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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647657/distribution-and-network-of-basal-temporal-language-areas-a-study-of-the-combination-of-electric-cortical-stimulation-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoshi Ookawa, Satoko Ochi, Sumio Ishiai, Takashi Nagamine, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: The basal temporal language area (BTLA) is considered to have several functions in language processing; however, its brain network is still unknown. This study investigated the distribution and networks of the BTLA using a combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHOD: Ten patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes were enrolled in this study (language dominant side: six patients, language non-dominant side: four patients)...
June 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646401/a-standardized-set-of-3-d-objects-for-virtual-reality-research-and-applications
#2
David Peeters
The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized database of colored three-dimensional (3-D) objects that can be used in virtual reality and augmented reality research and applications...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643033/the-role-of-sensory-perception-emotionality-and-lifeworld-in-auditory-word-processing-evidence-from-congenital-blindness-and-synesthesia
#3
Judith Papadopoulos, Frank Domahs, Christina Kauschke
Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638361/bilingual-language-switching-production-vs-recognition
#4
Michela Mosca, Kees de Bot
This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635504/applying-rasch-model-analysis-in-the-development-of-the-cantonese-tone-identification-test-cantit
#5
Kathy Y S Lee, Joffee H S Lam, Kit T Y Chan, Charles Andrew van Hasselt, Michael C F Tong
OBJECTIVE: Applying Rasch analysis to evaluate the internal structure of a lexical tone perception test known as the Cantonese Tone Identification Test (CANTIT). DESIGN: A 75-item pool (CANTIT-75) with pictures and sound tracks was developed. Respondents were required to make a four-alternative forced choice on each item. A short version of 30 items (CANTIT-30) was developed based on fit statistics, difficulty estimates, and content evaluation. Internal structure was evaluated by fit statistics and Rasch Factor Analysis (RFA)...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634156/classifying-chinese-questions-related-to-health-care-posted-by-consumers-via-the-internet
#6
Haihong Guo, Xu Na, Li Hou, Jiao Li
BACKGROUND: In question answering (QA) system development, question classification is crucial for identifying information needs and improving the accuracy of returned answers. Although the questions are domain-specific, they are asked by non-professionals, making the question classification task more challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to classify health care-related questions posted by the general public (Chinese speakers) on the Internet. METHODS: A topic-based classification schema for health-related questions was built by manually annotating randomly selected questions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632840/the-effect-of-stimulus-valence-on-lexical-retrieval-in-younger-and-older-adults
#7
Deena Schwen Blackett, Stacy M Harnish, Jennifer P Lundine, Alexandra Zezinka, Eric W Healy
Purpose: Although there is evidence that emotional valence of stimuli impacts lexical processes, there is limited work investigating its specific impact on lexical retrieval. The current study aimed to determine the degree to which emotional valence of pictured stimuli impacts naming latencies in healthy younger and older adults. Method: Eighteen healthy younger adults and 18 healthy older adults named positive, negative, and neutral images, and reaction time was measured...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632042/lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-impair-decision-threshold-adjustment-for-lexical-selection
#8
Royce Anders, Stéphanie Riès, Leendert Van Maanen, F-Xavier Alario
Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data...
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629258/implementation-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-c-tone-a-novel-algorithm-to-improve-lexical-tone-recognition-in-mandarin-speaking-cochlear-implant-users
#9
Lichuan Ping, Ningyuan Wang, Guofang Tang, Thomas Lu, Li Yin, Wenhe Tu, Qian-Jie Fu
OBJECTIVES: Because of limited spectral resolution, Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving fundamental frequency (F0) cues that are important to lexical tone recognition. To improve Mandarin tone recognition in CI users, we implemented and evaluated a novel real-time algorithm (C-tone) to enhance the amplitude contour, which is strongly correlated with the F0 contour. METHODS: The C-tone algorithm was implemented in clinical processors and evaluated in eight users of the Nurotron NSP-60 CI system...
June 20, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625938/language-disturbances-after-non-thalamic-subcortical-stroke-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
Liziane Bouvier, Bertrand Groulx, Vincent Martel-Sauvageau, Laura Monetta
Language disorders following subcortical non-thalamic stroke show great variability across literature and a well-defined profile in these aphasic disturbances is yet to be established. The lack of recent and consistent literature on the subject complicates the management of subcortical aphasia. The aim of this study is to review the literature describing oral language disturbances following subcortical non-thalamic stoke affecting the basal ganglia and the surrounding white matter. A review of the literature of three databases (PubMed, PsycNet and LLBA), identifying research articles from 1997 to 2015, was completed...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624932/word-level-and-sentence-level-automaticity-in-english-as-a-foreign-language-efl-learners-a-comparative-study
#11
Dongmei Ma, Xiaoru Yu, Haomin Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate second language (L2) word-level and sentence-level automatic processing among English as a foreign language students through a comparative analysis of students with different proficiency levels. As a multidimensional and dynamic construct, automaticity is conceptualized as processing speed, stability, and accuracy which are indexed by reaction time, coefficient variation and accuracy rate. Sixty students (39 undergraduate students and 21 graduate students) who majored in English participated in this study...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624681/semantic-word-category-processing-in-semantic-dementia-and-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#12
Zubaida Shebani, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor, Lara Z Diaz-de-Grenu, Kate Dawson, Friedemann Pulvermüller
There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624522/decision-related-factors-in-pupil-old-new-effects-attention-response-execution-and-false-memory
#13
Andreas Brocher, Tim Graf
In this study, we investigate the effects of decision-related factors on recognition memory in pupil old/new paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used an old/new paradigm with words and pseudowords and participants made lexical decisions during recognition rather than old/new decisions. Importantly, participants were instructed to focus on the nonword-likeness of presented items, not their word-likeness. We obtained no old/new effects. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated old from new words and old from new pseudowords during recognition, and they did so as quickly as possible...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616011/corrigendum-picture-induced-semantic-interference-reflects-lexical-competition-during-object-naming
#14
Sabrina Aristei, Pienie Zwitserlood, Rasha Abdel Rahman
[This corrects the article on p. 28 in vol. 3, PMID: 22363304.].
