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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353181/neurophysiological-correlates-of-word-processing-deficits-in-isolated-reading-and-isolated-spelling-disorders
#1
Sarolta Bakos, Karin Landerl, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Kristina Moll
OBJECTIVE: In consistent orthographies, isolated reading disorders (iRD) and isolated spelling disorders (iSD) are nearly as common as combined reading-spelling disorders (cRSD). However, the exact nature of the underlying word processing deficits in isolated versus combined literacy deficits are not well understood yet. METHODS: We applied a phonological lexical decision task (including words, pseudohomophones, legal and illegal pseudowords) during ERP recording to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of lexical and sublexical word-processing in children with iRD, iSD and cRSD compared to typically developing (TD) 9-year-olds...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351881/phonotactic-processing-deficit-following-left-hemisphere-stroke
#2
Maryam Ghaleh, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Shihui Xing, Elizabeth Lacey, Iain DeWitt, Andrew DeMarco, Peter Turkeltaub
The neural basis of speech processing is still a matter of great debate. Phonotactic knowledge-knowledge of the allowable sound combinations in a language-remains particularly understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain regions crucial to phonotactic knowledge in left-hemisphere stroke survivors. Results were compared to areas in which gray matter anatomy related to phonotactic knowledge in healthy controls. 44 patients with chronic left-hemisphere stroke, and 32 controls performed an English-likeness rating task on 60 auditory non-words of varying phonotactic regularities...
December 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351289/the-rumour-spectrum
#3
Nicolas Turenne
Rumour is an old social phenomenon used in politics and other public spaces. It has been studied for only hundred years by sociologists and psychologists by qualitative means. Social media platforms open new opportunities to improve quantitative analyses. We scanned all scientific literature to find relevant features. We made a quantitative screening of some specific rumours (in French and in English). Firstly, we identified some sources of information to find them. Secondly, we compiled different reference, rumouring and event datasets...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348611/prediction-is-production-the-missing-link-between-language-production-and-comprehension
#4
Clara D Martin, Francesca M Branzi, Moshe Bar
Language comprehension often involves the generation of predictions. It has been hypothesized that such prediction-for-comprehension entails actual language production. Recent studies provided evidence that the production system is recruited during language comprehension, but the link between production and prediction during comprehension remains hypothetical. Here, we tested this hypothesis by comparing prediction during sentence comprehension (primary task) in participants having the production system either available or not (non-verbal versus verbal secondary task)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346174/tonal-and-vowel-information-processing-in-chinese-spoken-word-recognition-an-event-related-potential-study
#5
Xianjun Huang, Xin Liu, Jin-Chen Yang, Quanwen Zhao, Jianshe Zhou
In the present study, the time course of tonal and vowel information processing of the spoken words in Mandarin Chinese was investigated using a delayed-response paradigm. Idiomatic materials, providing semantically highly constraining contexts, were utilized. Besides being presented normally, the terminal monosyllabic words in idioms were manipulated with Tonal, Vowel, or Triple violations (i.e. with consonantal, tonal, and vowel mismatches). Event-related potential results showed that all three violations elicited larger widespread negativities in comparison with the Control condition, with the Triple violation effect starting first from 150 ms, then the Vowel violation, and the Tonal violation being the latest...
January 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344625/perception-of-cantonese-lexical-tones-by-pediatric-cochlear-implant-users
#6
Colleen M Holt, Kathy Y S Lee, Richard C Dowell, Adam P Vogel
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess Cantonese word recognition and the discrimination of Cantonese tones with manipulated contours by child and adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and a group of peers with normal hearing (NH). It was hypothesized that the CI users would perform more poorly than their counterparts with NH in both tasks and that CI users implanted before 2 years of age would perform better than those implanted after 2 years. Method: Forty-one participants were recruited from hospitals, schools, and kindergartens in Hong Kong: Ten CI users implanted at or before 2 years of age ("early" CI group), 13 CI users implanted after 2 years of age ("late" CI group), and 18 individuals with NH...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342056/-product-versus-process-measures-in-assessing-speech-recognition-outcomes-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants
#7
Aaron C Moberly, Irina Castellanos, Kara J Vasil, Oliver F Adunka, David B Pisoni
HYPOTHESES: 1) When controlling for age in postlingual adult cochlear implant (CI) users, information-processing functions, as assessed using "process" measures of working memory capacity, inhibitory control, information-processing speed, and fluid reasoning, will predict traditional "product" outcome measures of speech recognition. 2) Demographic/audiologic factors, particularly duration of deafness, duration of CI use, degree of residual hearing, and socioeconomic status, will impact performance on underlying information-processing functions, as assessed using process measures...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340969/on-the-predictive-validity-of-various-corpus-based-frequency-norms-in-l2-english-lexical-processing
#8
Xiaocong Chen, Yanping Dong, Xiufen Yu
The predictive validity of various corpus-based frequency norms in first-language lexical processing has been intensively investigated in previous research, but less attention has been paid to this issue in second-language (L2) processing. To bridge the gap, in the present study we took English as a case in point and compared the predictive power of a large set of corpus-based frequency norms for the performance of an L2 English visual lexical decision task (LDT). Our results showed that, in general, the frequency norms from SUBTLEX-US and WorldLex-Blog tended to predict L2 performance better in reaction times, whereas the frequency norms from corpora with a mixture of written and spoken genres (CELEX, WorldLex-Blog, BNC, ANC, and COCA) tended to predict L2 accuracy better...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337133/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-bilateral-anterior-temporal-lobes-facilitates-semantically-driven-verbal-fluency
#9
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335022/tackling-the-challenges-of-matching-biomedical-ontologies
#10
Daniel Faria, Catia Pesquita, Isabela Mott, Catarina Martins, Francisco M Couto, Isabel F Cruz
BACKGROUND: Biomedical ontologies pose several challenges to ontology matching due both to the complexity of the biomedical domain and to the characteristics of the ontologies themselves. The biomedical tracks in the Ontology Matching Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) have spurred the development of matching systems able to tackle these challenges, and benchmarked their general performance. In this study, we dissect the strategies employed by matching systems to tackle the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies and gauge the impact of the challenges themselves on matching performance, using the AgreementMakerLight (AML) system as the platform for this study...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330681/verification-of-nonwords-the-baseword-frequency-effect-in-children-s-pseudohomophone-reading
#11
Simon P Tiffin-Richards, Sascha Schroeder
In this study, we investigated the baseword frequency effect in children and its implications for models of visual word recognition. The baseword frequency effect reflects the finding that response latencies in the lexical decision task to nonwords derived from high-frequency basewords (e.g., GREAN derived from GREEN) are shorter than for those derived from low-frequency basewords (e.g., SLEAT derived from SLEET). Importantly, the baseword frequency effect presents a challenge to current activation-based models of visual word recognition...
