learning phase, half the participants read sentences in word-spaced format, and half in unspaced format...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135314/correction-to-lind-simonsen-bj%C3%A3-nness-ribu-svendsen-svennevig-and-de-bot-lexical-access-in-a-bilingual-speaker-with-dementia-changes-over-time
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127576/skipping-of-chinese-characters-does-not-rely-on-word-based-processing
#5
Nan Lin, Bernhard Angele, Huimin Hua, Wei Shen, Junyi Zhou, Xingshan Li
Previous eye-movement studies have indicated that people tend to skip extremely high-frequency words in sentence reading, such as "the" in English and "/de" in Chinese. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain how this frequent skipping happens in Chinese reading: one assumes that skipping happens when the preview has been fully identified at the word level (word-based skipping); the other assumes that skipping happens whenever the preview character is easy to identify regardless of whether lexical processing has been completed or not (character-based skipping)...
November 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124719/morpholex-a-derivational-morphological-database-for-70-000-english-words
#6
Claudia H Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Hugo Mailhot, S Hélène Deacon, Maximiliano A Wilson
Most of the new words a reader will find are morphologically complex. Also, theoretical models of language processing propose that morphology plays an important role in visual word processing. Nevertheless, studies on the subject show contradicting results that are difficult to reconcile. One factor that may explain this is the lack of a sizeable and reliable morphological database. As a consequence, there are enormous methodological differences in the way the values for morphological variables are calculated across studies...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124717/semantic-ambiguity-effects-on-traditional-chinese-character-naming-a-corpus-based-approach
#7
Ya-Ning Chang, Chia-Ying Lee
Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121484/erp-evidence-of-distinct-processes-underlying-semantic-facilitation-and-interference-in-word-production
#8
Grégoire Python, Raphaël Fargier, Marina Laganaro
In everyday conversations, we take advantage of lexical-semantic contexts to facilitate speech production, but at the same time, we also have to reduce interference and inhibit semantic competitors. The blocked cyclic naming paradigm (BCNP) has been used to investigate such context effects. Typical results on production latencies showed semantic facilitation (or no effect) during the first presentation cycle, and interference emerging in subsequent cycles. Even if semantic contexts might be just as facilitative as interfering, previous BCNP studies focused on interference, which was interpreted as reflecting lemma selection and self-monitoring processes...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121196/the-role-of-phonological-working-memory-and-environmental-factors-in-lexical-development-in-italian-speaking-late-talkers-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#9
Andrea Marini, Milena Ruffino, Maria Enrica Sali, Massimo Molteni
Purpose: This follow-up study assessed (a) the influence of phonological working memory (pWM), home literacy environment, and a family history of linguistic impairments in late talkers (LTs); (b) the diagnostic accuracy of a task of nonword repetition (NWR) in identifying LTs; and (c) the persistence of lexical weaknesses after 10 months. Method: Two hundred ninety-three children were assessed at approximately 32 (t1) and 41 (t2) months. At t1, they were administered the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey, an NWR task (used to assess pWM), and questionnaires assessing home literacy environment and family history of language impairments...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118726/the-relationship-between-syntactic-satiation-and-syntactic-priming-a-first-look
#10
Monica L Do, Elsi Kaiser
Syntactic satiation is the phenomenon where some sentences that initially seem ungrammatical appear more acceptable after repeated exposures (Snyder, 2000). We investigated satiation by manipulating two factors known to affect syntactic priming, a phenomenon where recent exposure to a grammatical structure facilitates subsequent processing of that structure (Bock, 1986). Specifically, we manipulated (i) Proximity of exposure (number of sentences between primes and targets) and (ii) Lexical repetition (type of phrase repeated across primes and targets)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116479/contrasting-grammatical-and-lexical-determiners
#11
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Kasper Boye
This paper investigates the difference between the production of grammatical determiners and lexical determiners in the production of adjective-noun phrases (NPs) in Danish. Models of sentence processing (Garrett in Psychology of learning and motivation, Academic press, New York, pp 133-177, 1975; Bock in J Mem Lang 26(2):119-137, 1987) suggest that the phonological encoding stage of grammatical items can only be specified once lexical items have been phonologically encoded. In their usage-based linguistic theory of the grammar-lexicon distinction, Boye and Harder (Lang 88(1):1-44, 2012) propose that this later encoding of grammatical elements is motivated by two specific features of grammatical elements...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111222/ssel-ade-a-semi-supervised-ensemble-learning-framework-for-extracting-adverse-drug-events-from-social-media
#12
Jing Liu, Songzheng Zhao, Gang Wang
With the development of Web 2.0 technology, social media websites have become lucrative but under-explored data sources for extracting adverse drug events (ADEs), which is a serious health problem. Besides ADE, other semantic relation types (e.g., drug indication and beneficial effect) could hold between the drug and adverse event mentions, making ADE relation extraction - distinguishing ADE relationship from other relation types - necessary. However, conducting ADE relation extraction in social media environment is not a trivial task because of the expertise-dependent, time-consuming and costly annotation process, and the feature space's high-dimensionality attributed to intrinsic characteristics of social media data...
