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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785714/lexical-learning-may-contribute-to-phonetic-learning-in-infants-a-corpus-analysis-of-maternal-spanish
#1
Daniel Swingley, Claudia Alarcon
In their first year, infants begin to learn the speech sounds of their language. This process is typically modeled as an unsupervised clustering problem in which phonetically similar speech-sound tokens are grouped into phonetic categories by infants using their domain-general inference abilities. We argue here that maternal speech is too phonetically variable for this account to be plausible, and we provide phonetic evidence from Spanish showing that infant-directed Spanish vowels are more readily clustered over word types than over vowel tokens...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785037/assessing-the-utility-of-frequency-tagging-for-tracking-memory-based-reactivation-of-word-representations
#2
Ashley Glen Lewis, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Reinstatement of memory-related neural activity measured with high temporal precision potentially provides a useful index for real-time monitoring of the timing of activation of memory content during cognitive processing. The utility of such an index extends to any situation where one is interested in the (relative) timing of activation of different sources of information in memory, a paradigm case of which is tracking lexical activation during language processing. Essential for this approach is that memory reinstatement effects are robust, so that their absence (in the average) definitively indicates that no lexical activation is present...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783124/neural-organization-of-ventral-white-matter-tracts-parallels-the-initial-steps-of-reading-development-a-dti-tractography-study
#3
Jolijn Vanderauwera, Astrid De Vos, Stephanie J Forkel, Marco Catani, Jan Wouters, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière
Insight in the developmental trajectory of the neuroanatomical reading correlates is important to understand related cognitive processes and disorders. In adults, a dual pathway model has been suggested encompassing a dorsal phonological and a ventral orthographic white matter system. This dichotomy seems not present in pre-readers, and the specific role of ventral white matter in reading remains unclear. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigated the relation between ventral white matter and cognitive processes underlying reading in children with a broad range of reading skills (n = 61)...
May 18, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781642/effects-of-aging-and-text-stimulus-quality-on-the-word-frequency-effect-during-chinese-reading
#4
Jingxin Wang, Lin Li, Sha Li, Fang Xie, Simon P Liversedge, Kevin B Paterson
Age-related reading difficulty is well established for alphabetic languages. Compared to young adults (18-30 years), older adults (65+ years) read more slowly, make more and longer fixations, make more regressions, and produce larger word-frequency effects. However, whether similar effects are observed for nonalphabetic languages like Chinese remains to be determined. In particular, recent research has suggested Chinese readers experience age-related reading difficulty but do not produce age differences in the word-frequency effect...
May 21, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781230/using-language-input-and-lexical-processing-to-predict-vocabulary-size
#5
Tristan Mahr, Jan Edwards
Children learn words by listening to caregivers, and the quantity and quality of early language input predict later language development. Recent research suggests that word recognition efficiency may influence the relationship between input and vocabulary growth. We asked whether language input and lexical processing at 28-39 months predicted vocabulary size one year later in 109 preschoolers. Input was measured using adult word counts from LENA recordings. We used the visual world paradigm and measured lexical processing as the rate of change in proportion of looks to target...
May 20, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781066/uneven-expressive-language-development-in-mandarin-exposed-preschool-children-with-asd-comparing-vocabulary-grammar-and-the-decontextualized-use-of-language-via-the-pcdi-toddler-form
#6
Yi Esther Su, Letitia R Naigles, Lin-Yan Su
Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780314/effects-of-age-and-working-memory-load-on-syntactic-processing-an-event-related-potential-study
#7
Graciela C Alatorre-Cruz, Juan Silva-Pereyra, Thalía Fernández, Mario A Rodríguez-Camacho, Susana A Castro-Chavira, Javier Sanchez-Lopez
Cognitive changes in aging include working memory (WM) decline, which may hamper language comprehension. An increase in WM demands in older adults would probably provoke a poorer sentence processing performance in this age group. A way to increase the WM load is to separate two lexical units in an agreement relation (i.e., adjective and noun), in a given sentence. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected from Spanish speakers (30 older adults, mean age = 66.06 years old; and 30 young adults, mean age = 25...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778777/modeling-the-dynamics-of-recognition-memory-testing-with-an-integrated-model-of-retrieval-and-decision-making
#8
Adam F Osth, Anna Jansson, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote
A robust finding in recognition memory is that performance declines monotonically across test trials. Despite the prevalence of this decline, there is a lack of consensus on the mechanism responsible. Three hypotheses have been put forward: (1) interference is caused by learning of test items (2) the test items cause a shift in the context representation used to cue memory and (3) participants change their speed-accuracy thresholds through the course of testing. We implemented all three possibilities in a combined model of recognition memory and decision making, which inherits the memory retrieval elements of the Osth and Dennis (2015) model and uses the diffusion decision model (DDM: Ratcliff, 1978) to generate choice and response times...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778062/unattended-processing-of-hierarchical-pitch-variations-in-spoken-sentences
#9
Xiaoqing Li, Yiya Chen
An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i.e. TONE condition) and the other two sentence-level information-status contrasts (i.e. ACCENTUATION condition). Both included stimuli with early vs...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778061/syntactic-and-semantic-restrictions-on-morphological-recomposition-meg-evidence-from-greek
#10
K Neophytou, C Manouilidou, L Stockall, A Marantz
Complex morphological processing has been extensively studied in the past decades. However, most of this work has either focused on only certain steps involved in this process, or it has been conducted on a few languages, like English. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical processing profile of the distinct steps previously reported in the literature, from decomposition to re-composition of morphologically complex items, in a relatively understudied language, Greek. Using magnetoencephalography, we confirm the role of the fusiform gyrus in early, form-based morphological decomposition, we relate the syntactic licensing of stem-suffix combinations to the ventral visual processing stream, somewhat independent from lexical access for the stem, and we further elucidate the role of orbitofrontal regions in semantic composition...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#11