January 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322239/the-lateralized-arcuate-fasciculus-in-developmental-pitch-disorders-among-mandarin-amusics-left-for-speech-and-right-for-music
#12
Xizhuo Chen, Yanxin Zhao, Suyu Zhong, Zaixu Cui, Jiaqi Li, Gaolang Gong, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314421/cognate-effects-and-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-parallel-and-differential-bilingual-aphasia
#13
Lize Van der Linden, Nele Verreyt, Miet De Letter, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Michaël Stevens, Arnaud Szmalec, Wouter Duyck
BACKGROUND: Until today, there is no satisfying explanation for why one language may recover worse than another in differential bilingual aphasia. One potential explanation that has been largely unexplored is that differential aphasia is the consequence of a loss of language control rather than a loss of linguistic representations. Language control is part of a general control mechanism that also manages non-linguistic cognitive control. If this system is impaired, patients with differential aphasia could still show bilingual language activation, but they may be unable to manage activation in non-target languages, so that performance in another language is hindered...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313291/parafoveal-letter-position-coding-in-reading
#14
Joshua Snell, Daisy Bertrand, Jonathan Grainger
The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration...
January 8, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306068/the-speech-perception-skills-of-children-with-and-without-speech-sound-disorder
#15
Stephanie Hearnshaw, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro
PURPOSE: To investigate whether Australian-English speaking children with and without speech sound disorder (SSD) differ in their overall speech perception accuracy. Additionally, to investigate differences in the perception of specific phonemes and the association between speech perception and speech production skills. METHOD: Twenty-five Australian-English speaking children aged 48-60 months participated in this study. The SSD group included 12 children and the typically developing (TD) group included 13 children...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304167/the-language-disorder-of-prion-disease-is-characteristic-of-a-dynamic-aphasia-and-is-rarely-an-isolated-clinical-feature
#16
Diana Caine, Akin Nihat, Philippa Crabb, Peter Rudge, Lisa Cipolotti, John Collinge, Simon Mead
BACKGROUND: Akinetic mutism is a key diagnostic feature of prion diseases, however, their rapidly progressive nature makes detailed investigation of the language disorder in a large cohort extremely challenging. This study aims to position prion diseases in the nosology of language disorders and improve early clinical recognition. METHODS: A systematic, prospective investigation of language disorders in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with prion diseases. 568 patients were included as a sub-study of the National Prion Monitoring Cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#17
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289720/sensory-intelligence-for-extraction-of-an-abstract-auditory-rule-a-cross-linguistic-study
#18
Xiao-Tao Guo, Xiao-Dong Wang, Xiu-Yuan Liang, Ming Wang, Lin Chen
In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289104/role-of-working-memory-and-lexical-knowledge-in-perceptual-restoration-of-interrupted-speech
#19
Naveen K Nagaraj, Beula M Magimairaj
The role of working memory (WM) capacity and lexical knowledge in perceptual restoration (PR) of missing speech was investigated using the interrupted speech perception paradigm. Speech identification ability, which indexed PR, was measured using low-context sentences periodically interrupted at 1.5 Hz. PR was measured for silent gated, low-frequency speech noise filled, and low-frequency fine-structure and envelope filled interrupted conditions. WM capacity was measured using verbal and visuospatial span tasks...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289097/investigating-lexical-competition-and-the-cost-of-phonemic-restoration
#20
Laura Winther Balling, David Jackson Morris, John Tøndering
Due to phonemic restoration, listeners can reliably perceive words when a phoneme is replaced with noise. The cost associated with this process was investigated along with the effect of lexical uniqueness on phonemic restoration, using data from a lexical decision experiment where noise replaced phonemes that were either uniqueness points (the phoneme at which a word deviates from all nonrelated words that share the same onset) or phonemes immediately prior to these. A baseline condition was also included with no noise-interrupted stimuli...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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