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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#1
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#2
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629846/hippocampal-gr-and-cb1-mediated-mglur5-differentially-produces-susceptibility-and-resilience-to-acute-and-chronic-mild-stress-in-rats
#3
Hongli Sun, Rujuan Su, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jun Wen, Dan Yao, Xinru Gao, Zhongliang Zhu, Hui Li
The molecular mechanism of individual response of susceptibility and resilience under psychological stress remains controversial and unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or cannabinoid receptor (CB1) and further indicate the molecular mechanism of susceptibility and resilience to acute stress (AS) and chronic mild stress (CMS). Sucrose preference test and open field test were used to evaluate the response of susceptibility and resilience under stress in rats...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629227/chemical-and-biological-studies-on-cichorium-intybus-l
#4
Dinara Satmbekova, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Yerkebulan Orazbekov, Roza Omarova, Ubaidilla Datkhayev, Samir A Ross
Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae family) is a world-wide grown plant known as chicory. In traditional medicine, this plant is used as diuretic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, cardiotonic and liver tonic. Chromatographic purification of the supercritical fluid extract of aerial parts of C. intybus on silica gel column led to isolation of three compounds: new compound, 28β-hydroxytaraxasterol (I), and two known compounds usnic acid (II) and β-sitosterol (III). Purification of the ethanolic extract of aerial parts of this plant on silica gel column chromatography yielded four compounds: 1,3-dioleylglycerate (IV), sitoindoside II (V), 11β-13-dihydrolactucin (VI) and β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (VII)...
June 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625718/synaptic-functions-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Alfonso Araque, Pablo E Castillo, Olivier J Manzoni, Raffaella Tonini
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a family of lipid molecules that act as key regulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity. They are synthetized "on demand" following physiological and/or pathological stimuli. Once released from postsynaptic neurons, eCBs typically act as retrograde messengers to activate presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and induce short- or long-term depression of neurotransmitter release. Besides this canonical mechanism of action, recent findings have revealed a number of less conventional mechanisms by which eCBs regulate neural activity and synaptic function, suggesting that eCB-mediated plasticity is mechanistically more diverse than anticipated...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624572/role-of-beta-catenin-and-endocannabinoids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-extinction-in-rats-exposed-to-shock-and-reminders
#6
Nachshon Korem, Rachel Lange, Cecilia J Hillard, Irit Akirav
The response to a traumatic experience may be rapid recovery or development of psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Impaired extinction of fear memories is thought to contribute to the development of the persistent trauma memories and avoidance. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the endocannabinoid system appear to play significant roles in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Here we examined the involvement of β-catenin in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in extinction in rats exposed to the shock and reminders model of PTSD...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624517/intra-accumbal-blockade-of-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptors-impairs-learning-but-not-retention-of-conditioned-relief
#7
Jorge R Bergado Acosta, Miriam Schneider, Markus Fendt
Humans and animals are able to associate an environmental cue with the feeling of relief from an aversive event, a phenomenon called relief learning. Relief from an aversive event is rewarding and a relief-associated cue later induces an attenuation of the startle magnitude or approach behavior. Previous studies demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is essential for relief learning. Here, we asked whether accumbal cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are involved in relief learning. In rats, we injected the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) directly into the nucleus accumbens at different time points during a relief learning experiment...
June 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619471/oral-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-intake-produces-distinct-and-region-specific-increase-in-cannabinoid-receptor-levels-that-is-prevented-by-high-fat-diet
#8
Foteini Delis, Lauren Rosko, Aditya Schroff, Kenneth E Leonard, Panayotis K Thanos
Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1...
June 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#9
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608535/discovery-and-characterization-of-two-novel-cb1-receptor-splice-variants-with-modified-n-termini-in-mouse
#10
Sabine Ruehle, James Wager-Miller, Alex Straiker, Jill Farnsworth, Michelle N Murphy, Sebastian Loch, Krisztina Monory, Ken Mackie, Beat Lutz
Numerous studies have been carried out in the mouse model, investigating the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. However, mouse CB1 (mCB1) receptor differs from human CB1 (hCB1) receptor in 13 amino acid residues. Two splice variants, hCB1a and hCB1b, diverging in their amino-termini, have been reported to be unique for hCB1 and, via different signaling properties, contribute to CB1 receptor physiology and pathophysiology. We hypothesized that splice variants also exist for the mCB1 receptor and have different signaling properties...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606779/2-arachidonoylglycerol-as-a-possible-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa-in-animal-model-in-mice
#11
Y Avraham, I Paturski, I Magen, L Vorobiev, E M Berry
We have investigated the effects of 0.001mg/kg 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) administered in combination with compounds present in the body alongside 2-AG like 2-palmitoylglycerol and 2-linoleylglycerol (also termed "entourage"), on cognitive function,food intake, and neurotransmitter levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of mice under diet restriction. Young female Sabra mice were treated with vehicle, 2-AG, 2-AG + entourage, 2-AG + entourage + 5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)- 4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A, a CB1 antagonist) and SR141716A...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606623/the-interaction-between-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-nuclear-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-represents-a-new-antinociceptive-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#12
Giulia Donvito, Deniz Bagdas, Wisam Toma, Elnaz Rahimpour, Asti Jackson, Julie A Meade, Shakir AlSharari, Abhijit R Kulkarni, F Ivy Carroll, Aron H Lichtman, Roger L Papke, Ganesh A Thakur, M Imad Damaj
Recently, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), primarily activated by binding of orthosteric agonists, represent a target for anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug development. These receptors may also be modulated by positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), ago-allosteric ligands (ago-PAMs), and α7-silent agonists. Activation of α7 nAChRs has been reported to increase the brain levels of endogenous ligands for nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type-α (PPAR-α), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
June 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601556/cannabidiol-upregulates-melanogenesis-through-cb1-dependent-pathway-by-activating-p38-mapk-and-p42-44-mapk
#13
Young Sun Hwang, Youn-Jung Kim, Mi Ok Kim, Mingyeong Kang, Sae Woong Oh, Youn Hwa Nho, See-Hyoung Park, Jongsung Lee
Melanogenesis plays a critical role in the protection of skin against external stresses such as ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stressors. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal melanocytes. We found that cannabidiol increased both melanin content and tyrosinase activity. The mRNA levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, and TRP2 were increased following cannabidiol treatment...
