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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148720/a-dual-signal-readout-nanosphere-for-rapid-point-of-care-detection-of-ebola-virus-glycoprotein
#1
Jiao Hu, Yong-Zhong Jiang, Ling-Ling Wu, Zhen Wu, Yuhai Bi, Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu, Jian-Jun Chen, Dai-Wen Pang, Zhi-Ling Zhang
Rapid detection of highly contagious pathogens is the key to increasing the probability of survival and reducing infection rates. We developed a sensitive and quantitative lateral flow assay for detection of EBOV glycoprotein with a novel multifunctional nanosphere (RNs@Au) as a reporter. Each RNs@Au contains hundreds of quantum dots and dozens of Au nanoparticles and can achieve enhanced dual-signal readout (fluorescence signal for quantitative detection and colorimetric signal for visual detection). Antibody (Ab) and streptavidin (SA) were simultaneously modified onto the RNs@Au to label the target as well as to act as the signal enhancer...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148434/the-cutting-away-of-potential-secondary-electron-tracks-explains-the-effects-of-beam-size-and-detector-wall-density-in-small-field-photon-dosimetry
#2
Hui Khee Looe, Bjoern Delfs, Daniela Poppinga, Ping Jiang, Dietrich Harder, Bjoern Poppe
The well-known field-size dependent overresponse in small-field photon-beam dosimetry of solid-state detectors equipped with very thin sensitive volumes, such as the PTW microDiamond, cannot be caused by the photon and electron interactions within these sensitive layers because they are only a few micrometers thick. The alternative explanation is that their overresponse is caused by the combination of two effects, the modification of the secondary electron fluence profile i) by a field size too small to warrant lateral secondary electron equilibrium and ii) by the density-dependent electron ranges in the structural detector materials placed in front of or backing the sensitive layer...
November 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146465/more-than-blindsight-case-report-of-a-child-with-extraordinary-visual-capacity-following-perinatal-bilateral-occipital-lobe-injury
#3
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Juan Chen, Mitchell de Souza, Marc G Sarossy, Marc F Joanisse, Melvyn A Goodale, James A Bourne
Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and visually-guided behaviour within the blind field. A more recent focus has been the observed phenomenon whereby early-life injury to V1 often results in the preservation of visual perception in both monkeys and humans...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#4
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116449/comparative-pulvinar-organization-across-different-primate-species
#5
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we compare the pattern of pulvinar immunohistochemical staining for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin and for the neurofilament protein SMI-32 in macaque, capuchin, and squirrel monkeys. This group of New and Old World primates shares five similar pulvinar subdivisions: PIP, PIM, PIC, PIL, and PILS. In the Old World macaque monkey, the inferior-lateral pulvinar can be subdivided into the P1 and P2 fields based on its connectivity with visual area V1. On the other hand, only the P1 field and no P2 was found in the New World capuchin monkey...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116448/visual-topography-of-the-pulvinar-projection-zones
#6
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
In this chapter, we describe the visuotopy of the pulvinar subdivisions P1, P2, and P4. In all primates, P1 colocalizes with the chemoarchitecturally defined PI and a small portion of PL. The peripheral visual field is represented anteriorly in the medial portion of PI, while central vision is represented more posteriorly in the medial portion of PL. The vertical meridian representation is located on the lateral edge of P1, while the horizontal meridian is represented obliquely from the lateral to the medial extent of P1...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101454/-surgical-management-of-ankylosing-spondylitis-bechterew-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
H Allouch, M Shousha, H Böhm
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease that is often associated with back pain and restricted spinal movement. In the later stages of the disease, complete ossification of the entire spine and severe deformity can occur, often resulting in a marked reduction in quality of life and an increased risk of loss of independence due to diminished visual field. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at greater risk of spinal fractures. These are generally complex fractures associated with high morbidity and mortality; in addition, neurological deficits are not unusual...
