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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920733/chinese-writing-of-deaf-or-hard-of-hearing-students-and-normal-hearing-peers-from-complex-network-approach
#1
Huiyuan Jin, Haitao Liu
Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917133/the-salience-of-complex-words-and-their-parts-which-comes-first
#2
REVIEW
Hélène Giraudo, Serena Dal Maso
This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914402/stimulus-directed-attention-attenuates-lexically-guided-perceptual-learning
#3
Michael McAuliffe, Molly Babel
Studies on perceptual learning are motivated by phonetic variation that listeners encounter across speakers, items, and context. In this study, the authors investigate what control the listener has over the perceptual learning of ambiguous /s/ pronunciations through inducing changes in their attentional set. Listeners' attention is manipulated during a lexical decision exposure task such that their attention is directed at the word-level for comprehension-oriented listening or toward the signal for perception-oriented listening...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914312/today-is-tomorrow-s-yesterday-children-s-acquisition-of-deictic-time-words
#4
Katharine A Tillman, Tyler Marghetis, David Barner, Mahesh Srinivasan
Deictic time words like "yesterday" and "tomorrow" pose a challenge to children not only because they are abstract, and label periods in time, but also because their denotations vary according to the time at which they are uttered: Monday's "tomorrow" is different than Thursday's. Although children produce these words as early as age 2 or 3, they do not use them in adult-like ways for several subsequent years. Here, we explored whether children have partial but systematic meanings for these words during the long delay before adult-like usage...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#5
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912072/lexical-retrieval-and-semantic-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-question-of-noun-and-verb-dissociation
#6
Henrique Salmazo-Silva, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Sheila Rocha, Roberta Roque Baradel, André M Cravo, João Ricardo Sato, Fabio Godinho, Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart
The dissociation between the processing of verbs and nouns has been debated in light of the Embodied Cognition Theory (EC). The objective of this paper is to verify how action and verb processing deficits of PD patients are modulated by different tasks with different cognitive demands. Action and object lexical-semantic processing was evaluated in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and cognitively healthy controls through three different tasks (verbal fluency, naming and semantic association). Compared to controls, PD patients presented worse performance in naming actions and in the two semantic association tasks (action/object)...
November 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909016/using-student-writing-and-lexical-analysis-to-reveal-student-thinking-about-the-role-of-stop-codons-in-the-central-dogma
#7
Luanna B Prevost, Michelle K Smith, Jennifer K Knight
Previous work has shown that students have persistent difficulties in understanding how central dogma processes can be affected by a stop codon mutation. To explore these difficulties, we modified two multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment into three open-ended questions that asked students to write about how a stop codon mutation potentially impacts replication, transcription, and translation. We then used computer-assisted lexical analysis combined with human scoring to categorize student responses...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908081/word-specific-effects-on-sound-change-of-the-lexical-pitch-accent-in-kyungsang-korean
#8
Hyunjung Lee
This study investigated word-specific effects for the on-going sound change of the lexical pitch accent of Kyungsang Korean, arguably induced by influence from the standard Seoul Korean. This study tested whether Kyungsang speakers produced and perceived words used only in Kyungsang areas differently from the words used both in Seoul and Kyungsang areas. In production and perception experiments, Kyungsang speakers exhibited more conservative patterns for the word used only in the Kyungsang area compared to the other type of words...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908072/perceptual-attributes-for-the-comparison-of-head-related-transfer-functions
#9
Laurent S R Simon, Nick Zacharov, Brian F G Katz
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908062/linguistically-guided-adaptation-to-foreign-accented-speech
#10
Angela Cooper, Ann R Bradlow
Adaptation to foreign-accented sentences can be guided by knowledge of the lexical content of those sentences, which, being an exact match for the target, provides feedback on all linguistic levels. The extent to which this feedback needs to match the accented sentence was examined by manipulating the degree of match on different linguistic dimensions, including sub-lexical, lexical, and syntactic levels. Conditions where target-feedback sentence pairs matched and mismatched generated greater transcription improvement over non-English speech feedback, indicating listeners can draw upon sources of linguistic information beyond matching lexical items, such as sub- and supra-lexical information, during adaptation...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905253/effects-of-context-expectation-on-prospective-memory-performance-among-older-and-younger-adults
#11
Terrence K Kominsky, Celinda Reese-Melancon
This experiment examined the impact of context expectation on prospective memory (PM) performance among older and younger adults. Participants responded to PM target words embedded in an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT). Older and younger adults performed similarly on the PM task. Regardless of age, PM was significantly better for participants in the correct context expectation condition and significantly worse in the incorrect context expectation condition relative to participants who held no expectations about the context in which targets would appear...
