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Lateralization visual field

Sara Tze Kwan Li, Janet Hui-Wen Hsiao
Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
Elmire Hartmans, Jolien J J Tjalma, Matthijs D Linssen, Pilar Beatriz Garcia Allende, Marjory Koller, Annelies Jorritsma-Smit, Mariana E Silva de Oliveira Nery, Sjoerd G Elias, Arend Karrenbeld, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Jan H Kleibeuker, Gooitzen M van Dam, Dominic J Robinson, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Wouter B Nagengast
Adenoma miss rates in colonoscopy are unacceptably high, especially for sessile serrated adenomas / polyps (SSA/Ps) and in high-risk populations, such as patients with Lynch syndrome. Detection rates may be improved by fluorescence molecular endoscopy (FME), which allows morphological visualization of lesions with high-definition white-light imaging as well as fluorescence-guided identification of lesions with a specific molecular marker. In a clinical proof-of-principal study, we investigated FME for colorectal adenoma detection, using a fluorescently labelled antibody (bevacizumab-800CW) against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), which is highly upregulated in colorectal adenomas...
2018: Theranostics
Hsin-Hao Yu, Nafiseh Atapour, Tristan A Chaplin, Katrina H Worthy, Marcello G P Rosa
Lesions of striate cortex (V1) trigger massive retrograde degeneration of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In primates, these lesions also lead to scotomas within which conscious vision is abolished. Mediation of residual visual capacity within these regions (blindsight) has been traditionally attributed to an indirect visual pathway to the extrastriate cortex, which involves the superior colliculus and pulvinar complex. However, recent studies have suggested that preservation of the LGN is critical for behavioral evidence of blindsight, raising the question of what type of visual information is channeled by remaining neurons in this structure...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt, Mario Pieper, Charlotte Stehmar, Martin Ahrens, Christian Idel, Barbara Wollenberg, Peter König, Gereon Hüttmann
Intravital microscopy (IVM) offers the opportunity to visualize static and dynamic changes of tissue on a cellular level. It is a valuable tool in research and may considerably improve clinical diagnosis. In contrast to confocal and non-linear microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with microscopic resolution (mOCT) provides intrinsically cross-sectional imaging. Changing focus position is not needed, which simplifies especially endoscopic imaging. For in-vivo imaging, here we are presenting endo-microscopic OCT (emOCT)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Laurin Ginner, Tilman Schmoll, Abhishek Kumar, Matthias Salas, Nastassia Pricoupenko, Lara M Wurster, Rainer A Leitgeb
We demonstrate a high-resolution line field en-face time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using an off-axis holography configuration. Line field en-face OCT produces high speed en-face images at rates of up to 100 Hz. The high frame rate favors good phase stability across the lateral field-of-view which is indispensable for digital adaptive optics (DAO). Human retinal structures are acquired in-vivo with a broadband light source at 840 nm, and line rates of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Structures of different retinal layers, such as photoreceptors, capillaries, and nerve fibers are visualized with high resolution of 2...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Sylvie Chokron, Carole Peyrin, Céline Perez
AIMS: Patients with homonymous hemianopia may present a subtle ipsilesional deficit, recently referred to as 'sightblindness' in addition to the contralesional visual field defect. We recently demonstrated that this deficit could be worse in right brain-damaged patients with left hemianopia than in left brain-damaged patients with right hemianopia, confirming right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial and attentional capacities. In the present study we investigate whether this ipsilesional deficit could be attentional in nature and to what extent it is comparable in right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with left hemianopia and in RBD patients with left neglect...
March 15, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Anna Dalecki, Sarah P Loughran, Adam Verrender, Catriona A Burdon, Nigel A S Taylor, Rodney J Croft
OBJECTIVE: To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF)...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Ahmed Hegazy, Hieder Al-Shami, Mohammed Fathy Adel Ali, Mohamad Fathallah, Ahmed Salah, Hashim Mohamed, Emad Ibrahim Ahmed, Haytham Hussien Mohammed Osman, Arundhati Biswas
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether adding mobilization of the outer cavernous sinus membrane as a part of the approach, in large spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus extension, would reduce bleeding and increase the extent of resection. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was held between February 2016 and April 2017 at Cairo University Hospitals. The study recruited 94 patients with spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus involvement...