November 3, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100949/plasticity-of-the-human-visual-brain-after-early-cortical-lesion
#8
K Mikellidou, R Arrighi, G Aghakhanyan, F Tinelli, F Frijia, S Crespi, F De Masi, D Montanaro, M C Morrone
In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic radiations acquired early in life. The patient underwent surgical removal of a right hemisphere parieto-temporal-occipital atypical choroid plexus papilloma of the right lateral ventricle at four months of age, which presumably altered the visual pathways during in utero development...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096198/face-inversion-reveals-holistic-processing-of-peripheral-faces
#9
Petra Kovács, Balázs Knakker, Petra Hermann, Gyula Kovács, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Face perception is accomplished by face-selective neural processes, involving holistic processing that enables highly efficient integration of facial features into a whole-face representation. It has been shown that in face-selective regions of the ventral temporal cortex (VTC), neural resources involved in holistic processing are primarily dedicated to the central portion of the visual field. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that holistic processing might be the privilege of centrally presented faces and could be strongly diminished in the case of peripheral faces...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094198/the-turtle-visual-system-mediates-a-complex-spatiotemporal-transformation-of-visual-stimuli-into-cortical-activity
#10
Mahmood S Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel C Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
The three-layered visual cortex of turtle is characterized by extensive intracortical axonal projections and receives non-retinotopic axonal projections from lateral geniculate nucleus. What spatiotemporal transformation of visual stimuli into cortical activity arises from such tangle of malleable cortical inputs and intracortical connections? To address this question, we obtained band-pass filtered extracellular recordings of neural activity in turtle dorsal cortex during visual stimulation of the retina. We discovered important spatial and temporal features of stimulus-modulated cortical local field potential (LFP) recordings...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091639/infrared-target-detection-method-based-on-the-receptive-field-and-lateral-inhibition-of-human-visual-system
#11
Shangnan Zhao, Yong Song, Yufei Zhao, Yun Li, Lin Li, Qun Hao, Maoyuan Li
In this paper, an infrared target adaptive detection method based on the receptive field and lateral inhibition (LI) of the human visual system is proposed. In the proposed method, the direction parameters of a Gabor filter are adaptively determined according to the gradient direction, so that edges in the image can be detected without manual intervention. Meanwhile, background prediction based on LI is used for regulating the gray value in the image to achieve background suppression and target enhancement...
October 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077402/quantum-dot-based-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-detection-of-neonicotinoid-residues-in-tea-leaves
#12
Shuangjie Wang, Ying Liu, Shasha Jiao, Ying Zhao, Yirong Guo, Mengcen Wang, Guonian Zhu
Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used for pest control on tea plantations as a result of their broad-spectrum activity. However, neonicotinoid residues released from tea leaves into tea infusions pose a dietary risk to consumers. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable on-site detection method for neonicotinoids is needed. We developed a quantum-dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS) combined with a broad-specific antibody for detection of typical neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, and clothianidin), with sensitivities [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)] of 0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076788/relationship-between-cortical-resection-and-visual-function-after-occipital-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#13
Won Heo, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Sang Kun Lee
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated long-term clinical and visual outcomes of patients after occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) surgery and analyzed the relationship between visual cortical resection and visual function after OLE surgery. METHODS A total of 42 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with OLE and underwent occipital lobe resection between June 1995 and November 2013 were included. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were reviewed retrospectively. Seizure outcomes were categorized according to the Engel classification...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073645/integration-of-objects-and-space-in-perception-and-memory
#14
REVIEW
Charles E Connor, James J Knierim
