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Montserrat Comesaña, Pauline Bertin, Helena Oliveira, Ana Paula Soares, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera, Séverine Casalis
Recent studies have suggested that proficient bilinguals show morphological decomposition in the L2, but the question remains as to whether this process is modulated by the cognateness of the morphemic constituents of L2 words and by L2 proficiency. To answer this question was the main goal of the present research. For that purpose, a masked priming lexical decision task was conducted manipulating for the first time the degree of orthographic overlap of the L2 word as a whole, as well as of their morphemic constituents (bases and suffixes)...
2018: PloS One
Jeong-Im Han, Sujin Oh
This study examined two possible sources of asymmetrical lexical access: phonetic proximity to the nearest L1 category and orthographic information. Three groups of native Korean speakers learned Arabic non-words with sound pairs with/without an L1-dominant category (/l-r/ vs. /χ-ħ/), and then their phonetic categorization and lexical encoding abilities were evaluated. One group was presented with the same letters for the target pair (e.g., <l> for both /l/ and /r/), the second group, different letters (e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
It is a matter of debate, whether and how improved auditory discrimination abilities enable speeded speech comprehension in congenitally blind adults. Previous research concentrated on semantic and syntactic aspects of processing. Here we investigated phonologically mediated spoken word access processes by means of word onset priming. Blind adults and age- and gender-matched sighted adults listened to spoken word onsets (primes) followed by complete words (targets). Phonological overlap between primes and targets varied...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Wang Li, Qian Zhaopeng, Feng Yijun, Niu Haijun
An electrolarynx (EL) is one of the most popular voice rehabilitation technologies used after laryngectomy. However, most ELs generate monotonic EL speech, which has been shown to create a particular deficit in speech intelligibility, especially for Chinese Mandarin (Mandarin). Mandarin is a tonal language that makes lexical distinctions using variations in tone. Our purpose is to design an EL that can produce the four Mandarin tones, and to evaluate its performance. We designed a fundamental frequency (F0) control method for Mandarin EL speech and manufactured a touch-controlled electrolarynx (T-EL) prototype...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Sharon Geva, Elizabeth A Warburton
Objective: Inner speech, or the ability to talk to yourself in your head, is one of the most ubiquitous phenomena of everyday experience. Recent years have seen growing interest in the role and function of inner speech in various typical and cognitively impaired populations. Although people vary in their ability to produce inner speech, there is currently no test battery which can be used to evaluate people's inner speech ability. Here we developed a test battery which can be used to evaluate individual differences in the ability to access the auditory word form internally...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Steven Moran, Damián E Blasi, Robert Schikowski, Aylin C Küntay, Barbara Pfeiler, Shanley Allen, Sabine Stoll
How does a child map words to grammatical categories when words are not overtly marked either lexically or prosodically? Recent language acquisition theories have proposed that distributional information encoded in sequences of words or morphemes might play a central role in forming grammatical classes. To test this proposal, we analyze child-directed speech from seven typologically diverse languages to simulate maximum variation in the structures of the world's languages. We ask whether the input to children contains cues for assigning syntactic categories in frequent frames, which are frequently occurring nonadjacent sequences of words or morphemes...
March 5, 2018: Cognition
Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Sogol S Javadi, Naeim Bahrami, Vedang S Uttarwar, Anny Reyes, Carrie R McDonald
Blocked and event-related fMRI designs are both commonly used to localize language networks and determine hemispheric dominance in research and clinical settings. We compared activation profiles on a semantic monitoring task using one of the two designs in a total of 43 healthy individual to determine whether task design or subject-specific factors (i.e., age, sex, or language performance) influence activation patterns. We found high concordance between the two designs within core language regions, including the inferior frontal, posterior temporal, and basal temporal region...
March 5, 2018: Brain and Language
Xu Xu, Chunyan Kang, David Pascucci, Taomei Guo
There have long been speculations about the relationship between consciousness and language. This study aimed to determine whether an individual's level of introspective awareness, based on self-report, relates to accessibility of their semantic system as evaluated by the N400. Thirty-five university students completed the study. All were right-handed, with normal or corrected-to-normal vision, without known neurological or psychological health issues. They first performed on a lexical decision task while their brain electrophysiological responses were recorded...
March 5, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Yuvalal Liron, Noa Raindel, Uri Alon
Existing approaches to describe social interactions consider emotional states or use ad-hoc descriptors for microanalysis of interactions. Such descriptors are different in each context thereby limiting comparisons, and can also mix facets of meaning such as emotional states, short term tactics and long-term goals. To develop a systematic set of concepts for second-by-second social interactions, we suggest a complementary approach based on practices employed in theater. Theater uses the concept of dramatic action, the effort that one makes to change the psychological state of another...