June 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597570/pharmaco-toxicological-effects-of-the-novel-third-generation-fluorinate-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adbinaca-ab-fubinaca-and-sts-135-in-mice-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#14
Isabella Canazza, Andrea Ossato, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Adolfo Gregori, Fabiana Di Rosa, Federica Nigro, Alessandro Rimessi, Paolo Pinton, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Matteo Marti
INTRODUCTION: 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 are 3 novel third-generation fluorinate synthetic cannabinoids that are illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or research chemicals for their psychoactive cannabis-like effects. METHODS: The present study aims at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 in male CD-1 mice, comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9) -THC and JWH-018...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596721/cannabinoid-receptor-signaling-in-central-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Marco Koch
Cannabinoids are lipid messengers that modulate a variety of physiological processes and modify the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoids so far. One main function of central CB1 signaling is to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. Thus, cannabinoids functionally interact with classical neurotransmitters in neural networks that control energy metabolism and feeding behavior. The promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, while blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593436/long-term-plasticity-in-amygdala-circuits-implication-of-cb1-dependent-ltd-in-stress
#16
Bingjin Li, Tongtong Ge, Ranji Cui
The amygdala mediates many forms of emotional learning, during which the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) functions as a major output of the amygdala by converging inputs from the basolateral nucleus (BLA) and other amygdalar subregions. However, the contribution of BLA-CeA synaptic transmission and plasticity of this transmission after exposure to emotional stimuli remains to be completely understood. Using paired recording, we simultaneously recorded BLA and CeA neurons, and observed that BLA-CeA transmission was glutamatergic...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592614/the-cannabinoid-cb2-agonist-gw405833-suppresses-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-through-a-cb1-mechanism-that-is-independent-of-cb2-receptors-in-mice
#17
Ai-Ling Li, Lawrence M Carey, Ken Mackie, Andrea G Hohmann
GW405833, widely accepted as a cannabinoid CB2 agonist, suppresses pathological pain in preclinical models without unwanted central side effects of CB1 agonists. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that GW405833 may also behave as a non-competitive CB1 antagonist, suggesting that its pharmacology is more complex than initially appreciated. Here, we further investigated the pharmacological specificity of in vivo antinociceptive actions of GW405833 in models of neuropathic (i.e. partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model) and inflammatory (i...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589628/chemical-tools-to-modulate-2-ag-biosynthesis
#18
Hui Deng, Mario van der Stelt
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as an important endogenous signaling lipid that activates the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 R and CB2 R), thereby regulating a diverse range of physiological processes including anxiety, appetite, inflammation, memory, pain sensation and nociception. Diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs) are the principle enzymes responsible for 2-AG biosynthesis. Recently, the (patho)physiological functions of DAGLs have been explored by both genetic methods and chemical tools. This review will focus on the recent efforts to develop highly selective and in vivo active DAGLs inhibitors using activity-based protein profiling...
June 6, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583800/analysis-of-natural-product-regulation-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-human-disease
#19
REVIEW
S Badal, K N Smith, R Rajnarayanan
The organized tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies of global concern including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer...
June 2, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583049/n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-a-dual-faah-and-trpv1-blocker-inhibits-the-retrieval-of-contextual-fear-memory-role-of-the-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#20
Pedro H Gobira, Isabel V Lima, Luara A Batista, Antônio C de Oliveira, Leonardo B Resstel, Carsten T Wotjak, Daniele C Aguiar, Fabricio A Moreira
Anandamide, an endocannabinoid, inhibits aversive responses by activating the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. At high concentrations, however, anandamide may exert pro-aversive activities mediated by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1). Accordingly, N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), a dual blocker of the anandamide-hydrolysing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the TRPV1 channel, induces anxiolytic-like effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that AA-5-HT inhibits the expression of contextual fear conditioning by facilitating CB1 receptor signalling in the dorsal hippocampus of mice...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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