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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738138/vocabulary-facilitates-speech-perception-in-children-with-hearing-aids
#1
Kelsey E Klein, Elizabeth A Walker, Benjamin Kirby, Ryan W McCreery
Purpose: We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Method: Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732126/chinese-isms-dimensions-in-mainland-china-and-taiwan-convergence-and-extension-of-american-isms-dimensions
#2
Zhuo Job Chen, Kung-Yu Hsu, Xinyue Zhou, Gerard Saucier
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of American-English isms terms have uncovered as many as five broad factors: Tradition-oriented Religiousness (TR), Subjective Spirituality (SS), Communal Rationalism (CR), Unmitigated Self-Interest (USI), and Inequality Aversion (IA). The present studies took a similar lexical approach to investigate the Chinese-language isms structures in both mainland China and Taiwan. METHOD AND RESULTS: In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses with 915 mainland Chinese subjects uncovered four interpretable factors dimensionalizing 165 mainland Chinese dictionary isms terms...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#3
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726283/vocal-and-gestural-productions-of-24-month-old-children-with-sex-chromosome-trisomies
#4
Laura Zampini, Lara Draghi, Gaia Silibello, Francesca Dall'Ara, Claudia Rigamonti, Chiara Suttora, Paola Zanchi, Nicoletta Salerni, Faustina Lalatta, Paola Vizziello
BACKGROUND: Children with sex chromosome trisomies (SCT) frequently show problems in language development. However, a clear description of the communicative patterns of these children is still lacking. AIMS: To describe the first stages of language development in children with SCT in comparison with those in typically developing (TD) children. The purpose was to verify the existence of possible differences in communicative skills (in both vocal and gestural modality) and identify the presence of possible early predictors (i...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725863/empathy-in-the-clinician-patient-relationship-the-role-of-reciprocal-adjustments-and-processes-of-synchrony
#5
Arnstein Finset, Knut Ørnes
The clinician-patient relationship is asymmetric in the sense that clinicians and patients have different roles in the medical consultation. Yet, there are qualities of reciprocity and mutuality in many clinician-patient encounters, and we suggest that such reciprocity may be related to the phenomenon of empathy. Empathy is often defined as the capacity to place oneself in another's position, but empathy may also be understood as a sequence of reciprocal turns-of talk, starting with the patient's expression of emotion, followed by the perception, vicarious experience, and empathic response by the clinician...
June 2017: Journal of patient experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720168/infant-statistical-learning-ability-is-related-to-real-time-language-processing
#6
Jill Lany, Amber Shoaib, Abbie Thompson, Katharine Graf Estes
Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests that one way statistical learning ability affects language proficiency is by facilitating real-time language processing. Here we tested whether 15-month-olds' ability to learn sequential statistical structure in artificial language materials is related to their ability to encode and interpret native-language speech...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720028/growth-of-word-and-pseudoword-reading-efficiency-in-alphabetic-orthographies-impact-of-consistency
#7
Markéta Caravolas
Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning Grades 1 and 2 from learners of the inconsistent English and consistent Czech and Slovak orthographies...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718970/activation-of-semantic-information-at-the-sublexical-level-during-handwriting-production-evidence-from-inhibition-effects-of-chinese-semantic-radicals-in-the-picture-word-interference-paradigm
#8
Xuqian Chen, Yuanlan Liao, Xianzhe Chen
Using a non-alphabetic language (e.g., Chinese), the present study tested a novel view that semantic information at the sublexical level should be activated during handwriting production. Over 80% of Chinese characters are phonograms, in which semantic radicals represent category information (e.g., 'chair,' 'peach,' 'orange' are related to plants) while phonetic radicals represent phonetic information (e.g., 'wolf,' 'brightness,' 'male,' are all pronounced /lang/). Under different semantic category conditions at the lexical level (semantically related in Experiment 1; semantically unrelated in Experiment 2), the orthographic relatedness and semantic relatedness of semantic radicals in the picture name and its distractor were manipulated under different SOAs (i...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715927/mawrid-a-model-of-arabic-word-reading-in-development
#9
Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
This article offers a model of Arabic word reading according to which three conspicuous features of the Arabic language and orthography shape the development of word reading in this language: (a) vowelization/vocalization, or the use of diacritical marks to represent short vowels and other features of articulation; (b) morphological structure, namely, the predominance and transparency of derivational morphological structure in the linguistic and orthographic representation of the Arabic word; and (c) diglossia, specifically, the lexical and lexico-phonological distance between the spoken and the standard forms of Arabic words...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710937/developmental-surface-and-phonological-dyslexia-in-both-greek-and-english
#10
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
July 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710697/the-basis-of-the-syllable-hierarchy-articulatory-pressures-or-universal-phonological-constraints
#11
Xu Zhao, Iris Berent
Across languages, certain syllable types are systematically preferred to others (e.g., [Formula: see text] lbif, where [Formula: see text] indicates a preference). Previous research has shown that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, they are evident even when none of these syllable types exists in participants' language, and even when the stimuli are presented in print. These results suggest that the syllable hierarchy cannot be reduced to either lexical or auditory/phonetic pressures...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708830/speech-in-speech-perception-and-executive-function-involvement