January 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905119/automatic-female-dehumanization-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#12
Valentina Piccoli, Carlo Fantoni, Francesco Foroni, Mauro Bianchi, Andrea Carnaghi
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901286/acceptability-of-dative-argument-structure-in-spanish-assessing-semantic-and-usage-based-factors
#13
Florencia Reali
Multiple constraints, including semantic, lexical, and usage-based factors, have been shown to influence dative alternation across different languages. This work explores whether fine-grained statistics and semantic properties of the verb affect the acceptability of dative constructions in Spanish. First, a corpus analysis reveals that verbs of different semantic classes occur naturally in alternative dative constructions, a pattern quite different from English. The fact that dative alternation appears independent of semantic classes challenges traditional semantic-based approaches...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898341/tracking-competition-and-cognitive-control-during-language-comprehension-with-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#14
Elizabeth Musz, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
To successfully comprehend a sentence that contains a homonym, readers must select the ambiguous word's context-appropriate meaning. The outcome of this process is influenced both by top-down contextual support and bottom-up, word-specific characteristics. We examined how these factors jointly affect the neural signatures of lexical ambiguity resolution. We measured the similarity between multi-voxel patterns evoked by the same homonym in two distinct linguistic contexts: once after subjects read sentences that biased interpretation toward each homonym's most frequent, dominant meaning, and again after interpretation was biased toward a weaker, subordinate meaning...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896710/how-social-network-heterogeneity-facilitates-lexical-access-and-lexical-prediction
#15
Shiri Lev-Ari, Zeshu Shao
People learn language from their social environment. As individuals differ in their social networks, they might be exposed to input with different lexical distributions, and these might influence their linguistic representations and lexical choices. In this article we test the relation between linguistic performance and 3 social network properties that should influence input variability, namely, network size, network heterogeneity, and network density. In particular, we examine how these social network properties influence lexical prediction, lexical access, and lexical use...
November 28, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895573/prediction-signatures-in-the-brain-semantic-pre-activation-during-language-comprehension
#16
Burkhard Maess, Fahimeh Mamashli, Jonas Obleser, Liisa Helle, Angela D Friederici
There is broad agreement that context-based predictions facilitate lexical-semantic processing. A robust index of semantic prediction during language comprehension is an evoked response, known as the N400, whose amplitude is modulated as a function of semantic context. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that utilize relations of the prior context and the embedded word within it are largely unknown. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) data while participants were listening to simple German sentences in which the verbs were either highly predictive for the occurrence of a particular noun (i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893807/erp-response-unveils-effect-of-second-language-manipulation-on-first-language-processing
#17
Elvira Khachatryan, Flavio Camarrone, Wim Fias, Marc M Van Hulle
Lexical access in bilinguals has been considered either selective or non-selective and evidence exists in favor of both hypotheses. We conducted a linguistic experiment to assess whether a bilingual's language mode influences the processing of first language information. We recorded event related potentials during a semantic priming paradigm with a covert manipulation of the second language (L2) using two types of stimulus presentations (short and long). We observed a significant facilitation of word pairs related in L2 in the short version reflected by a decrease in N400 amplitude in response to target words related to the English meaning of an inter-lingual homograph (homograph-unrelated group)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893274/perceptual-adaptation-of-vowels-generalizes-across-the-phonology-and-does-not-require-local-context
#18
Kateřina Chládková, Václav Jonáš Podlipský, Anastasia Chionidou
Listeners usually understand without difficulty even speech that sounds atypical. When they encounter noncanonical realizations of speech sounds, listeners can make short-term adjustments of their long-term representations of those sounds. Previous research, focusing mostly on adaptation in consonants, has suggested that for perceptual adaptation to take place some local cues (lexical, phonotactic, or visual) have to guide listeners' interpretation of the atypical sounds. In the present experiment we investigated perceptual adaptation in vowels...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893232/narrative-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-similarities-and-differences
#19
Sanne J M Kuijper, Catharina A Hartman, Suzanne T M Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Petra Hendriks
The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892616/a-policy-analysis-of-teamwork-as-a-proposal-for-healthcare-humanization-implications-for-nursing
#20
R N da Silva, F D da S de Freitas, F P de Araújo, M de A Ferreira
AIM: To analyse the implications of the political devices of the Brazilian National Humanization Policy, Singular Therapeutic Project and Reference Team and Matrix Support, for nursing as a professional discipline. BACKGROUND: The Brazilian Unified Health System, SUS-Brazil, has as its principles regarding health care: universal access at all levels of care; equality and non-discrimination; integrality; community participation; and political and administrative decentralization, regionalization, and hierarchization...
December 2016: International Nursing Review
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