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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432966/risk-for-eating-disorders-modulates-interpretation-bias-in-a-semantic-priming-task
#1
Kaylee Misener, Maya Libben
The current study used a semantic priming paradigm to investigate the presence of implicit interpretation biases for food and body shape words among 118 undergraduate females. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded while participants made lexical decisions (i.e., word vs. non-word judgments) to lexical targets that were preceded by negatively valenced eating disorder related (e.g., fat-PIZZA), eating disorder unrelated (e.g., party-PIZZA), or semantically unrelated (e.g., umbrella-PIZZA) prime words. Self-reported eating disorder traits were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE-Q 6...
April 19, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428766/episodic-specificity-in-acquiring-thematic-knowledge-of-novel-words-from-descriptive-episodes
#2
Meichao Zhang, Shuang Chen, Lin Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Yufang Yang
The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426352/the-risky-reading-strategy-revisited-new-simulations-using-e-z-reader
#3
Victoria A McGowan, Erik D Reichle
Eye-movement studies have demonstrated that, relative to college-aged readers, older readers of alphabetic languages like English and German tend to read more slowly, making more frequent, longer fixations, longer saccades, skipping more words, but also making more frequent regressions. These findings have led to suggestions that older readers either adopt a "risky" strategy of using context to "guess" words as a way of compensating for slower rates of lexical processing (Rayner, Reichle, Stroud, Williams, & Pollatsek, 2006), or that they have a smaller and more asymmetrical perceptual span (Laubrock, Kliegl, & Engbert, 2005)...
April 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425814/verbal-short-term-memory-and-language-impairments-in-cantonese-speakers-after-stroke
#4
Diana Wai-Lam Ho, Anthony Pak-Hin Kong, Nim-Ting Koon
PURPOSE: The study examined the relationship between verbal short-term memory (STM) and language impairment in Cantonese speakers after stroke. It is hypothesised that Cantonese speakers with left-hemisphere (LH) stroke would perform worse than those with right hemisphere (RH) stroke and normal controls. Specific linguistic factors of Cantonese might affect results in the tasks. METHOD: Fifteen participants with LH stroke, 10 with RH stroke and 25 healthy controls were tested with auditory-verbal immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks and auditory linguistic tasks...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424638/the-acquisition-of-orthographic-knowledge-evidence-from-the-lexicality-effects-on-n400
#5
Yu-Lin Tzeng, Chun-Hsien Hsu, Yu-Chen Huang, Chia-Ying Lee
This study aimed to understand how reading ability shapes the lexicality effects on N400. Fifty-three typical developing children from the second to the sixth grades were asked to perform the pronounceability judgment task on a set of Chinese real characters (RC), pseudocharacters (PC) and non-characters (NC), as ERPs were recorded. The cluster-based permutation analysis revealed that children with low- to medium-reading ability showed greater negativity to NCs than to RCs and PCs in frontal sites from 300 to 450 ms, while children with high ability group showed a greater positivity to NCs than both RCs and PCs at central to posterior sites...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424400/-brodmann-areas-39-and-40-human-parietal-association-area-and-higher-cortical-function
#6
Yasuhisa Sakurai
The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423790/improving-terminology-mapping-in-clinical-text-with-context-sensitive-spelling-correction
#7
Juliusz Dziadek, Aron Henriksson, Martin Duneld
The mapping of unstructured clinical text to an ontology facilitates meaningful secondary use of health records but is non-trivial due to lexical variation and the abundance of misspellings in hurriedly produced notes. Here, we apply several spelling correction methods to Swedish medical text and evaluate their impact on SNOMED CT mapping; first in a controlled evaluation using medical literature text with induced errors, followed by a partial evaluation on clinical notes. It is shown that the best-performing method is context-sensitive, taking into account trigram frequencies and utilizing a corpus-based dictionary...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423107/health-program-in-a-brazilian-school
#8
Ubaldo O A Silva, Gerian L Nascimento, Isis Kelly Santos, Kesley P M Azevedo, Christiane F Santos, Maria I Knackfuss, Humberto J Medeiros
Objective: To analyze the School Health Program (SHP) through the perceptions of managers and health professionals. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, and qualitative study that conducted interviews with 21 individuals using the lexical analysis of Bardin's speech and processed the data through the Alceste software. Results: In the interviewees' perception, verification of blood pressure, visual acuity, weight, height, body mass index, oral health, preventive actions and educational lectures are recommended in the program's guidelines...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421910/multi-step-treatment-for-acquired-alexia-and-agraphia-part-ii-a-dual-route-error-scoring-system
#9
Katrina Ross, Jeffrey P Johnson, Swathi Kiran
Dual-route neuropsychological models posit two distinct but interrelated pathways for reading and writing: the lexical and the sublexical. Individuals with reading/writing deficits often rely on the combined power of the integrated system to perform print-processing tasks. The resultant errors reflect varying degrees of lexical and sublexical accuracy in a single production; however, no system presently exists to analyze errors robustly in both routes. The goal of this project was to develop a system that simultaneously, quantitatively, and qualitatively captures changes in lexical and sublexical errors following treatment...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421858/multi-step-treatment-for-acquired-alexia-and-agraphia-part-i-efficacy-generalisation-and-identification-of-beneficial-treatment-steps
#10
Jeffrey P Johnson, Katrina Ross, Swathi Kiran
Reading and writing impairments are common in individuals with post-stroke aphasia. Treatment typically aims to improve the function of one of these modalities by strengthening aspects of either lexical or sublexical processing. In the present study, eight adults with acquired alexia and agraphia were administered a comprehensive treatment targeting specific lexical and sublexical processes underlying reading and/or writing. Two participants were trained in reading and six were trained in writing. Throughout treatment, reading and writing accuracy were monitored for trained items, as well as untrained but orthographically and semantically related items...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421027/universal-visual-features-might-be-necessary-for-fluent-reading-a-longitudinal-study-of-visual-reading-in-braille-and-cyrillic-alphabets
#11
Łukasz Bola, Dominika Radziun, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Joanna E Sowa, Małgorzata Paplińska, Ewa Sumera, Marcin Szwed
It has been hypothesized that efficient reading is possible because all reading scripts have been matched, through cultural evolution, to the natural capabilities of the visual cortex. This matching has resulted in all scripts being made of line-junctions, such as T, X, or L. Our aim was to test a critical prediction of this hypothesis: visual reading in an atypical script that is devoid of line-junctions (such as the Braille alphabet read visually) should be much less efficient than reading in a "normal" script (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417214/neural-processes-associated-with-vocabulary-and-vowel-length-differences-in-a-dialect-an-erp-study-in-pre-literate-children
#12
Jessica C Bühler, Franziska Waßmann, Daniela Buser, Flutra Zumberi, Urs Maurer
Although familiarity with a language impacts how phonology and semantics are processed at the neural level, little is known how these processes are affected by familiarity with a dialect. By measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in kindergarten children we investigated neural processing related to familiarity with dialect-specific pronunciation and lexicality of spoken words before literacy acquisition in school. Children speaking one of two German dialects were presented with spoken word-picture pairings, in which congruity (or the lack thereof) was defined by dialect familiarity with pronunciation or vocabulary...
