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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429124/how-bumblebees-use-lateral-and-ventral-optic-flow-cues-for-position-control-in-environments-of-different-proximity
#1
Nellie Linander, Emily Baird, Marie Dacke
Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424389/-brodmann-areas-8-and-9-including-the-frontal-eye-field
#2
Masataka Watanabe
Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414092/numbers-and-functional-lateralization-a-visual-half-field-and-dichotic-listening-study-in-proficient-bilinguals
#3
Michal Klichowski, Gregory Króliczak
Potential links between language and numbers and the laterality of symbolic number representations in the brain are still debated. Furthermore, reports on bilingual individuals indicate that the language-number interrelationships might be quite complex. Therefore, we carried out a visual half-field (VHF) and dichotic listening (DL) study with action words and different forms of symbolic numbers used as stimuli to test the laterality of word and number processing in single-, dual-language and mixed -task and language- contexts...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412802/-analysis-of-the-effect-of-different-surgical-methods-on-the-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-deep-orbit
#4
H F Liao, Y H Wang, Q Huang, P Y Gan, A A Wang
Objective: To explore the effect of the surgical removal of orbital deep cavernous hemangioma following the concept of minimal surgical invasion. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Sixty-three cases with surgical removal of deep orbital cavernous hemangioma were collected in the Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University from May 2012 to August 2015. There were 29 males and 34 females. The age was from 17 to 69 years with mean age (45±11) years.The surgical methods the conjunctival approach orbital surgery, lateral orbital surgery, medial skin orbital surgery, lateral orbital conjunctiva conjunctival pathway and endoscopic nasal approach were chosen for different cases...
April 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412085/in-vivo-evidence-of-significant-levator-ani-muscle-stretch-on-mr-images-of-a-live-childbirth
#5
Nikhil Sindhwani, Christian Bamberg, Nele Famaey, Geertje Callewaert, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Ulf Teichgräber, Jan Deprest
OBJECTIVE: Vaginal childbirth is believed to be a significant risk factor for the development of pelvic floor dysfunction later in life. Previous studies have explored the use of medical imaging and simulations of childbirth to determine the stretch in the levator ani muscle. Bamberg et al, 2012, have recorded MR images of a live childbirth of a 24 year old woman giving birth vaginally for the second time, using a 1.0 Tesla open high-field scanner. Our objective was to determine the stretch ratios in the levator muscle using these MR images of live childbirth...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407842/the-prevalence-of-glaucoma-in-young-people
#6
Susanne Marx-Gross, Dagmar Laubert-Reh, Astrid Schneider, René Höhn, Alireza Mirshahi, Thomas Münzel, Philipp S Wild, Manfred E Beutel, Maria Blettner, Norbert Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Earlier information on the prevalence of glaucoma among children in Germany was based solely on estimates. Reported values for congenital glaucoma range from 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 68 000 depending on ethnic origin. The estimate for juvenile glaucoma is 1 in 44 000. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study is a populationbased, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. To determine the history-based prevalence of childhood glaucoma, participants were asked about the diagnosis of glaucoma, any operations for glaucoma that were performed, regular use of drugs for glaucoma, and the age of onset of glaucoma...
March 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404480/2d-and-3d-fish-of-expanded-repeat-rnas-in-human-lymphoblasts
#7
Martyna O Urbanek, Michał Michalak, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
The first methods for visualizing RNAs within cells were designed for simple imaging of specific transcripts in cells or tissues and since then significant technical advances have been made in this field. Today, high-resolution images can be obtained, enabling visualization of single transcript molecules, quantitative analyses of images, and precise localization of RNAs within cells as well as co-localization of transcripts with specific proteins or other molecules. In addition, tracking of RNA dynamics within single cell has become possible...
