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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095079/the-use-of-ultrasound-in-the-study-of-articulatory-properties-of-vowels-in-clear-speech
#1
Jae Yung Song
Although the acoustic properties of clear speech have been extensively studied, its underlying articulatory details have not been well understood. The purpose of the present study is twofold: To examine the specific articulatory processes of clear speech using ultrasound and to investigate whether and how the type of listener (hard of hearing, normal hearing) and the lexical property of words (frequency) interact in the production of clear speech. To this end, we examined productions of /ɑ/, /æ/ and /u/ from 16 speakers of US English...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095011/investigating-developmental-trajectories-of-morphemes-as-reading-units-in-german
#2
Jana Hasenäcker, Pauline Schröter, Sascha Schroeder
The developmental trajectory of the use of morphemes is still unclear. We investigated the emergence of morphological effects on visual word recognition in German in a large sample across the complete course of reading acquisition in elementary school. To this end, we analyzed lexical decision data on a total of 1,152 words and pseudowords from a large cross-sectional sample of German children from the beginning of Grade 2 through 6, and a group of adults. We expand earlier evidence by (a) explicitly investigating processing differences between compounds, prefixes and suffixes, (b) taking into account vocabulary knowledge as an indicator for interindividual differences...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095009/cross-lingual-neighborhood-effects-in-generalized-lexical-decision-and-natural-reading
#3
Nicolas Dirix, Uschi Cop, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory cross-lingual neighborhood density effect on reading times of second language words, replicating van Heuven, Dijkstra, and Grainger (1998). Reaction times for native language words were not influenced by neighborhood density or frequency but error rates showed cross-lingual neighborhood effects depending on target word frequency...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094427/minimalism-in-art-medical-science-and-neurosurgery
#4
Ali İhsan Ökten
The word ''minimalism'' is a word derived from French the word ''minimum''. Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is ''the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something'', its expression in mathematics can be described as ''the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal''. Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other...
December 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093277/evaluating-the-relationship-between-sublexical-and-lexical-processing-in-speech-perception-evidence-from-aphasia
#5
Heather Dial, Randi Martin
Several studies have reported that aphasic patients may perform substantially better on lexical than sublexical perception tasks (e.g., Miceli, Gainotti, Caltagirone, & Masullo, 1980). These findings challenge claims made by models of speech perception which assume obligatory sublexical processing (e.g., McClelland & Elman, 1986; Norris, 1994). However, prior studies have not closely matched the phonological similarity of targets and distractors or task demands of the sublexical and lexical perception tasks...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093020/what-causes-the-greater-perceived-similarity-of-consonant-transposed-nonwords
#6
Teresa Schubert, Sachiko Kinoshita, Dennis Norris
Nonwords created by transposing two non-adjacent orthographic consonants (CONDISER) have been reported to produce more priming for their baseword (CONSIDER), and to be classified as a nonword less readily than nonwords created by transposing two orthographic vowels (CINSODER). We investigate the origin of this difference and its relevance for theories of letter position coding. In the unprimed versions of the lexical decision and same-different tasks, a consonant-vowel difference was found in the transposition condition, not when those letters are substituted (Experiment 1)...
January 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091852/the-influence-of-orthography-on-the-production-of-alphabetic-second-language-allophones-by-speakers-of-a-non-alphabetic-language
#7
Jeong-Im Han, Joo-Yeon Kim
This study investigated the influence of orthographic information on the production of allophones in a second language (L2). Two proficiency levels of native Mandarin speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/ based on auditory stimuli, and then they were provided various types of spellings for the variants, including the letters for [[Formula: see text]] and ø. Subsequently, picture-naming and spelling recall tasks were given to the Mandarin-speaking learners. The results showed that Mandarin-speaking learners, after exposure to the spellings, began to produce and lexically store the /h/ variants following the given forms of the spellings of words, which provides support for the impact of spellings in the production and lexical storage of L2 allophones...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088677/the-relationship-between-children-s-sensitivity-to-dominant-and-non-dominant-patterns-of-lexical-stress-and-reading-accuracy
#8
Joanne Arciuli
This study reports on a new task for assessing children's sensitivity to lexical stress for words with different stress patterns and demonstrates that this task is useful in examining predictors of reading accuracy during the elementary years. In English, polysyllabic words beginning with a strong syllable exhibit the most common or dominant pattern of lexical stress (e.g., "coconut"), whereas polysyllabic words beginning with a weak syllable exhibit a less common non-dominant pattern (e.g., "banana"). The new Aliens Talking Underwater task assesses children's ability to match low-pass filtered recordings of words to pictures of objects...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088191/predicting-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-using-linguistic-deficits-and-biomarkers
#9
Sylvester O Orimaye, Jojo S-M Wong, Karen J Golden, Chee P Wong, Ireneous N Soyiri
BACKGROUND: The manual diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related Dementias has been a challenge. Currently, these disorders are diagnosed using specific clinical diagnostic criteria and neuropsychological examinations. The use of several Machine Learning algorithms to build automated diagnostic models using low-level linguistic features resulting from verbal utterances could aid diagnosis of patients with probable AD from a large population...