April 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416691/neurophysiological-dynamics-of-phrase-structure-building-during-sentence-processing
#13
Matthew J Nelson, Imen El Karoui, Kristof Giber, Xiaofang Yang, Laurent Cohen, Hilda Koopman, Sydney S Cash, Lionel Naccache, John T Hale, Christophe Pallier, Stanislas Dehaene
Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414742/to-electrify-bilingualism-electrophysiological-insights-into-bilingual-metaphor-comprehension
#14
Katarzyna Jankowiak, Karolina Rataj, Ryszard Naskręcki
Though metaphoric language comprehension has previously been investigated with event-related potentials, little attention has been devoted to extending this research from the monolingual to the bilingual context. In the current study, late proficient unbalanced Polish (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals performed a semantic decision task to novel metaphoric, conventional metaphoric, literal, and anomalous word pairs presented in L1 and L2. The results showed more pronounced P200 amplitudes to L2 than L1, which can be accounted for by differences in the subjective frequency of the native and non-native lexical items...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414729/an-evaluation-of-mental-workload-with-frontal-eeg
#15
Winnie K Y So, Savio W H Wong, Joseph N Mak, Rosa H M Chan
Using a wireless single channel EEG device, we investigated the feasibility of using short-term frontal EEG as a means to evaluate the dynamic changes of mental workload. Frontal EEG signals were recorded from twenty healthy subjects performing four cognitive and motor tasks, including arithmetic operation, finger tapping, mental rotation and lexical decision task. Our findings revealed that theta activity is the common EEG feature that increases with difficulty across four tasks. Meanwhile, with a short-time analysis window, the level of mental workload could be classified from EEG features with 65%-75% accuracy across subjects using a SVM model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414501/spelling-ability-selectively-predicts-the-magnitude-of-disruption-in-unspaced-text-reading
#16
Aaron Veldre, Denis Drieghe, Sally Andrews
We examined the effect of individual differences in written language proficiency on unspaced text reading in a large sample of skilled adult readers who were assessed on reading comprehension and spelling ability. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing a low or high frequency target word, presented with standard interword spacing, or in one of three unsegmented text conditions that either preserved or eliminated word boundary information. The average data replicated previous studies: unspaced text reading was associated with increased fixation durations, a higher number of fixations, more regressions, reduced saccade length, and an inflation of the word frequency effect...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414498/neighing-barking-and-drumming-horses-object-related-sounds-help-and-hinder-picture-naming
#17
Andreas Mädebach, Stefan Wöhner, Marie-Luise Kieseler, Jörg D Jescheniak
The study presented here investigated how environmental sounds influence picture naming. In a series of four experiments participants named pictures (e.g., the picture of a horse) while hearing task-irrelevant sounds (e.g., neighing, barking, or drumming). Experiments 1 and 2 established two findings, facilitation from congruent sounds (e.g., picture: horse, sound: neighing) and interference from semantically related sounds (e.g., sound: barking), both relative to unrelated sounds (e.g., sound: drumming). Experiment 3 replicated the effects in a situation in which participants were not familiarized with the sounds prior to the experiment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414481/word-order-denotes-relevance-differences-the-case-of-conjoined-phrases-with-lexical-gender
#18
Selin Kesebir
This work explores the order of linguistic references to the two genders (e.g., men and women vs. women and men). It argues that a gender is more likely to be mentioned first when it is perceived to have higher relevance in a context rather than lower relevance, and audiences assign stronger relevance to a party when the party is mentioned first rather than second. Studies 1-3 document the current prevalence of male-first conjoined phrases in the public (but not family) domain and link the pattern to historical changes in women's public presence over the 20th century...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412593/bootstrapping-language-acquisition
#19
Omri Abend, Tom Kwiatkowski, Nathaniel J Smith, Sharon Goldwater, Mark Steedman
The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms)...
April 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411058/brain-signatures-of-early-lexical-and-morphological-learning-of-a-new-language
#20
Viktória Havas, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodríguez Fornells
Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults...
April 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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