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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211025/participants-shift-response-deadlines-based-on-list-difficulty-during-reading-aloud-megastudies
#1
Michael J Cortese, Maya M Khanna, Robert Kopp, Jonathan B Santo, Kailey S Preston, Tyler Van Zuiden
We tested the list homogeneity effect in reading aloud (e.g., Lupker, Brown, & Colombo, 1997) using a megastudy paradigm. In each of two conditions, we used 25 blocks of 100 trials. In the random condition, words were selected randomly for each block, whereas in the experimental condition, words were blocked by difficulty (e.g., easy words together, etc.), but the order of the blocks was randomized. We predicted that standard factors (e.g., frequency) would be more predictive of reaction times (RTs) in the blocked than in the random condition, because the range of RTs across the experiment would increase in the blocked condition...
February 16, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208126/the-prosody-of-the-czech-discourse-marker-jasn%C3%A4-an-analysis-of-forms-and-functions
#2
Jan Volin, Lenka Weingartová, Oliver Niebuhr
Words like yeah, okay and (al)right are fairly unspecific in their lexical semantics, and not least for this reason there is a general tendency for them to occur with highly varied and expressive prosodic patterns across languages. Here we examine in depth the prosodic forms that express eight pragmatic functions of the Czech discourse marker jasně, including resignation, reassurance, surprise, indifference or impatience. Using a collection of 172 tokens from a corpus of scripted dialogues by 30 native speakers, we performed acoustic analyses, applied classification algorithms and solicited judgments from native listeners in a perceptual experiment...
February 23, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207579/expansion-of-prosodic-abilities-at-the-transition-from-babble-to-words-a-comparison-between-children-with-cochlear-implants-and-normally-hearing-children
#3
Michèle Pettinato, Ilke De Clerck, Jo Verhoeven, Steven Gillis
OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examined the effect of emerging vocabulary production on the ability to produce the phonetic cues to prosodic prominence in babbled and lexical disyllables of infants with cochlear implants (CI) and normally hearing (NH) infants. Current research on typical language acquisition emphasizes the importance of vocabulary development for phonological and phonetic acquisition. Children with CI experience significant difficulties with the perception and production of prosody, and the role of possible top-down effects is, therefore, particularly relevant for this population...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203214/searching-high-and-low-prosodic-breaks-disambiguate-relative-clauses
#4
Lauren A Fromont, Salvador Soto-Faraco, Emmanuel Biau
During natural speech perception, listeners rely on a wide range of cues to support comprehension, from semantic context to prosodic information. There is a general consensus that prosody plays a role in syntactic parsing, but most studies focusing on ambiguous relative clauses (RC) show that prosodic cues, alone, are insufficient to reverse the preferred interpretation of sentence. These findings suggest that universally preferred structures (e.g., Late Closure principle) matter far more than prosodic cues in such cases...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201838/phonological-treatment-approaches-for-spoken-word-production-in-aphasia
#5
Elizabeth Brookshire Madden, Reva M Robinson, Diane L Kendall
This article provides an overview of phonological treatment approaches for anomia in individuals with aphasia. The role of phonology in language processing, as well as the impact of phonological impairment on communication is initially discussed. Then, traditional phonologically based treatment approaches, including phonological, orthographic, indirect, guided, and mixed cueing methods, are described. Collectively, these cueing treatment approaches aim to facilitate word retrieval by stimulating residual phonological abilities...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201834/short-term-memory-and-aphasia-from-theory-to-treatment
#6
Irene Minkina, Samantha Rosenberg, Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar, Nadine Martin
This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201833/language-specific-attention-treatment-for-aphasia-description-and-preliminary-findings
#7
Richard K Peach, Meghana R Nathan, Katherine M Beck
The need for a specific, language-based treatment approach to aphasic impairments associated with attentional deficits is well documented. We describe language-specific attention treatment, a specific skill-based approach for aphasia that exploits increasingly complex linguistic tasks that focus attention. The program consists of eight tasks, some with multiple phases, to assess and treat lexical and sentence processing. Validation results demonstrate that these tasks load on six attentional domains: (1) executive attention; (2) attentional switching; (3) visual selective attention/processing speed; (4) sustained attention; (5) auditory-verbal working memory; and (6) auditory processing speed...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199471/influence-of-cognitive-ability-on-therapy-outcomes-for-anomia-in-adults-with-chronic-poststroke-aphasia
#8
Jade Dignam, David Copland, Kate O'Brien, Penni Burfein, Asaduzzaman Khan, Amy D Rodriguez
Purpose: The relationship between cognitive abilities and aphasia rehabilitation outcomes is complex and remains poorly understood. This study investigated the influence of language and cognitive abilities on anomia therapy outcomes in adults with aphasia. Method: Thirty-four adults with chronic aphasia participated in Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy. A language and cognitive assessment battery, including 3 baseline naming probes, was administered prior to therapy...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193124/what-s-in-a-word-observing-the-contribution-of-underlying-and-surface-representations
#9
Yu-Fu Chien, Joan A Sereno, Jie Zhang
underlying representations play a crucial role in capturing predictable relations among different phonetic categories in phonological theory. Tone sandhi is a tonal alternation phenomenon in which a tone changes to a different tone in certain phonological environments. This study investigates whether Taiwanese listeners are more sensitive to the surface form of the tones or the underlying tonal representations of tone sandhi words. An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to examine priming effects between monosyllabic primes and disyllabic target words (tone sandhi T51 → T55 and sandhi T24 → T33)...
