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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516212/anatomical-visualization-of-neural-course-and-distribution-of-anterior-ascending-aortic-plexus
#1
Tomokazu Kawashima, Fumi Sato
The aim of this study was to document the detailed anatomy of neural course and distribution on the anterior ascending aorta, to identify the high and low density areas of the anterior ascending aortic plexus for further understandings in cardiovascular surgery. The embalmed hearts of 42 elderly individuals were submacroscopically and microscopically examined, after excluding any that were macroscopically abnormal. With its origins in the anterior ascending aortic plexus, the right coronary plexus substantially innervated the right coronary artery, the right atrium and ventricle, and the sinus node...
May 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514631/the-hawk-eyed-songbird-retinal-morphology-eye-shape-and-visual-fields-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#2
Luke P Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Swallows are a unique group of songbirds because they are active-pursuit predators that execute all aspects of hunting prey in flight: search, detection, pursuit, and capture. We show that swallows have evolved a visual system that is unlike that of any other studied songbird. Swallows have a bifoveate retina that provides sharp lateral and frontal vision, an unusually long eye that enhances spatial resolution, a large posterior blind area, and a narrow binocular field. We also show that swallows and diurnal raptors (hawks and falcons) have converged on a similar visual configuration but that, interestingly, predatory songbirds that ambush prey (flycatchers) have not converged on the same suite of traits...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514458/effect-of-expedited-microneedle-assisted-photodynamic-therapy-for-field-treatment-of-actinic-keratoses-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Tatyana A Petukhova, Lauren A Hassoun, Negar Foolad, Mayanka Barath, Raja K Sivamani
Importance: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and cosmetically favorable treatment modality for actinic keratoses (AKs). However, prolonged incubation times and pain associated with treatment are burdensome to the patient and a hindrance to widespread use of PDT as standard field therapy for AK. Objective: To evaluate efficacy and pain associated with microneedle expedited PDT. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Microneedle Photodynamic Therapy II (MNPDT-II) study was a randomized, single-blinded, split-face controlled, 2-arm clinical trial...
May 17, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501539/spatiotemporal-oscillatory-dynamics-of-visual-selective-attention-during-a-flanker-task
#4
Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
The flanker task is a test of visual selective attention that has been widely used to probe error monitoring, response conflict, and related constructs. However, to date, few studies have focused on the selective attention component of this task and imaged the underlying oscillatory dynamics serving task performance. In this study, 21 healthy adults successfully completed an arrow-based version of the Eriksen flanker task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). All MEG data were pre-processed and transformed into the time-frequency domain...
May 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490152/keyhole-approach-and-neuroendoscopy-for-cerebral-aneurysms
#5
REVIEW
Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Chang Wan Oh
Treating diseases in the field of neurosurgery has progressed concomitantly with technical advances. Here, as a surgical armamentarium for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the history and present status of the keyhole approach and the use of neuroendoscopy are reviewed, including our clinical data. The major significance of keyhole approach is to expose an essential space toward a target, and to minimize brain exposure and retraction. Among several kinds of keyhole approaches, representative keyhole approaches for anterior circulation aneurysms include superciliary and lateral supraorbital, frontolateral, mini-pterional and mini-interhemispheric approaches...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488238/trans-oral-miniature-x-ray-radiation-delivery-system-with-endoscopic-optical-feedback
#6
Axel Boese, Fredrick Johnson, Till Ebert, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Christoph Arens, Michael Friebe
PURPOSE: Surgery, chemo- and/or external radiation therapy are the standard therapy options for the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Trans-oral access for the surgery reduces traumata and hospitalization time. A new trend in treatment is organ-preserving surgery. To avoid regrowth of cancer, this type of surgery can be combined with radiation therapy. Since external radiation includes healthy tissue surrounding the cancerous zone, a local and direct intraoral radiation delivery would be beneficial...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487249/combining-tdcs-with-prismatic-adaptation-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation-of-the-motor-cortex
#7
Martina Bracco, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Massimiliano Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Prismatic adaptation (PA) shifts visual field laterally and induces lateralized deviations of spatial attention. Recently, it has been suggested that prismatic goggles are also able to modulate brain excitability, with cognitive after-effects documented even in tasks not necessarily spatial in nature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test whether neuromodulatory effects obtained from tDCS and prismatic goggles could interact and induce homeostatic changes in corticospinal excitability...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479476/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-nuclei-of-the-human-amygdala-manual-segmentation-to-automatic-atlas
#8
Z M Saygin, D Kliemann, J E Iglesias, A J W van der Kouwe, E Boyd, M Reuter, A Stevens, K Van Leemput, A McKee, M P Frosch, B Fischl, J C Augustinack
The amygdala is composed of multiple nuclei with unique functions and connections in the limbic system and to the rest of the brain. However, standard in vivo neuroimaging tools to automatically delineate the amygdala into its multiple nuclei are still rare. By scanning postmortem specimens at high resolution (100-150µm) at 7T field strength (n = 10), we were able to visualize and label nine amygdala nuclei (anterior amygdaloid, cortico-amygdaloid transition area; basal, lateral, accessory basal, central, cortical medial, paralaminar nuclei)...