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615089/no-perceptual-reorganization-for-limburgian-tones-a-cross-linguistic-investigation-with-6-to-12-month-old-infants
#15
Stefanie Ramachers, Susanne Brouwer, Paula Fikkert
Despite the fact that many of the world's languages use lexical tone, the majority of language acquisition studies has focused on non-tone languages. Research on tone languages has typically investigated well-known tone languages such as Mandarin and Cantonese Chinese. The current study looked at a Limburgian dialect of Dutch that uses lexical pitch differences, albeit in a rather restricted way. Using a visual habituation paradigm, 6- to 12-month-old Limburgian and Dutch infants were tested for their ability to discriminate Limburgian tones...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614847/using-network-science-measures-to-predict-the-lexical-decision-performance-of-adults-who-stutter
#16
Nichol Castro, Kristin M Pelczarski, Michael S Vitevitch
Purpose: Methods from network science have examined various aspects of language processing. Clinical populations may also benefit from these novel analyses. Phonological and lexical factors have been examined in adults who stutter (AWS) as potential contributing factors to stuttering, although differences reported are often subtle. We reexamined the performance of AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) from a previously conducted lexical decision task in an attempt to determine if network science measures would provide additional insight into the phonological network of AWS beyond traditional psycholinguistic measures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611820/white-matter-disruption-and-connected-speech-in-non-fluent-and-semantic-variants-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#17
Karine Marcotte, Naida L Graham, Kathleen C Fraser, Jed A Meltzer, David F Tang-Wai, Tiffany W Chow, Morris Freedman, Carol Leonard, Sandra E Black, Elizabeth Rochon
Differential patterns of white matter disruption have recently been reported in the non-fluent (nfvPPA) and semantic (svPPA) variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). No single measure is sufficient to distinguish between the PPA variants, but connected speech allows for the quantification of multiple measures. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the white matter correlates associated with connected speech features in PPA. We examined the relationship between white matter metrics and connected speech deficits using an automated analysis of transcriptions of connected speech and diffusion tensor imaging in language-related tracts...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611609/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-post-stroke-chronic-aphasia-the-impact-of-baseline-severity-and-task-specificity-in-a-pilot-sample
#18
Catherine Norise, Daniela Sacchetti, Roy Hamilton
Emerging evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve aspects of language production in persons with chronic non-fluent aphasia due to left hemisphere stroke. However, to date, studies exploring factors that predict response to tDCS in this or any patient population remain sparse, as are studies that investigate the specific aspects of language performance that are most responsive to stimulation. The current study explored factors that could predict recovery of language fluency and which aspects of language fluency could be expected to improve with the identified factor(s)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610849/dynamic-spatial-organization-of-the-occipito-temporal-word-form-area-for-second-language-processing
#19
Yue Gao, Yafeng Sun, Chunming Lu, Guosheng Ding, Taomei Guo, Jeffrey G Malins, James R Booth, Danling Peng, Li Liu
Despite the left occipito-temporal region having shown consistent activation in visual word form processing across numerous studies in different languages, the mechanisms by which word forms of second languages are processed in this region remain unclear. To examine this more closely, 16 Chinese-English and 14 English-Chinese late bilinguals were recruited to perform lexical decision tasks to visually presented words in both their native and second languages (L1 and L2) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
June 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609510/a-comparison-of-coverbal-gesture-use-in-oral-discourse-among-speakers-with-fluent-and-nonfluent-aphasia
#20
Anthony Pak-Hin Kong, Sam-Po Law, Gigi Wan-Chi Chak
Purpose: Coverbal gesture use, which is affected by the presence and degree of aphasia, can be culturally specific. The purpose of this study was to compare gesture use among Cantonese-speaking individuals: 23 neurologically healthy speakers, 23 speakers with fluent aphasia, and 21 speakers with nonfluent aphasia. Method: Multimedia data of discourse samples from these speakers were extracted from the Cantonese AphasiaBank. Gestures were independently annotated on their forms and functions to determine how gesturing rate and distribution of gestures differed across speaker groups...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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