2018: PloS One
Yasmeen Hamza, Areti Okalidou, George Kyriafinis, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: Sonority is the relative perceptual prominence/loudness of speech sounds of the same length, stress, and pitch. Children with cochlear implants (CIs), with restored audibility and relatively intact temporal processing, are expected to benefit from the perceptual prominence cues of highly sonorous sounds. Sonority also influences lexical access through the sonority-sequencing principle (SSP), a grammatical phonotactic rule, which facilitates the recognition and segmentation of syllables within speech...
March 6, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Ashleigh Beales, Anne Whitworth, Jade Cartwright, Peter K Panegyres, Robert T Kane
PURPOSE: Using connected speech to assess progressive language disorders is confounded by uncertainty around whether connected speech is stable over successive sampling, and therefore representative of an individual's performance, and whether some contexts and/or language behaviours show greater stability than others. METHOD: A repeated measure, within groups, research design was used to investigate stability of a range of behaviours in the connected speech of six individuals with primary progressive aphasia and three individuals with Alzheimer's disease...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Seán G Roberts
This paper discusses the maximum robustness approach for studying cases of adaptation in language. We live in an age where we have more data on more languages than ever before, and more data to link it with from other domains. This should make it easier to test hypotheses involving adaptation, and also to spot new patterns that might be explained by adaptation. However, there is not much discussion of the overall approach to research in this area. There are outstanding questions about how to formalize theories, what the criteria are for directing research and how to integrate results from different methods into a clear assessment of a hypothesis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daphna Shahar-Yames, Zohar Eviatar, Anat Prior
Lexical and morphological knowledge of school-aged children are correlated with each other, and are often difficult to distinguish. One reason for this might be that many tasks currently used to assess morphological knowledge require children to inflect or derive real words in the language, thus recruiting their vocabulary knowledge. The current study investigated the possible separability of lexical and morphological knowledge using two complementary approaches. First, we examined the correlations between vocabulary and four morphological tasks tapping different aspects of morphological processing and awareness, and using either real-word or pseudo-word stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Benjamin Kowialiewski, Steve Majerus
The lexicality effect in verbal short-term memory (STM), in which word lists are better recalled than nonwords lists, is considered to reflect the influence of linguistic long-term memory (LTM) knowledge on verbal STM performance. The locus of this effect remains, however, a matter of debate. The redintegrative account considers that degrading phonological traces of memoranda are reconstructed at recall by selecting lexical LTM representations that match the phonological traces. According to a strong version of this account, redintegrative processes should be strongly reduced in recognition paradigms, leading to reduced LTM effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Britta Biedermann, Joana Cholin, Annett Jorschick, Karen Croot, Solène Hameau, Lyndsey Nickels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Ewald Neumann, Ivy K Nkrumah, Zhe Chen
Experiments examining identity priming from attended and ignored novel words (words that are used only once except when repetition is required due to experimental manipulation) in a lexical decision task are reported. Experiment 1 tested English monolinguals whereas Experiment 2 tested Twi (a native language of Ghana, Africa)-English bilinguals. Participants were presented with sequential pairs of stimuli composed of a prime followed by a probe, with each containing two items. The participants were required to name the target word in the prime display, and to make a lexical decision to the target item in the probe display...
March 3, 2018: Memory
Bethany L Sussman, Samir Reddigari, Sharlene D Newman
Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Here, we examined the impact of rotating and inverting text on the neural network responsible for visual word recognition focusing primarily on a region of the occipto-temporal cortex referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA)...
February 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Swetlana Schuster, Mathias Scharinger, Colin Brooks, Aditi Lahiri, Gesa Hartwigsen
Morphological complexity is a highly debated issue in visual word recognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that speakers are sensitive to degrees of morphological complexity. Two-step derived complex words (bridging through bridgeN  > bridgeV  > bridging) led to more enhanced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus than their 1-step derived counterparts (running through runV  > running). However, it remains unclear whether sensitivity to degrees of morphological complexity extends to pseudowords...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ken McRae, Daniel Nedjadrasul, Raymond Pau, Bethany Pui-Hei Lo, Lisa King
concepts typically are defined in terms of lacking physical or perceptual referents. We argue instead that they are not devoid of perceptual information because knowledge of real-world situations is an important component of learning and using many abstract concepts. Although the relationship between perceptual information and abstract concepts is less straightforward than for concrete concepts, situation-based perceptual knowledge is part of many abstract concepts. In Experiment 1, participants made lexical decisions to abstract words that were preceded by related and unrelated pictures of situations...
March 2, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
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