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Lateralization visual field

Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Johannes Rennig, Hans-Otto Karnath, Sonja Cornelsen, Helmut Wilhelm, Marc Himmelbach
Electrophysiological monkey and human neuroimaging studies have reported a lateralization of signal processing in object perception. However, it is unclear whether these results point to a unique topographically organized signal processing in either hemisphere, or if these results represent a rather negligible spatial organization of otherwise redundant object perception systems in both hemispheres. We tested a group of 10 patients with lesions to ventral object processing regions and spared primary visual functions with lateral presentations of different categories of object stimuli...
June 28, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Melita J Giummarra, Govinda Poudel, P Amanda Niu, Michael E R Nicholls, Joanne Fielding, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Izelle Labuschagne
We investigated emotional processing in vicarious pain (VP) responders. VP responders report an explicit sensory and emotional feeling of pain when they witness another in pain, which is greater in magnitude than the empathic processing of pain in the general population. In Study 1, 31 participants completed a chimeric faces task, judging whether emotional chimera in the left, or right, visual field was more intense. VP responders took longer to judge emotionality than non-responders, and fixated more on the angry hemiface in the right visual field, whereas non-responder controls had no lateralized fixation bias...
July 12, 2017: Laterality
Pablo Oteiza, Iris Odstrcil, George Lauder, Ruben Portugues, Florian Engert
When flying or swimming, animals must adjust their own movement to compensate for displacements induced by the flow of the surrounding air or water. These flow-induced displacements can most easily be detected as visual whole-field motion with respect to the animal's frame of reference. Despite this, many aquatic animals consistently orient and swim against oncoming flows (a behaviour known as rheotaxis) even in the absence of visual cues. How animals achieve this task, and its underlying sensory basis, is still unknown...
July 12, 2017: Nature
M L Sacchetti, M T Di Mascio, E Tinelli, C Mainero, G Russo, M Fiorelli, V Calistri, C de Lena, A Minni, F Caramia
OBJECTIVE: Sleep apnoea is common after stroke, and has adverse effects on the clinical outcome of affected cases. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are only partially known. Increases in brain connectivity after stroke might influence networks involved in arousal modulation and breathing control. The aim of this study was to investigate the resting state functional MRI thalamic hyper-connectivity of stroke patients affected by sleep apnoea (SA) with respect to cases not affected, and to healthy controls (HC)...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Michael J Arcaro, Margaret S Livingstone
Primates have specialized domains in inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are responsive to particular image categories. Though IT traditionally has been regarded as lacking retinotopy, several recent studies in monkeys have shown that retinotopic maps extend to face patches along the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and neighboring regions of IT cortex. Here, we used fMRI to map the retinotopic organization of medial ventral temporal cortex in 4 monkeys (2 male and 2 female). We confirm the presence of visual field maps within and around the lower bank of the STS and extend these prior findings to scene-selective cortex in the ventral-most regions of IT...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Ayako Onodera, Tetsu Goto, Hisato Sugata, Shiro Yorifuji
Spatiotemporal signal transmission in the human subcortical visual pathway has not been directly demonstrated to date. To delineate this signal transmission noninvasively, we investigated the early latency components between 45 ms (P45m) and 75 ms (N75m) of visually-evoked neuromagnetic fields (VEFs). Four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Hemi-visual field light flash stimuli were delivered a total of 1200 times. Neuromagnetic responses were measured with a 160-channel whole-head gradiometer...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Juan B Yepez, Felipe A Murati, Félix García, Vivian Calderon, Jazmin Cedeño de Yepez, J Fernando Arévalo
PURPOSE: To compare surgeon experience and the outcomes of phacoemulsification using 2 different illumination techniques for cataract extraction. METHODS: A prospective interventional case series was performed on 20 consecutive patients (20 eyes) with senile cataract who underwent phacoemulsification enhanced with a 23-G endoillumination probe. The main outcome measures were the surgeon's perception of depth of field and quality of visibility of intraocular structures, ease of performance of the surgical procedure, effectiveness, and complications related to the procedure...
June 26, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Shwetadwip Chowdhury, Will J Eldridge, Adam Wax, Joseph A Izatt
Sub-diffraction resolution imaging has played a pivotal role in biological research by visualizing key, but previously unresolvable, sub-cellular structures. Unfortunately, applications of far-field sub-diffraction resolution are currently divided between fluorescent and coherent-diffraction regimes, and a multimodal sub-diffraction technique that bridges this gap has not yet been demonstrated. Here we report that structured illumination (SI) allows multimodal sub-diffraction imaging of both coherent quantitative-phase (QP) and fluorescence...
May 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Jacob Michael Bright, Karl B Fields, Ryan Draper
CONTEXT: The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation...