April 9, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398563/studying-microstructure-and-microstructural-changes-in-plant-tissues-by-advanced-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques
#8
Darya Morozov, Iris Tal, Odelia Pisanty, Eilon Shani, Yoram Cohen
As sessile organisms, plants must respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development. Most of the plant body is formed post-embryonically by continuous activity of apical and lateral meristems. The development of lateral adventitious roots is a complex process, and therefore the development of methods that can visualize, non-invasively, the plant microstructure and organ initiation that occur during growth and development is of paramount importance. In this study, relaxation-based and advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods including diffusion tensor (DTI), q-space diffusion imaging (QSI), and double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) MRI, at 14...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396894/a-simple-metal-staining-procedure-for-identification-and-visualization-of-single-cells-by-la-icp-ms
#9
A J Herrmann, S Techritz, N Jakubowski, A Haase, A Luch, U Panne, L Mueller
High lateral resolution of metal detection in single cells by use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) demands powerful staining methods. In this work different staining procedures for the single cell analysis with LA-ICP-MS were optimized. An iridium intercalator was utilized to stain the cell nuclei whereas the whole cell was stained by the use of maleimido-mono-amide-DOTA (mDOTA) complexing lanthanide(iii) ions. The content of the artificially introduced metals per cell was quantified using a matrix matched calibration approach based on cellulose membranes onto which standards were spotted by a microarray spotter...
April 11, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396415/variations-in-crowding-saccadic-precision-and-spatial-localization-reveal-the-shared-topology-of-spatial-vision
#10
John A Greenwood, Martin Szinte, Bilge Sayim, Patrick Cavanagh
Visual sensitivity varies across the visual field in several characteristic ways. For example, sensitivity declines sharply in peripheral (vs. foveal) vision and is typically worse in the upper (vs. lower) visual field. These variations can affect processes ranging from acuity and crowding (the deleterious effect of clutter on object recognition) to the precision of saccadic eye movements. Here we examine whether these variations can be attributed to a common source within the visual system. We first compared the size of crowding zones with the precision of saccades using an oriented clock target and two adjacent flanker elements...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396097/an-fmri-study-of-visual-hemifield-integration-and-cerebral-lateralization
#11
Lars Strother, Zhiheng Zhou, Alexandra K Coros, Tutis Vilis
The human brain integrates hemifield-split visual information via interhemispheric transfer. The degree to which neural circuits involved in this process behave differently during word recognition as compared to object recognition is not known. Evidence from neuroimaging (fMRI) suggests that interhemispheric transfer during word viewing converges in the left hemisphere, in two distinct brain areas, an "occipital word form area" (OWFA) and a more anterior occipitotemporal "visual word form area" (VWFA). We used a novel fMRI half-field repetition technique to test whether or not these areas also integrate nonverbal hemifield-split string stimuli of similar visual complexity...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393011/motivated-attention-and-family-risk-for-depression-neuronal-generator-patterns-at-scalp-elicited-by-lateralized-aversive-pictures-reveal-blunted-emotional-responsivity
#12
Jürgen Kayser, Craig E Tenke, Karen S Abraham, Daniel M Alschuler, Jorge E Alvarenga, Jamie Skipper, Virginia Warner, Gerard E Bruder, Myrna M Weissman
Behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence suggests that major depression (MDD) involves right parietotemporal dysfunction, a region activated by arousing affective stimuli. Building on prior event-related potential (ERP) findings (Kayser et al. 2016 NeuroImage 142:337-350), this study examined whether these abnormalities also characterize individuals at clinical high risk for MDD. We systematically explored the impact of family risk status and personal history of depression and anxiety on three distinct stages of emotional processing comprising the late positive potential (LPP)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391639/temporal-properties-of-colour-opponent-receptive-fields-in-the-cat-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#13
Péter Kóbor, Zoltán Petykó, Ildikó Telkes, Paul R Martin, Péter Buzás
The primordial form of mammalian colour vision relies on opponent interactions between inputs from just two cone types, "blue" (S-) and "green" (ML-) cones. We recently described the spatial receptive field structure of colour opponent blue-ON cells from the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats. Functional inputs from the opponent cone types were spatially coextensive and equally weighted, supporting their high chromatic and low achromatic sensitivity. Here, we studied relative cone weights, temporal frequency tuning and visual latency of cat blue-ON cells and non-opponent achromatic cells to temporally modulated cone-isolating and achromatic stimuli...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389654/in-vivo-evidence-of-functional-and-anatomical-stripe-based-subdivisions-in-human-v2-and-v3
#14
Serge O Dumoulin, Ben M Harvey, Alessio Fracasso, Wietske Zuiderbaan, Peter R Luijten, Brian A Wandell, Natalia Petridou
Visual cortex contains a hierarchy of visual areas. The earliest cortical area (V1) contains neurons responding to colour, form and motion. Later areas specialize on processing of specific features. The second visual area (V2) in non-human primates contains a stripe-based anatomical organization, initially defined using cytochrome-oxidase staining of post-mortem tissue. Neurons in these stripes have been proposed to serve distinct functional specializations, e.g. processing of color, form and motion. These stripes represent an intermediate stage in visual hierarchy and serve a key role in the increasing functional specialization of visual areas...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388471/extending-the-stabilized-supralinear-network-model-for-binocular-image-processing
#15
Ben Selby, Bryan Tripp
The visual cortex is both extensive and intricate. Computational models are needed to clarify the relationships between its local mechanisms and high-level functions. The Stabilized Supralinear Network (SSN) model was recently shown to account for many receptive field phenomena in V1, and also to predict subtle receptive field properties that were subsequently confirmed in vivo. In this study, we performed a preliminary exploration of whether the SSN is suitable for incorporation into large, functional models of the visual cortex, considering both its extensibility and computational tractability...