#12
Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Maxime Tassin, Fanny Meunier
This present study investigated the link between speech-in-speech perception capacities and four executive function components: response suppression, inhibitory control, switching and working memory. We constructed a cross-modal semantic priming paradigm using a written target word and a spoken prime word, implemented in one of two concurrent auditory sentences (cocktail party situation). The prime and target were semantically related or unrelated. Participants had to perform a lexical decision task on visual target words and simultaneously listen to only one of two pronounced sentences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707176/estimating-the-average-need-of-semantic-knowledge-from-distributional-semantic-models
#13
Geoff Hollis
Continuous bag of words (CBOW) and skip-gram are two recently developed models of lexical semantics (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 26, 3111-3119, 2013). Each has been demonstrated to perform markedly better at capturing human judgments about semantic relatedness than competing models (e.g., latent semantic analysis; Landauer & Dumais, Psychological Review, 104(2), 1997 211; hyperspace analogue to language; Lund & Burgess, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(2), 203-208, 1996)...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702351/activation-of-dominant-hemisphere-association-cortex-during-naming-as-a-function-of-cognitive-performance-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-insights-into-mechanisms-of-lexical-access
#14
Mihai Popescu, John D Hughes, Elena-Anda Popescu, Judy Mikola, Warren Merrifield, Maria DeGraba, Gerard Riedy, Thomas J DeGraba
Patients with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and objective cognitive deficits frequently experience word finding difficulties in normal conversation. We sought to improve our understanding of this phenomenon by determining if the scores on standardized cognitive testing are correlated with measures of brain activity evoked in a word retrieval task (confrontational picture naming). The study participants (n = 57) were military service members with a history of mTBI. The General Memory Index (GMI) determined after administration of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Third Edition, was used to assign subjects to three groups: low cognitive performance (Group 1: GMI ≤ 87, n = 18), intermediate cognitive performance (Group 2: 88 ≤ GMI ≤ 99, n = 18), and high cognitive performance (Group 3: GMI ≥ 100, n = 21)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701983/acquiring-the-impossible-developmental-stages-of-copredication
#15
Elliot Murphy
Much is known about the acquisition of phonological competence and lexical categories, but there has been substantially less research into word meaning development. In an attempt to contribute to this debate, a group of 24 children aged 4-11 were asked to define a set of words, as were a group of 12 adult controls. The stimuli included both concrete and abstract words, in particular words exhibiting a rare form of polysemy known as copredication, which permits the simultaneous attribution of concrete and abstract senses to a single nominal, creating an 'impossible' entity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701981/language-mediated-concept-activation-in-bilingual-memory-facilitates-cognitive-flexibility
#16
Anatoliy V Kharkhurin
This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699123/the-tool-for-the-automatic-analysis-of-lexical-sophistication-taales-version-2-0
#17
Kristopher Kyle, Scott Crossley, Cynthia Berger
This study introduces the second release of the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Lexical Sophistication (TAALES 2.0), a freely available and easy-to-use text analysis tool. TAALES 2.0 is housed on a user's hard drive (allowing for secure data processing) and is available on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux). TAALES 2.0 adds 316 indices to the original tool. These indices are related to word frequency, word range, n-gram frequency, n-gram range, n-gram strength of association, contextual distinctiveness, word recognition norms, semantic network, and word neighbors...
July 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697696/processing-intonationally-implicated-contrast-versus-negation-in-american-english
#18
Heeyeon Dennison, Amy J Schafer
Certain English intonational contours facilitate a conversational implicature that a relevant alternative to the stated proposition does not hold true. We evaluated how frequently and how quickly naïve participants achieved such pragmatically enriched meanings when their attention had not already been drawn to a set of alternatives. Sentences with L+H* L-H% intonational contours, along with broad focus affirmative and negative counterparts, were tested in a pair of experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that most interpretations of the L+H* L-H% sentences evidenced the expected implicature, but a substantial number did not...
June 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695350/early-markers-of-lexical-stress-in-visual-word-recognition
#19
Simone Sulpizio, Lucia Colombo
The goal of the present study was to investigate the time-course of suprasegmental information in visual word recognition. To this aim we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a simple lexical decision task in Italian. Two factors were manipulated: Stress dominance (the most frequent stress type) and stress neighborhood consistency (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern). Participants were presented with target words either bearing dominant (on the penultimate syllable; 'graNIta,' 'seNIle,' slush, senile) or non-dominant stress (on the antepenultimate syllable; 'MISsile,' 'BIbita,' missile, drink), and either having a consistent (graNIta, MISsile) or an inconsistent stress neighborhood (seNIle, BIbita)...
July 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693370/toward-a-graded-psycholexical-space-mapping-model-sublexical-and-lexical-representations-in-chinese-character-reading-development
#20
Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride
Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the individual's specific level of reading...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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