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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#1
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339775/mining-non-lattice-subgraphs-for-detecting-missing-hierarchical-relations-and-concepts-in-snomed-ct
#2
Licong Cui, Wei Zhu, Shiqiang Tao, James T Case, Olivier Bodenreider, Guo-Qiang Zhang
Objective: Quality assurance of large ontological systems such as SNOMED CT is an indispensable part of the terminology management lifecycle. We introduce a hybrid structural-lexical method for scalable and systematic discovery of missing hierarchical relations and concepts in SNOMED CT. Material and Methods: All non-lattice subgraphs (the structural part) in SNOMED CT are exhaustively extracted using a scalable MapReduce algorithm. Four lexical patterns (the lexical part) are identified among the extracted non-lattice subgraphs...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337157/pitch-perception-in-the-first-year-of-life-a-comparison-of-lexical-tones-and-musical-pitch
#3
Ao Chen, Catherine J Stevens, René Kager
Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains namely music. Using a visual fixation paradigm, 100 and one 4- and 12-month-old Dutch infants were tested on their discrimination of Chinese rising and dipping lexical tones as well as comparable three-note musical pitch contours...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335686/grammatical-gender-effects-in-noun-noun-compound-production-evidence-from-german
#4
Antje Lorenz, Andreas Mädebach, Jörg D Jescheniak
We examined how noun-noun compound nouns and their syntactic properties are lexically stored and processed in speech production. Using gender-marked determiner primes (dermasc, diefem, dasneut [the]) in a picture naming task, we tested for specific effects from determiners congruent with either the modifier or the head of the compound target (e.g., Teemasckannefem [teapot]) to examine whether the constituents are processed independently at the syntactic level. Experiment 1 assessed effects of auditory gender-marked determiner primes in bare noun picture naming, and Experiment 2 assessed effects of visual gender-marked determiner primes in determiner-noun picture naming...
March 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333508/morphological-variability-in-second-language-learners-an-examination-of-electrophysiological-and-production-data
#5
José Alemán Bañón, David Miller, Jason Rothman
We examined sources of morphological variability in second language (L2) learners of Spanish whose native language (L1) is English, with a focus on L1-L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event-related potentials to examine noun-adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun-adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half were masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half were used in the singular...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333501/effects-of-word-predictability-and-preview-lexicality-on-eye-movements-during-reading-a-comparison-between-young-and-older-adults
#6
Wonil Choi, Matthew W Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira, Tamara Y Swaab, John M Henderson
Previous eye-tracking research has characterized older adults' reading patterns as "risky," arguing that compared to young adults, older adults skip more words, have longer saccades, and are more likely to regress to previous portions of the text. In the present eye-tracking study, we reexamined the claim that older adults adopt a risky reading strategy, utilizing the boundary paradigm to manipulate parafoveal preview and contextual predictability of a target word. Results showed that older adults had longer fixation durations compared to young adults; however, there were no age differences in skipping rates, saccade length, or proportion of regressions...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333479/are-lexical-factors-immune-to-response-modality-in-backward-recall-the-effects-of-imageability-and-word-frequency
#7
Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard, Myriam Pâquet
In immediate serial recall, it is well established that performance is influenced by lexical factors such as imageability and word frequency. However, when participants are asked to recall the to-be-remembered items in their reverse order, known as backward recall, lexical factors produced contradictory findings. In 4 experiments, we tested the role of response modality in modulating the effects of imageability and word frequency in backward recall. The magnitude of the 2 tested lexical factors was only slightly reduced in backward compared with forward recall when participants responded manually...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329852/overcoming-elderspeak-a-qualitative-study-of-three-alternatives
#8
Anna I Corwin
Purpose: This study identifies genres of communication that avoid the features of elderspeak and successfully engage cognitively or physically affected older adults in rich communicative interaction. Design and Methods: The study examined 100 hr of audio- and video-recorded interaction between older Catholic nuns and their caregivers. The data were collected as part of a 7-year study on the linguistic and communicative factors that contribute to successful aging in a Catholic convent infirmary...