March 2018: Neurology India
Bicheng Luo, Feng Xu, Christian Richardt, Jun-Hai Yong
We propose a novel 360° scene representation for converting real scenes into stereoscopic 3D virtual reality content with head-motion parallax. Our image-based scene representation enables efficient synthesis of novel views with six degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) by fusing motion fields at two scales: (1) disparity motion fields carry implicit depth information and are robustly estimated from multiple laterally displaced auxiliary viewpoints, and (2) pairwise motion fields enable real-time flow-based blending, which improves the visual fidelity of results by minimizing ghosting and view transition artifacts...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Kevin Taliaferro, Alexander Crawford, Justin Jabara, Jonathan Lynch, Edward Jung, Raimonds Zvirbulis, Trevor Banka
BACKGROUND: Intraarticular steroid injections are a common first-line therapy for severe osteoarthritis, which affects an estimated 27 million people in the United States. Although topical, oral, intranasal, and inhalational steroids are known to increase intraocular pressure in some patients, the effect of intraarticular steroid injections on intraocular pressure has not been investigated, to the best of our knowledge. If elevated intraocular pressure is sustained for long periods of time or is of sufficient magnitude acutely, permanent loss of the visual field can occur...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
John Quan Minh Nguyen, Melanie McWade, Giju Thomas, Bryce T Beddard, Jennifer L Herington, Bibhash C Paria, Herbert S Schwartz, Jennifer L Halpern, Ginger E Holt, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Fluorescence imaging is a well-established optical modality that has been used to localize and track fluorophores in vivo and has demonstrated great potential for surgical guidance. Despite the variety of fluorophores currently being researched, many existing intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are specifically designed for a limited number of applications. We present a modular wide-field fluorescence overlay tissue imaging system for intraoperative surgical guidance that is comprised of commercially available standardized components...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Mengyang He, Changzhu Qi, Yang Lu, Amanda Song, Saba Z Hayat, Xia Xu
Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Tero Hakala, Annika Hultén, Minna Lehtonen, Krista Lagus, Riitta Salmelin
Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure...
March 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Xin-Jun Du, Yu-Xuan Zang, Hai-Bin Liu, Ping Li, Shuo Wang
Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogenic bacterium that causes human disease, resulting in economic losses worldwide. The current detection methods for L. monocytogenes are not well suited for direct field testing because they involve complicated, time-consuming operations. A simple, efficient method is vital for L. monocytogenes detection. In this study, we combined isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with a lateral flow (LF) strip to rapidly and reliably detect L. monocytogenes...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Richard Boyle, Reza Ehsanian, Alireza Mofrad, Yekaterina Popova, Joseph Varelas
The utricle provides the vestibular reflex pathways with the sensory codes of inertial acceleration of self motion and head orientation with respect to gravity to control balance and equilibrium. Here we present an anatomical description of this structure in the adult oyster toadfish, and establish a morphological basis for interpretation of subsequent functional studies. Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were applied to visualize the sensory epithelium at varying levels of detail, its neural innervation and its synaptic organization...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tatsuya Tominaga
Bacteria of the genera Klebsiella and Raoultella, which are present in foods and the natural environment, are associated with health hazards in humans. In the present study, two types of strips-based methods were developed to detect these bacteria simply and quickly. One method used lateral-flow test strips (LFTS) in combination with anti-Klebsiella antibodies labeled with palladium nanoparticles that bind to target bacteria, allowing their visualization. In the other, the antibodies were immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes, and urease activity was measured using an ion sensitive field effect transistor pH sensor...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Alexia Roux-Sibilon, Solène Kalénine, Cédric Pichat, Carole Peyrin
Visual extinction, a parietal syndrome in which patients exhibit perceptual impairments when two objects are simultaneously presented in the visual field, is reduced when objects are correctly positioned for action, indicating that action helps patients' visual attention. Similarly, healthy individuals make faster action decisions on object pairs that appear in left/right standard co-location for actions in comparison to object pairs that appear in a mirror location, a phenomenon called the paired-object affordance effect...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Henry J Alitto, Daniel L Rathbun, Tucker G Fisher, Prescott C Alexander, W Martin Usrey
Visual information processed in the retina is transmitted to primary visual cortex via relay cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus. Although retinal ganglion cells are the primary source of driving input to LGN neurons, not all retinal spikes are transmitted to the cortex. Here, we investigate the relationship between stimulus contrast and retinogeniculate communication and test the hypothesis that both the time course and strength of retinogeniculate interactions are dynamic and dependent on stimulus contrast...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alfred Lim, Vivian Eng, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in reaction times to targets that appeared at a previously cued location relative to an uncued location, often investigated using a spatial cueing paradigm. Despite numerous studies that have examined many aspects of IOR, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying IOR are still in dispute. The objective of the current research is to investigate the plausible mechanisms by manipulating the cue and target types between central and peripheral stimuli in a traditional cue-target paradigm with saccadic responses to targets...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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