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771964/lexical-representation-explains-cortical-entrainment-during-speech-comprehension
#12
Stefan L Frank, Jinbiao Yang
Results from a recent neuroimaging study on spoken sentence comprehension have been interpreted as evidence for cortical entrainment to hierarchical syntactic structure. We present a simple computational model that predicts the power spectra from this study, even though the model's linguistic knowledge is restricted to the lexical level, and word-level representations are not combined into higher-level units (phrases or sentences). Hence, the cortical entrainment results can also be explained from the lexical properties of the stimuli, without recourse to hierarchical syntax...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768426/the-ryerson-audio-visual-database-of-emotional-speech-and-song-ravdess-a-dynamic-multimodal-set-of-facial-and-vocal-expressions-in-north-american-english
#13
Steven R Livingstone, Frank A Russo
The RAVDESS is a validated multimodal database of emotional speech and song. The database is gender balanced consisting of 24 professional actors, vocalizing lexically-matched statements in a neutral North American accent. Speech includes calm, happy, sad, angry, fearful, surprise, and disgust expressions, and song contains calm, happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotions. Each expression is produced at two levels of emotional intensity, with an additional neutral expression. All conditions are available in face-and-voice, face-only, and voice-only formats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765620/reducing-language-to-rhythm-amazonian-bora-drummed-language-exploits-speech-rhythm-for-long-distance-communication
#14
Frank Seifart, Julien Meyer, Sven Grawunder, Laure Dentel
Many drum communication systems around the world transmit information by emulating tonal and rhythmic patterns of spoken languages in sequences of drumbeats. Their rhythmic characteristics, in particular, have not been systematically studied so far, although understanding them represents a rare occasion for providing an original insight into the basic units of speech rhythm as selected by natural speech practices directly based on beats. Here, we analyse a corpus of Bora drum communication from the northwest Amazon, which is nowadays endangered with extinction...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765350/cognitive-and-personality-components-underlying-spoken-idiom-comprehension-in-context-an-exploratory-study
#15
Cristina Cacciari, Paola Corrardini, Fabio Ferlazzo
In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764263/categorical-perception-of-lexical-tones-in-native-mandarin-speaking-listeners-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#16
Beier Qi, Peng Liu, Xin Gu, Ruijuan Dong, Bo Liu
BACKGROUND: Categorical perception (CP) of lexical tones was examined in normal hearing (NH) people, but it was unclear whether lexical tones can be perceived categorically in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) people. OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristic of lexical tone perception in native Mandarin speakers with SNHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three types of continuum (Tone1/Tone2, Tone1/Tone4 and Tone2/Tone3) were constructed and each of them includes 15 stimuli which were resynthesized by applying the pitch-synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) method implemented in Praat to the same Mandarin syllable, /a/, with a high-level tone produced by a female speaker...
May 15, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763706/exploiting-semantic-patterns-over-biomedical-knowledge-graphs-for-predicting-treatment-and-causative-relations
#17
Gokhan Bakal, Preetham Talari, Elijah V Kakani, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: Identifying new potential treatment options for medical conditions that cause human disease burden is a central task of biomedical research. Since all candidate drugs cannot be tested with animal and clinical trials, in vitro approaches are first attempted to identify promising candidates. Likewise, identifying different causal relations between biomedical entities is also critical to understand biomedical processes. Generally, natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning are used to predict specific relations between any given pair of entities using the distant supervision approach...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760465/neural-encoding-and-production-of-functional-morphemes-in-the-posterior-temporal-lobe
#18
Daniel K Lee, Evelina Fedorenko, Mirela V Simon, William T Curry, Brian V Nahed, Dan P Cahill, Ziv M Williams
Morphemes are the smallest meaning-carrying units in human language, and are among the most basic building blocks through which humans express specific ideas and concepts. By using time-resolved cortical stimulations, neural recordings, and focal lesion evaluations, we show that inhibition of a small cortical area within the left dominant posterior-superior temporal lobe selectively impairs the ability to produce appropriate functional morphemes but does not distinctly affect semantic and lexical retrieval, comprehension, or articulation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760059/nouns-slow-down-speech-across-structurally-and-culturally-diverse-languages
#19
Frank Seifart, Jan Strunk, Swintha Danielsen, Iren Hartmann, Brigitte Pakendorf, Søren Wichmann, Alena Witzlack-Makarevich, Nivja H de Jong, Balthasar Bickel
By force of nature, every bit of spoken language is produced at a particular speed. However, this speed is not constant-speakers regularly speed up and slow down. Variation in speech rate is influenced by a complex combination of factors, including the frequency and predictability of words, their information status, and their position within an utterance. Here, we use speech rate as an index of word-planning effort and focus on the time window during which speakers prepare the production of words from the two major lexical classes, nouns and verbs...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759091/developmental-and-gender-differences-in-the-production-of-the-past-tense-in-spanish-children
#20
Alberto Domínguez, Cristina Izura, Ana Cecilia Medina
This study investigates gender differences in children's linguistic development of Spanish past tense verbs. Two groups of 30 children, each consisting of 15 girls and 15 boys, were studied: Preschool children (5 years old) and 1st grade (7 years old). Participants carried out an elicitation task where a verbal change from present to past tense was required. Frequency and regularity variables were introduced as experimental factors to study differences between gender and age. The results showed that morphological rules were more successfully applied in 1st grade than in preschool children...
May 15, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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