March 18, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383178/endoscopic-endonasal-nasopharyngectomy-tensor-veli-palatine-muscle-as-a-landmark-for-the-parapharyngeal-internal-carotid-artery
#16
Chiung-Lin Liu, Ning-I Hsu, Ping-Hung Shen
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy(EEN) can be a promising option for select patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but serious complications can occur in terms of parapharyngeal internal carotid artery (PPICA) injury. Several landmarks have been proposed for locating the PPICA. In this study, we investigated the spatial relationship between the tensor veli palatini (TVP) muscle and the PPICA in a cadaveric model. METHODS: Seven fresh cadaver heads were available for anatomic study...
April 6, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369938/40-mhz-high-frequency-ultrafast-ultrasound-imaging
#17
Chih-Chung Huang, Pei-Yu Chen, Po-Hsun Peng, Po-Yang Lee
PURPOSE: Ultrafast high-frame-rate ultrasound imaging based on coherent-plane-wave compounding has been developed for many biomedical applications. Most coherent-plane-wave compounding systems typically operate at 3-15 MHz, and the image resolution for this frequency range is not sufficient for visualizing microstructure tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to implement a high-frequency ultrafast ultrasound imaging operating at 40 MHz. METHODS: The plane-wave compounding imaging and conventional multifocus B-mode imaging were performed using the Field II toolbox of MATLAB in simulation study...
March 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368999/evaluation-of-a-novel-visual-field-analyzer-application-for-automated-classification-of-glaucoma-severity
#18
Renato A S Germano, Carlos Gustavo de Moraes, Remo Susanna, Daniel O Dantas, Edson D S Neto
PURPOSE: To describe the Glaucoma Staging Application (GSA), a new application for automated classification of visual field (VF) severity that can be used in any Humphrey perimeters. We also tested and validated its performance in staging glaucomatous VFs defects and assessed its reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The GSA is based upon the modified University of São Paulo Glaucoma Visual Field Staging System, and consists of 3 sections: severity based on the visual field index; defect location based on eccentricity; and extent of topographic damage by hemifields...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358554/attenuated-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-metaphor-processing-among-adults-with-adhd
#19
Dorit Segal, Lilach Shalev, Nira Mashal
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the hemispheric processing of metaphors in adults with ADHD compared to controls. METHOD: We investigated the hemispheric processing of metaphors in 24 adult participants diagnosed with ADHD and 24 control participants. The hemispheric processing was examined using a divided visual field paradigm, in which different kinds of metaphors as well as literal word pairs and unrelated word pairs were presented either to the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) or to the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH)...
March 30, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356369/the-independence-of-eye-movements-in-a-stomatopod-crustacean-is-task-dependent
#20
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Nicholas W Roberts
Stomatopods have an extraordinary visual system, incorporating independent movement of their eyes in all three degrees of rotational freedom. In this work, we demonstrate that in the peacock mantis shrimp, Odontodactylus scyllarus, the level of ocular independence is task dependent. During gaze stabilization in the context of optokinesis, there is weak but significant correlation between the left and right eyes in the yaw degree of rotational freedom, but not in pitch and torsion. When one eye is completely occluded, the uncovered eye does not drive the covered eye during gaze stabilization...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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