February 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192675/sentinels-of-breach
#10
Andrew J Hampton, Valerie L Shalin
Objective This paper identifies general properties of language style in social media to help identify areas of need in disasters. Background In the search for metrics of need in social media data, much of the existing literature ignores processes of language usage. Psychological concepts, such as narrative breach, Gricean maxims, and lexical marking in cognition, may assist the recovery of disaster-relevant metrics from altered patterns of word prevalence. Method We analyzed several hundred thousand location-specific microblogs from Twitter for Hurricane Sandy, Oklahoma tornadoes, and the Boston Marathon bombing along with a fantasy football control corpus, examining the relative frequency of words in 36 antonym pairs...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188455/individual-differences-in-orthographic-priming-relate-to-phonological-decoding-skill-in-adults
#11
Suzanne E Welcome, Emma R Trammel
We examined relationships between individual differences in orthographic priming and a battery of measures assessing orthographic processing ability, reading history, current reading ability, and verbal intelligence in university students. Pronounceable and unpronounceable nonword primes preceded word and nonword targets. Individual differences in nonword reading skill and other measures of reading and spelling ability were associated with the degree of orthographic priming. Individuals with less phonological decoding skill benefited more from anagram primes for word targets preceded by unpronounceable primes and nonword targets preceded by pronounceable primes...
February 10, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187367/ontology-based-automatic-identification-of-public-health-related-turkish-tweets
#12
Emine Ela Küçük, Kürşad Yapar, Dilek Küçük, Doğan Küçük
Social media analysis, such as the analysis of tweets, is a promising research topic for tracking public health concerns including epidemics. In this paper, we present an ontology-based approach to automatically identify public health-related Turkish tweets. The system is based on a public health ontology that we have constructed through a semi-automated procedure. The ontology concepts are expanded through a linguistically motivated relaxation scheme as the last stage of ontology development, before being integrated into our system to increase its coverage...
February 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187331/temporal-acoustic-measures-distinguish-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech-from-primary-progressive-aphasia
#13
Joseph R Duffy, Holly Hanley, Rene Utianski, Heather Clark, Edythe Strand, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress...
February 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186316/inhibitory-capacity-assessment-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-translation-from-a-modified-stop-signal-task
#14
Ana Sion, Rosa Jurado-Barba, M José Alonso, Gabriel Rubio-Valladolid
INTRODUCTION: Inhibitory control is clearly impaired in alcohol dependent individuals, being associated to the addiction process establishment and abstinence maintenance difficulties. Inhibitory control assessment tasks involving responses to neutral stimuli are available, although a Spanish version task including contextual cues influence on inhibition capacity has not been performed yet. Alcohol related stimuli can modify behavioural inhibition performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was the Spanish translation of a modified stop signal task that assessed inhibitory control, as well as the degree of interference produced by the presence of alcohol related words...
January 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185051/stress-judgment-and-production-in-english-derivation-and-word-reading-in-adult-mandarin-speaking-english-learners
#15
Wei-Lun Chung, Linda Jarmulowicz
For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177056/social-representations-of-the-health-care-of-the-mby%C3%A3-guarani-indigenous-population-by-health-workers
#16
Mirian Benites Falkenberg, Helena Eri Shimizu, Ximena Pamela Díaz Bermudez
Objective: to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Method: a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation...
February 6, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173964/sleep-deprivation-disrupts-the-contribution-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-formation-of-novel-lexical-associations
#17
Virginie Sterpenich, Leonardo Ceravolo, Sophie Schwartz
Sleep is involved in the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation and brain plasticity. Consolidation refers to a process through which labile memories are reorganized into more stable ones. An intriguing but often neglected question concerns how pre-existing knowledge is modified when new information enters memory, and whether sleep can influence this process. We investigated how nonword learning may modify the neural representations of closely-related existing words. We also tested whether sleep contributes to any such effect by comparing a group of participants who slept during the night following a first encoding session to a sleep deprived group...
February 4, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169316/cross-modal-noise-compensation-in-audiovisual-words
#18
Martijn Baart, Blair C Armstrong, Clara D Martin, Ram Frost, Manuel Carreiras
Perceiving linguistic input is vital for human functioning, but the process is complicated by the fact that the incoming signal is often degraded. However, humans can compensate for unimodal noise by relying on simultaneous sensory input from another modality. Here, we investigated noise-compensation for spoken and printed words in two experiments. In the first behavioral experiment, we observed that accuracy was modulated by reaction time, bias and sensitivity, but noise compensation could nevertheless be explained via accuracy differences when controlling for RT, bias and sensitivity...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166901/effects-of-ambient-illumination-contrast-polarity-and-letter-size-on-text-legibility-under-glance-like-reading
#19
Jonathan Dobres, Nadine Chahine, Bryan Reimer
Recent research on the legibility of digital displays has demonstrated a "positive polarity advantage", in which black-on-white text configurations are more legible than their negative polarity, white-on-black counterparts. Existing research in this area suggests that the positive polarity advantage stems from the brighter illumination emitted by positive polarity displays, as opposed to the darker backgrounds of negative polarity displays. In the present study, legibility thresholds were measured under glance-like reading conditions using a lexical decision paradigm, testing two type sizes, display polarities, and ambient illuminations (near-dark and daylight-like)...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166263/automatic-icd-10-multi-class-classification-of-cause-of-death-from-plaintext-autopsy-reports-through-expert-driven-feature-selection
#20
Ghulam Mujtaba, Liyana Shuib, Ram Gopal Raj, Retnagowri Rajandram, Khairunisa Shaikh, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi
OBJECTIVES: Widespread implementation of electronic databases has improved the accessibility of plaintext clinical information for supplementary use. Numerous machine learning techniques, such as supervised machine learning approaches or ontology-based approaches, have been employed to obtain useful information from plaintext clinical data. This study proposes an automatic multi-class classification system to predict accident-related causes of death from plaintext autopsy reports through expert-driven feature selection with supervised automatic text classification decision models...
2017: PloS One
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