May 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466070/a-cre-mouse-line-for-probing-irradiance-and-direction-encoding-retinal-networks
#9
Shai Sabbah, Daniel Berg, Carin Papendorp, Kevin L Briggman, David M Berson
Cell type-specific Cre driver lines have revolutionized the analysis of retinal cell types and circuits. We show that the transgenic mouse Rbp4-Cre selectively labels several retinal neuronal types relevant to the encoding of absolute light intensity (irradiance) and visual motion. In the ganglion cell layer (GCL), most marked cells are wide-field spiking polyaxonal amacrine cells (ACs) with sustained irradiance-encoding ON responses that persist during chemical synaptic blockade. Their arbors spread about 1 mm across the retina and are restricted to the inner half of the ON sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (IPL)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456522/how-handedness-influences-perceptual-and-attentional-processes-during-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#10
Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Matthias Liebrand, Johannes Landmesser, Rolf Verleger
Stimulus-driven orienting of visual attention is lateralized to the right hemisphere (RH). This lateralization has been studied in the dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation task (dual RSVP). In this task a second target (T2), hard to discern by being embedded in one of two lateral streams of rapidly changing distractors, is better identified on the left than on the right. This phenomenon is called the left visual field advantage (LVFA). Furthermore, in terms of event related potentials (ERPs), the N2pc component and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are evoked earlier at the RH than at the left hemisphere (LH)...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452613/fully-endoscopic-combined-transsphenoidal-and-supraorbital-keyhole-approach-for-parasellar-lesions
#11
Yuichi Nagata, Tadashi Watanabe, Tetsuya Nagatani, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Jonsu Chu, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
OBJECTIVE Parasellar tumors that extend far laterally beyond the internal carotid artery or that are fibrous and adhere firmly to critical structures are difficult to remove totally via the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach alone. In such cases, a combined transsphenoidal-transcranial approach is effective to achieve maximal resection in a single stage. In this paper, a new minimally invasive surgical technique for complicated parasellar lesions, a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal-supraorbital keyhole approach, is presented...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451988/correlation-of-macular-structure-and-function-in-a-boy-with-primary-foveomacular-retinitis-and-sequence-of-changes-over-5%C3%A2-years
#12
Anurag Badhani, Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Gopal Krishna Panda, Sujoy Mukherjee, Taraprasad Das, Subhadra Jalali
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, macular structure and function, and to document sequential changes over 5 years in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral primary foveomacular retinitis. METHODS: A 10-year-old boy presented with sudden onset scotoma in both eyes, experienced after getting up from bed on a non-eclipse day. He persistently denied direct sun-gazing. He neither had any significant systemic illness, nor was using any medications. In addition to a detailed examination at presentation that included fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA), electroretinogram (ERG), pattern ERG and electrooculogram (EOG), he was examined periodically for 5 years with Humphrey visual field (HVF), spectral domain optical coherence tomogram (SDOCT), Amsler grid charting and multifocal ERG...