Distinct processing of objects and space has been an organizing principle for studying higher-level vision and medial temporal lobe memory. Here, however, we discuss how object and spatial information are in fact closely integrated in vision and memory. The ventral, object-processing visual pathway carries precise spatial information, transformed from retinotopic coordinates into relative dimensions. At the final stages of the ventral pathway, including the dorsal anterior temporal lobe (TEd), object-sensitive neurons are intermixed with neurons that process large-scale environmental space...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071351/image-based-and-eye-based-influences-on-binocular-rivalry-have-similar-spatial-profiles
#15
Sjoerd Stuit, Jan Brascamp, Maurits Barendregt, Maarten van der Smagt, Susan Te Pas
Binocular rivalry occurs when the images presented to the two eyes do not match. Instead of fusing into a stable percept, perception during rivalry alternates between images over time. However, during rivalry, perception can also resemble a patchwork of parts of both eyes' images. Such integration of image parts across eyes is relatively rare compared to integration of image parts presented to the same eye, suggesting that integration across space during rivalry is primarily rooted at the early monocular level of processing...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069012/is-atrial-fibrillation-a-risk-factor-for-normal-tension-glaucoma
#16
Anna Zaleska-Żmijewska, Maciej Janiszewski, Zbigniew M Wawrzyniak, Marek Kuch, Jerzy Szaflik, Jacek P Szaflik
Glaucoma (GL) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are diseases of significant social importance. Cardiovascular disorders such as systemic hypertension, hypotension, increased blood viscosity, vasospasm, and diabetes are potential risk factors of GL, especially when intraocular pressure is not elevated. Only a few studies have reported a possible connection between cardiac arrhythmias and GL. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of GL in patients with AF.A total of 117 patients were included in the study, 79 with AF (AF group) and 38 with sinus rhythm (Control group), matched for age and sex...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067576/a-new-fluorescence-imaging-technique-for-visualizing-hepatobiliary-structures-using-sodium-fluorescein-result-of-a-preclinical-study-in-a-rat-model
#17
Sam-Youl Yoon, Chang Min Lee, Tae-Jin Song, Hyung Joon Han, Seonghan Kim
BACKGROUND: Near-infrared fluorescence imaging has been recently applied in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. Our objective was to apply blue light fluorescence imaging to cholangiography and liver mapping during laparoscopic surgery. Therefore, we designed a preclinical study to evaluate the feasibility of using blue light fluorescence for cholangiography and liver mapping in a rat model. METHODS: Sodium fluorescein solution (1 mL to each individual) were administered intravenously to 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, 200-250 g), after laparotomy...
October 24, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066558/orientation-tuning-of-correlated-activity-in-the-developing-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#18
Caitlin W Kiley, W Martin Usrey
Neural circuits and the cells that comprise them undergo developmental changes in the spatial organization of their connections and in their temporal response properties. Within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus, these changes have pronounced effects on the spatiotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) of neurons. An open and unresolved question is how STRF maturation affects stimulus-evoked correlated activity between pairs of LGN neurons during development. This is an important question to answer as stimulus-evoked correlated activity likely plays a role in establishing the specificity of thalamocortical connectivity and the receptive fields of postsynaptic cortical neurons...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066555/recruitment-of-foveal-retinotopic-cortex-during-haptic-exploration-of-shapes-and-actions-in-the-dark
#19
Simona Monaco, Jason P Gallivan, Teresa D Figley, Anthony Singhal, Jody C Culham
The role of the early visual cortex and higher-order occipito-temporal cortex has been studied extensively for visual recognition and to a lesser degree for haptic recognition and visually guided actions. Using a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we investigated: 1) whether tactile and visual exploration of objects recruit the same "visual" areas (and in the case of visual cortex, the same retinotopic zones); and 2) whether these areas show reactivation during delayed actions in the dark towards haptically explored objects (and if so, whether this reactivation might be due to imagery)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065120/neural-field-model-to-reconcile-structure-with-function-in-primary-visual-cortex
#20
James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging experiments in primary visual cortex (V1) have shown that local, oriented visual stimuli elicit stable orientation-selective activation within the stimulus retinotopic footprint. The cortical activation dynamically extends far beyond the retinotopic footprint, but the peripheral spread stays non-selective-a surprising finding given a number of anatomo-functional studies showing the orientation specificity of long-range connections. Here we use a computational model to investigate this apparent discrepancy by studying the expected population response using known published anatomical constraints...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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