October 27, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109694/teaching-semantic-radicals-facilitates-inferring-new-character-meaning-in-sentence-reading-for-nonnative-chinese-speakers
#13
Thi Phuong Nguyen, Jie Zhang, Hong Li, Xinchun Wu, Yahua Cheng
This study investigates the effects of teaching semantic radicals in inferring the meanings of unfamiliar characters among nonnative Chinese speakers. A total of 54 undergraduates majoring in Chinese Language from a university in Hanoi, Vietnam, who had 1 year of learning experience in Chinese were assigned to two experimental groups that received instructional intervention, called "old-for-new" semantic radical teaching, through two counterbalanced sets of semantic radicals, with one control group. All of the students completed pre- and post-tests of a sentence cloze task where they were required to choose an appropriate character that fit the sentence context among four options...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105247/increased-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-streams-during-retrieval-of-novel-words-in-professional-musicians
#14
Eva Dittinger, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke, Mireille Besson, Stefan Elmer
Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#15
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101795/impaired-frontal-lobe-functions-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-psychosis
#16
Naveen Thota, Abhishek Lenka, Lija George, Shantala Hegde, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Shweta Prasad, Albert Stezin, Nitish Kamble, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop several non-motor symptoms (NMS). Psychosis is one of the debilitating NMS of PD. The neurobiology of psychosis is not fully understood. This study aims to compare the frontal lobe functions of PD patients with and without psychosis using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). METHODOLOGY: This study included 69 patients with PD; 34 with psychosis (PD-P) and 35 without psychosis (PD-NP). Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used to screen for cognitive impairment...
October 28, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099718/paronymy-in-the-sublanguage-of-medicine-linguistic-and-linguo-didactic-aspects
#17
O Bieliaieva, Yu Lysanets, K Havrylieva, I Znamenska, I Rozhenko, N Nikolaieva
The present paper examines the phenomenon of paronymy in the sublanguage of medicine. The study of paronyms plays an important role in the development of terminological competence of future specialists in the field of medicine and healthcare. The authors emphasize the need to pay due attention to terminological paronyms when compiling teaching manuals and developing didactic materials in Latin for students of medical universities. The urgency of organizing the work with these lexical units is determined, on the one hand, by the propaedeutic objective - minimization of difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with special terminology in the process of educational and professional communication; on the other hand, the study of paronyms is aimed at expanding the active and passive vocabulary of medical students...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099664/acquisition-of-social-support-and-linguistic-characteristics-of-social-media-posts-about-young-adult-cancer
#18
Echo L Warner, Lee Ellington, Anne C Kirchhoff, Kristin G Cloyes
PURPOSE: Social media (SM) is a burgeoning source of social support for young adults (YAs). We explored the language used to communicate about YA cancer on Instagram and for indicators of social support (i.e., number of likes and comments). METHODS: Instagram posts using #youngadultcancer were randomly selected (N = 50). Text and hashtags were collected, and posts were coded for gender (female and male), treatment status (active treatment and survivorship), type of user (individual and organization), and caregiver status (yes and no)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096575/token-frequency-effects-in-homophone-production-an-elicitation-study
#19
Erin Conwell
In natural production, adults differentiate homophones prosodically as a function of the frequency of their intended meaning. This study compares adult and child productions of homophones to determine whether prosodic differentiation of homophones changes over development. Using a picture-based story-completion paradigm, isolated tokens of homophones were elicited from English-learning children and adult native English speakers. These tokens were measured for duration, vowel duration, pitch, pitch range, and vowel quality...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095934/authorship-attribution-of-source-code-by-using-back-propagation-neural-network-based-on-particle-swarm-optimization
#20
Xinyu Yang, Guoai Xu, Qi Li, Yanhui Guo, Miao Zhang
Authorship attribution is to identify the most likely author of a given sample among a set of candidate known authors. It can be not only applied to discover the original author of plain text, such as novels, blogs, emails, posts etc., but also used to identify source code programmers. Authorship attribution of source code is required in diverse applications, ranging from malicious code tracking to solving authorship dispute or software plagiarism detection. This paper aims to propose a new method to identify the programmer of Java source code samples with a higher accuracy...
2017: PloS One
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