April 27, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451634/position-information-encoded-by-population-activity-in-hierarchical-visual-areas
#13
Kei Majima, Paul Sukhanov, Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Neurons in high-level visual areas respond to more complex visual features with broader receptive fields (RFs) compared to those in low-level visual areas. Thus, high-level visual areas are generally considered to carry less information regarding the position of seen objects in the visual field. However, larger RFs may not imply loss of position information at the population level. Here, we evaluated how accurately the position of a seen object could be predicted (decoded) from activity patterns in each of six representative visual areas with different RF sizes [V1-V4, lateral occipital complex (LOC), and fusiform face area (FFA)]...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449038/real-time-imaging-of-single-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#14
Maria F Cordeiro, Eduardo M Normando, M Jorge Cardoso, Serge Miodragovic, Seham Jeylani, Benjamin M Davis, Li Guo, Sebastien Ourselin, Roger A'Hern, Philip A Bloom
Retinal cell apoptosis occurs in many ocular neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma-the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Using a new imaging technique that we have called DARC (detection of apoptosing retinal cells), which until now has only been demonstrated in animal models, we assessed if annexin 5 labelled with fluorescent dye DY-776 (ANX776) could be used safely in humans to identify retinal cell apoptosis. Eight patients with glaucomatous neurodegeneration and evidence of progressive disease, and eight healthy subjects were randomly assigned to intravenous ANX776 doses of 0...
April 26, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444373/plasticity-of-the-right-lateralized-cognitive-reserve-network-in-ageing
#15
Méadhbh B Brosnan, Giorgia Demaria, Anders Petersen, Paul M Dockree, Ian H Robertson, Iris Wiegand
Cognitive reserve (CR) is the phenomenon where older adults with more cognitively stimulating environments show less age-related cognitive decline. The right-lateralized fronto-parietal network has been proposed to significantly contribute to CR and visual attention in ageing. In this study we tested whether plasticity of this network may be harnessed in ageing.We assessed CR and parameters of visual attention capacity in older adults. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was employed to increase right fronto-parietal activity during a lateralized whole-report task...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438969/intracellular-in-vivo-dynamics-of-thalamocortical-synapses-in-visual-cortex
#16
Madineh Sedigh-Sarvestani, Leif Vigeland, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Morgan Taylor, Larry A Palmer, Diego Contreras
Seminal studies of the thalamocortical (TC) circuit in the visual system of the cat have been central to our understanding of sensory encoding. However, TC synaptic properties remain poorly understood. We used paired recordings, in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1), to provide the first in vivo characterization of sensory-driven TC potentials in V1. The amplitudes of EPSPs we characterized were smaller than those previously reported in vitro. Consistent with prior findings, connected LGN-V1 pairs were only found when their receptive fields (RFs) overlapped, and the probability of connection increased steeply with degree of RF overlap and response similarity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429124/how-bumblebees-use-lateral-and-ventral-optic-flow-cues-for-position-control-in-environments-of-different-proximity
#17
Nellie Linander, Emily Baird, Marie Dacke
Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424389/-brodmann-areas-8-and-9-including-the-frontal-eye-field
#18
Masataka Watanabe
Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414092/numbers-and-functional-lateralization-a-visual-half-field-and-dichotic-listening-study-in-proficient-bilinguals
#19
Michal Klichowski, Gregory Króliczak
Potential links between language and numbers and the laterality of symbolic number representations in the brain are still debated. Furthermore, reports on bilingual individuals indicate that the language-number interrelationships might be quite complex. Therefore, we carried out a visual half-field (VHF) and dichotic listening (DL) study with action words and different forms of symbolic numbers used as stimuli to test the laterality of word and number processing in single-, dual-language and mixed -task and language- contexts...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412802/-analysis-of-the-effect-of-different-surgical-methods-on-the-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-deep-orbit
#20
H F Liao, Y H Wang, Q Huang, P Y Gan, A A Wang
Objective: To explore the effect of the surgical removal of orbital deep cavernous hemangioma following the concept of minimal surgical invasion. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Sixty-three cases with surgical removal of deep orbital cavernous hemangioma were collected in the Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University from May 2012 to August 2015. There were 29 males and 34 females. The age was from 17 to 69 years with mean age (45±11) years.The surgical methods the conjunctival approach orbital surgery, lateral orbital surgery, medial skin orbital surgery, lateral orbital conjunctiva conjunctival pathway and endoscopic nasal approach were chosen for different cases...
April 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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