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Sarah J White, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge, Adrian Staub
The effect of word frequency on eye movement behaviour during reading has been reported in many experimental studies. However, the vast majority of these studies compared only two levels of word frequency (high and low). Here we assess whether the effect of log word frequency on eye movement measures is linear, in an experiment in which a critical target word in each sentence was at one of three approximately equally spaced log frequency levels. Separate analyses treated log frequency as a categorical or a continuous predictor...
October 20, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Rebeca Rodrigues Pessoa, Sarah Cueva Cândido Soares de Araújo, Selma Mie Isotani, Rosana Fiorini Puccini, Jacy Perissinoto
Purpose: To assess the development of language regarding the ability to recognize and interpret lexical ambiguity in low-birth-weight schoolchildren enrolled at the school system in the municipality of Embu das Artes, Sao Paulo state, compared with that of schoolchildren with normal birth weight. Methods: A case-control, retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted with 378 schoolchildren, both genders, aged 5 to 9.9 years, from the municipal schools of Embu das Artes...
October 13, 2016: CoDAS
Avital Deutsch, Hadas Velan, Tamar Michaly
Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated morphemes: a consonantal root embedded in a nominal or verbal word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels and consonants. The root carries the core meaning of the word, whereas the word-pattern creates variations on this meaning, determines the word's grammatical characteristics, and carries segmental and suprasegmental information about the word's structure. Research on written-word recognition has revealed a robust effect of the roots and the verbal-patterns, but not of the nominal-patterns, on word recognition...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
October 17, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
First language (L1) attrition is a socio-linguistic circumstance where second language (L2) learning coincides with changes in exposure and use of the native-L1. Attriters often report experiencing a decline in automaticity or proficiency in their L1 after a prolonged period in the L2 environment, while their L2 proficiency continues to strengthen. Investigating the neurocognitive correlates of attrition alongside those of late L2 acquisition addresses the question of whether the brain mechanisms underlying both L1 and L2 processing are strongly determined by proficiency, irrespective of whether the language was acquired from birth or in adulthood...
October 14, 2016: Neuropsychologia
İlyas Göz, Ali I Tekcan, Aslı Aktan Erciyes
The main purpose of this study was to report age-based subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) norms for 600 Turkish words. A total of 115 children, 100 young adults, 115 middle-aged adults, and 127 older adults provided AoA estimates for 600 words on a 7-point scale. The intraclass correlations suggested high reliability, and the AoA estimates were highly correlated across the four age groups. Children gave earlier AoA estimates than the three adult groups; this was true for high-frequency as well as low-frequency words...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Eric Josiah Tan, Giorgia A Wagner, Susan Lee Rossell
Semantic processing is impaired in schizophrenia, and is often assessed using word-based semantic tasks that additionally require lexical processing for accurate performance. This study aimed to examine lexical processing in relation to psychosis proneness. 61 individuals (mean age=22.92, SD=2.67) completed a schizotypy questionnaire and two lexical processing tasks (recognition and production). Results revealed no relationship between increasing schizotypy scores and overall performance on either lexical processing task...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Xiuli Tong, Xinjie He, S Hélène Deacon
Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer...
October 13, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Anna Nigri, Eleonora Catricalà, Stefania Ferraro, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ludovico D'Incerti, Davide Sattin, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Silvana Franceschetti, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Matilde Leonardi, Stefano F Cappa
There is a growing interest in the use of functional imaging to assess brain activity in the absence of behavioural responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). In the present study, we applied a hierarchical auditory stimulation paradigm to functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) in a group of long-term DOC adult patients. Brain response to pairs of pseudowords, of unrelated words and of semantically related words, i.e. stimuli differing in lexical status (words vs. pseudowords) and semantic relatedness (related vs...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
John Kingston, Joshua Levy, Amanda Rysling, Adrian Staub
Listeners tend to categorize an ambiguous speech sound so that it forms a word with its context (Ganong, 1980). This effect could reflect feedback from the lexicon to phonemic activation (McClelland & Elman, 1986), or the operation of a task-specific phonemic decision system (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2000). Because the former account involves feedback between lexical and phonemic levels, it predicts that the lexicon's influence on phonemic decisions should be delayed and should gradually increase in strength...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Aaron Veldre, Sally Andrews
Recent studies using the boundary paradigm have shown that readers benefit from a parafoveal preview of a plausible continuation of the sentence. This plausibility preview effect occurs irrespective of the semantic or orthographic relatedness of the preview and target word, suggesting that it depends on the degree to which a preview word fits the preceding context. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining the impact of contextual constraint on processing a plausible word in the parafovea. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences in which a target word was either highly predictable or unpredictable...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Katherine S White, Kyle E Chambers, Zachary Miller, Vibhuti Jethava
Language learners are sensitive to phonotactic patterns from an early age, and can acquire both simple and 2(nd)-order positional restrictions contingent on segment identity (e.g., /f/ is an onset with /æ/ but a coda with /ɪ/). The present study explored the learning of phonototactic patterns conditioned on a suprasegmental cue: lexical stress. Adults listened to non-words in which trochaic and iambic items had different consonant restrictions. In addition, across subjects, the consonants constrained to a given position were either unrelated or from the same natural class...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Chi-Shing Tse, Melvin J Yap, Yuen-Lai Chan, Wei Ping Sze, Cyrus Shaoul, Dan Lin
Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database...