March 14, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328964/the-acute-mania-of-king-george-iii-a-computational-linguistic-analysis
#9
Vassiliki Rentoumi, Timothy Peters, Jonathan Conlin, Peter Garrard
We used a computational linguistic approach, exploiting machine learning techniques, to examine the letters written by King George III during mentally healthy and apparently mentally ill periods of his life. The aims of the study were: first, to establish the existence of alterations in the King's written language at the onset of his first manic episode; and secondly to identify salient sources of variation contributing to the changes. Effects on language were sought in two control conditions (politically stressful vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327371/longitudinal-changes-in-linguistic-complexity-among-professional-football-players
#10
Visar Berisha, Shuai Wang, Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Pamela Garcia-Filion
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327370/the-effects-of-age-on-visual-expertise-for-print
#11
Maxime Curzietti, Anne Bonnefond, Bérengère Staub, Pierre Vidailhet, Nadège Doignon-Camus
Progressive visual processing decline is a known factor in aging. The present study investigates the evolution of visual expertise for printed stimuli with aging. Fifty-five participants of increasing age (20-30, 40-50, 60-70, 75-85years old) were recruited. Behavioral and EEG data were collected during a lexical decision task, in which words and symbol strings were presented. Analyses of EEG data focused mainly on three major points: visual expertise for print, automatization of the expertise and differences in attentional demand between the processing of words and symbols...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#12
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326947/change-deafness-dual-task-performance-and-domain-specific-expertise
#13
John G Neuhoff, Katharina S Bochtler
In a change deafness manipulation using radio broadcasts of sporting events, we show that change deafness to a switch in talker increases when listeners are asked to monitor both lexical and indexical information for change. We held semantic content constant and demonstrated a change deafness rate of 85% when participants listened to the home team broadcast of a hockey game that switched midway to the away team broadcast with a different announcer. In Study 2 participants were asked to monitor either the indexical characteristics (listen for a change in announcer) or both the indexical and semantic components (listen for a change in announcer or a goal scored)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322905/bilingualism-delays-the-onset-of-behavioral-but-not-aphasic-forms-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#14
Suvarna Alladi, Thomas H Bak, Mekala Shailaja, Divyaraj Gollahalli, Amuya Rajan, Bapiraju Surampudi, Michael Hornberger, Vasanta Duggirala, Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Subhash Kaul
Bilingualism has been found to delay onset of dementia and this has been attributed to an advantage in executive control in bilinguals. However, the relationship between bilingualism and cognition is complex, with costs as well as benefits to language functions. To further explore the cognitive consequences of bilingualism, the study used Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, to examine whether bilingualism modifies the age at onset of behavioral and language variants of Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) differently...
March 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321179/neurophysiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-mandarin-lexical-tone-processing
#15
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318285/reading-through-the-life-span-individual-differences-in-psycholinguistic-effects
#16
Rob A I Davies, Ruth Arnell, Julia M H Birchenough, Debbie Grimmond, Sam Houlson
The effects of psycholinguistic variables are critical to the evaluation of theories about the cognitive reading system. However, reading research has tended to focus on the impact of key variables on average performance. We report the first investigation examining variation in psycholinguistic effects across the life span, from childhood into old age. We analyzed the performance of a sample of 535 readers, aged 8-83 years in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Our findings show that the effects on reading of two key variables, frequency and AoA, decrease in size with increasing age over the life span...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316583/the-emergence-of-visual-awareness-temporal-dynamics-in-relation-to-task-and-mask-type
#17
Markus Kiefer, Thomas Kammer
One aspect of consciousness phenomena, the temporal emergence of visual awareness, has been subject of a controversial debate. How can visual awareness, that is the experiential quality of visual stimuli, be characterized best? Is there a sharp discontinuous or dichotomous transition between unaware and fully aware states, or does awareness emerge gradually encompassing intermediate states? Previous studies yielded conflicting results and supported both dichotomous and gradual views. It is well conceivable that these conflicting results are more than noise, but reflect the dynamic nature of the temporal emergence of visual awareness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314178/orthographic-learning-fast-and-slow-lexical-competition-effects-reveal-the-time-course-of-word-learning-in-developing-readers
#18
Niina Tamura, Anne Castles, Kate Nation
Children learn new words via their everyday reading experience but little is known about how this learning happens. We addressed this by focusing on the conditions needed for new words to become familiar to children, drawing a distinction between lexical configuration (the acquisition of word knowledge) and lexical engagement (the emergence of interactive processes between newly learned words and existing words). In Experiment 1, 9-11-year-olds saw unfamiliar words in one of two storybook conditions, differing in degree of focus on the new words but matched for frequency of exposure...
March 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306755/the-relationship-between-executive-functions-and-language-abilities-in-children-a-latent-variables-approach
#19
Margarita Kaushanskaya, Ji Sook Park, Ishanti Gangopadhyay, Meghan M Davidson, Susan Ellis Weismer
Purpose: We aimed to outline the latent variables approach for measuring nonverbal executive function (EF) skills in school-age children, and to examine the relationship between nonverbal EF skills and language performance in this age group. Method: Seventy-one typically developing children, ages 8 through 11, participated in the study. Three EF components, inhibition, updating, and task-shifting, were each indexed using 2 nonverbal tasks. A latent variables approach was used to extract latent scores that represented each EF construct...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302519/using-ontology-based-semantic-similarity-to-facilitate-the-article-screening-process-for-systematic-reviews
#20
Xiaonan Ji, Alan Ritter, Po-Yin Yen
OBJECTIVE: Systematic Reviews (SRs) are utilized to summarize evidence from high quality studies and are considered the preferred source of evidence-based practice (EBP). However, conducting SRs can be time and labor intensive due to the high cost of article screening. In previous studies, we demonstrated utilizing established (lexical) article relationships to facilitate the identification of relevant articles in an efficient and effective manner. Here we propose to enhance article relationships with background semantic knowledge derived from Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts and ontologies...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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