January 14, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#10
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077514/representational-similarity-mapping-of-distributional-semantics-in-left-inferior-frontal-middle-temporal-and-motor-cortex
#11
Francesca Carota, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hamed Nili, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language comprehension engages a distributed network of frontotemporal, parietal, and sensorimotor regions, but it is still unclear how meaning of words and their semantic relationships are represented and processed within these regions and to which degrees lexico-semantic representations differ between regions and semantic types. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis to relate word-elicited multivoxel patterns to semantic similarity between action and object words. In left inferior frontal (BA 44-45-47), left posterior middle temporal and left precentral cortex, the similarity of brain response patterns reflected semantic similarity among action-related verbs, as well as across lexical classes-between action verbs and tool-related nouns and, to a degree, between action verbs and food nouns, but not between action verbs and animal nouns...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076400/mandarin-english-bilinguals-process-lexical-tones-in-newly-learned-words-in-accordance-with-the-language-context
#12
Carolyn Quam, Sarah C Creel
Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074353/language-skills-of-males-with-fragile-x-syndrome-or-nonsyndromic-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Angela John Thurman, Andrea McDuffie, Randi J Hagerman, Cynde K Josol, Leonard Abbeduto
Despite the similarities observed between the fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes, few studies have compared their behavioral profiles outside of ASD symptomatology. In the present study, we sought to compare lexical and grammatical abilities in these two conditions. Comparisons of language abilities in both of these conditions are particularly interesting because both conditions are characterized by difficulties navigating social interactions. Results suggest that although both FXS and ASD are associated with language difficulties, there are important differences between the two conditions in terms of the language profiles observed and the factors influencing language when considering children of similar developmental levels...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068123/coreference-and-antecedent-representation-across-languages
#14
Sol Lago, Shayne Sloggett, Zoe Schlueter, Wing Yee Chow, Alexander Williams, Ellen Lau, Colin Phillips
Previous studies have shown that speakers of languages such as German, Spanish, and French reactivate the syntactic gender of the antecedent of a pronoun to license gender agreement. As syntactic gender is assumed to be stored in the lexicon, this has motivated the claim that pronouns in these languages reactivate the lexical entry of their antecedent noun. In contrast, in languages without syntactic gender such as English, lexical retrieval might be unnecessary. We used eye-tracking while reading to examine whether antecedent retrieval involves rapid semantic and phonological reactivation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067186/minding-the-gaps-literacy-enhances-lexical-segmentation-in-children-learning-to-read
#15
Naomi Havron, Inbal Arnon
Can emergent literacy impact the size of the linguistic units children attend to? We examined children's ability to segment multiword sequences before and after they learned to read, in order to disentangle the effect of literacy and age on segmentation. We found that early readers were better at segmenting multiword units (after controlling for age, cognitive, and linguistic variables), and that improvement in literacy skills between the two sessions predicted improvement in segmentation abilities. Together, these findings suggest that literacy acquisition, rather than age, enhanced segmentation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059032/when-sufficiently-processed-semantically-related-distractor-pictures-hamper-picture-naming
#16
Asya Matushanskaya, Andreas Mädebach, Matthias M Müller, Jörg D Jescheniak
Prominent speech production models view lexical access as a competitive process. According to these models, a semantically related distractor picture should interfere with target picture naming more strongly than an unrelated one. However, several studies failed to obtain such an effect. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference is obtained, when the distractor picture is sufficiently processed. Participants named one of two pictures presented in close temporal succession, with color cueing the target...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056624/garlic-and-ginger-are-not-like-apples-and-oranges-effects-of-mass-count-information-on-the-production-of-noun-phrases-in-english
#17
Nora Fieder, Lyndsey Nickels, Trudy Krajenbrink, Britta Biedermann
In the research presented here a picture-word interference paradigm was used to investigate how grammatical mass/count (countability) information is processed during noun phrase production in English. Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer's (1999) theory distinguishes between two different types of lexical-syntactic information: variable extrinsic lexical-syntactic features such as number (singular, plural) and fixed intrinsic lexical-syntactic properties such as grammatical gender (e.g., masculine, feminine). Previous research using the picture-word interference paradigm has found effects of distractor lexical-syntactic congruency for grammatical gender but no congruency effects for number...
January 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056148/the-interaction-of-lexical-characteristics-and-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Yi-Fang Chiu, Karen Forrest
Purpose: This study sought to investigate the interaction of speech movement execution with higher order lexical parameters. The authors examined how lexical characteristics affect speech output in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy control (HC) speakers. Method: Twenty speakers with PD and 12 healthy speakers read sentences with target words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. The formant transitions (F2 slopes) of the diphthongs in the target words were compared across lexical categories between PD and HC groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056135/english-listeners-use-suprasegmental-cues-to-lexical-stress-early-during-spoken-word-recognition
#19
Alexandra Jesse, Katja Poellmann, Ying-Yee Kong
Purpose: We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method: In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g., "Click on the word admiral"). Displays contained a critical pair of words (e.g., 'admiral-'admi'ration) that were segmentally identical for their first 2 syllables but differed suprasegmentally in their 1st syllable: One word began with primary lexical stress, and the other began with secondary lexical stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054498/the-impact-of-word-frequency-on-peripheral-processes-during-handwriting-a-matter-of-age
#20
Olivia Afonso, Paz Suárez-Coalla, Nagore González-Martín, Fernando Cuetos
Although several studies have found that the sublexical route of spelling has an effect on handwriting movements, the ability of lexical variables to modulate peripheral processes during writing is less clear. This study addresses the hypothesis that word frequency affects writing durations only during writing acquisition, and that at some point of development, the handwriting system becomes a relatively autonomous system unaffected by lexical variables. Spanish children attending Grades 2, 4, and 6 performed a spelling-to-dictation and a copy task in which word frequency was manipulated...
January 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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