October 12, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Mirjam Broersma, Diana Carter, Daniel J Acheson
This study investigates cross-language lexical competition in the bilingual mental lexicon. It provides evidence for the occurrence of inhibition as well as the commonly reported facilitation during the production of cognates (words with similar phonological form and meaning in two languages) in a mixed picture naming task by highly proficient Welsh-English bilinguals. Previous studies have typically found cognate facilitation. It has previously been proposed (with respect to non-cognates) that cross-language inhibition is limited to low-proficient bilinguals; therefore, we tested highly proficient, early bilinguals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Timothy R Jordan, Jasmine Dixon, Victoria A McGowan, Stoyan Kurtev, Kevin B Paterson
Recent research has shown that differences in the effectiveness of spatial frequencies for fast and slow skilled adult readers may be an important component of differences in reading ability in the skilled adult reading population (Jordan et al., 2016a). But the precise nature of this influence on lexical processing during reading remains to be fully determined. Accordingly, to gain more insight into the use of spatial frequencies by skilled adult readers with fast and slow reading abilities, the present study looked at effects of spatial frequencies on the processing of specific target words in sentences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jey Han Lau, Alexander Clark, Shalom Lappin
The question of whether humans represent grammatical knowledge as a binary condition on membership in a set of well-formed sentences, or as a probabilistic property has been the subject of debate among linguists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists for many decades. Acceptability judgments present a serious problem for both classical binary and probabilistic theories of grammaticality. These judgements are gradient in nature, and so cannot be directly accommodated in a binary formal grammar. However, it is also not possible to simply reduce acceptability to probability...
October 12, 2016: Cognitive Science
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman
Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michał Parzuchowski, Konrad Bocian, Pascal Gygax
Language (e.g., structure, morphology, and wording) can direct our attention toward the specific properties of an object, in turn influencing the mental representation of that same object. In this paper, we examined this idea by focusing on a particular linguistic form of diminution used in many languages (e.g., in Polish, Spanish, and Portuguese) to refer to an object as being "smaller." Interestingly, although objects are usually considered "better" when they are bigger in size, objects described with linguistic diminution can also refer to those that are emotionally positive...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Iva Ivanova, Liane Wardlow, Jill Warker, Victor S Ferreira
Speakers sometimes encounter utterances that have anomalous linguistic features. Are such features registered during comprehension and transferred to speakers' production systems? In two experiments, we explored these questions. In a syntactic-priming paradigm, speakers heard prime sentences with novel or intransitive verbs as part of prepositional-dative or double-object structures (e.g., The chef munded the cup to the burglar or The doctor existed the pirate the balloon). Speakers then described target pictures eliciting the same structures, using the same or different novel or intransitive verbs...
October 7, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Peter A Starreveld, Wido La Heij
The picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm and the Stroop color-word interference task are often assumed to reflect the same underlying processes. On the basis of a PRP study, Dell'Acqua et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14: 717-722, 2007) argued that this assumption is incorrect. In this article, we first discuss the definitions of Stroop- and picture-word interference. Next, we argue that both effects consist of at least four components that correspond to four characteristics of the distractor word: (1) response-set membership, (2) task relevance, (3) semantic relatedness, and (4) lexicality...
October 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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