July 2017: Sports Health
Chen Song, Andrew M Haun, Giulio Tononi
Visual space embodies all visual experiences, yet what determines the topographical structure of visual space remains unclear. Here we test a novel theoretical framework that proposes intrinsic lateral connections in the visual cortex as the mechanism underlying the structure of visual space. The framework suggests that the strength of lateral connections between neurons in the visual cortex shapes the experience of spatial relatedness between locations in the visual field. As such, an increase in lateral connection strength shall lead to an increase in perceived relatedness and a contraction in perceived distance...
May 2017: ENeuro
Ronit Saban-Bezalel, Nira Mashal
Studies focusing on the comprehension of figurative language among schizophrenia patients (SZ) reveal their difficulties comprehending such language and their tendency to interpret it literally. The present study investigated hemispheric processing and comprehension of irony in 16 SZ patients and 18 typically developing (TD) adults. Two experimental tasks were used: an online divided visual field experiment and an offline irony questionnaire. The results show an atypical reversal of hemispheric processing of irony in SZ patients as compared to TD adults...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Julien Serres, Franck Ruffier
Flying insects are able to fly smartly in an unpredictable environment. It has been found that flying insects have smart neurons inside their tiny brains that are sensitive to visual motion also called optic flow. Consequently, flying insects rely mainly on visual motion during their flight maneuvers such as: takeoff or landing, terrain following, tunnel crossing, lateral and frontal obstacle avoidance, and adjusting flight speed in a cluttered environment. Optic flow can be defined as the vector field of the apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and edges in a visual scene generated by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a camera) and the scene...
June 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Tao Xie, Linjun Zhou, Xiaobiao Zhang, Wei Sun, Hailin Ding, Tengfei Liu, Ye Gu, Chongjing Sun, Fan Hu, Wei Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To report the operative techniques of the endoscopic supracerebellar transtentorial approach (ESTA) to the atrium of the lateral ventricle, especially focusing on the role of the endoscope and analyzing optically related issues. METHODS: A retrospective data review was performed on five patients with lesions in the atrium of the lateral ventricle undergoing the ESTA. The patients were positioned in the three-quarters prone position, and a paramidline linear incision was used...
June 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Elisabetta Palagi, Chiara Scopa
Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen's four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution...
June 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
Hiraku Matsuura, Naoki Makita, Ryotaro Ishii, Yasuko Fujita, Yuichi Furuno, Toshiki Mizuno
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with a predilection for the hindbrain. Generally, lesions decrease in size with increasing distance from the hindbrain. We herein describe a case of CLIPPERS in a patient showing the largest lesions in the temporal lobe. A 49-year-old man consulted to our hospital with a 22-day history of a high fever and an abnormal visual field involving the left eye...
June 21, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Kristin M Scaplen, Rohan N Ramesh, Negin Nadvar, Omar J Ahmed, Rebecca D Burwell
The hippocampus is important for both navigation and associative learning. We previously showed that the hippocampus processes two-dimensional (2D) landmarks and objects differently. Our findings suggested that landmarks are more likely to be used for orientation and navigation, whereas objects are more likely to be used for associative learning. The process by which cues are recognized as relevant for navigation or associative learning, however, is an open question. Presumably both spatial and nonspatial information are necessary for classifying cues as landmarks or objects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
A relevant approach to address the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the right-handedness/left-hemisphere language specialization of humans is to investigate both proximal and distal causes of language lateralization through the study of non-human primates' gestural laterality. We carried out the first systematic, quantitative comparison of within-subjects' and between-species' laterality by focusing on the laterality of intraspecific gestures of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) living in six different captive groups...
June 7, 2017: Brain Research
Surya Gayet, Matthias Guggenmos, Thomas B Christophel, John-Dylan Haynes, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Philipp Sterzer
Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain visual information available for subsequent goal-directed behavior. The content of VWM has been shown to affect the behavioral response to concurrent visual input, suggesting that visual representations originating from VWM and from sensory input draw upon a shared neural substrate (i.e., a sensory recruitment stance on VWM storage). Here, we hypothesized that visual information maintained in VWM would enhance the neural response to concurrent visual input that matches the content of VWM...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michele Fornaciai, Elizabeth M Brannon, Marty G Woldorff, Joonkoo Park
While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for representing numerical magnitudes, we recently reported an event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrating selective neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital sites very early in the time course, suggesting the involvement of early visual cortex in numerosity processing. However, which specific brain area underlies such early activation is not known. Here, we tested whether numerosity-sensitive neural signatures arise specifically from the initial stages of visual cortex, aiming to localize the generator of these signals by taking advantage of the distinctive folding pattern of early occipital cortices around the calcarine sulcus, which predicts an inversion of polarity of ERPs arising from these areas when stimuli are presented in the upper versus lower visual field...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
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