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Lateralization visual field

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#1
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906486/the-fractional-occupation-number-weighted-density-as-a-versatile-analysis-tool-for-molecules-with-a-complicated-electronic-structure
#2
Christoph Alexander Bauer, Andreas Hansen, Stefan Grimme
The fractional occupation number weighted density (FOD) analysis is explored as a general theoretical diagnostic for complicated electronic structures. Its main feature is to provide robustly and fast the information where 'hot' (strongly correlated and chemically active) electrons are localized in a molecule. We demonstrate its usage in four different prototypical applications: (i) As a new and fast measure for the biradical character of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, (ii) for the selection of active orbital spaces in multiconfigurational or complete active space self consistent field (MCSCF/CASSCF) treatments, (iii) as a possibility to consistently describe molecular energy landscapes in regions with varying biradical character as exemplified by partial double bond torsions, and (iv) as a powerful visualization method for static electron correlation effects in large biomolecules in connection with an efficient semi-empirical tight-binding molecular orbital scheme...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905341/heidenhain-variant-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-patient-who-had-bovine-bioprosthetic-valve-implantation
#3
Jehard Hashoul, Waleed Saliba, Irina Bloch, Haneen Jabaly-Habib
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, general neurologic deterioration, and death. When the leading symptoms are visual disturbances, it is termed as the Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD). CJD was reported following prion-contaminated pericardium transplants but never after bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve. In this case report, we describe HvCJD in a patient who had a bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve implant. An 82-year-old-woman was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained visual loss that started 1 month previously...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903724/a-comparison-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-awake-and-anesthetized-mice
#4
Séverine Durand, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Kenji Mizuseki, Saskia de Vries, Stefan Mihalas, R Clay Reid
: The cerebral cortex of the mouse has become one of the most important systems for studying information processing and the neural correlates of behavior. Multiple studies have examined the first stages of visual cortical processing: primary visual cortex (V1) and its thalamic inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but more rarely in the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in mice. Multiple single-unit surveys of dLGN and V1, both with electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging, have described receptive fields in anesthetized animals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903703/retinal-and-non-retinal-contributions-to-extraclassical-surround-suppression-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#5
Tucker G Fisher, Henry J Alitto, W Martin Usrey
: Extraclassical surround suppression is a prominent receptive field property of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus, influencing stimulus size tuning, response gain control, and temporal features of visual responses. Despite evidence for the involvement of both retinal and non-retinal circuits in the generation of extraclassical suppression, we lack an understanding of the relative roles played by these pathways and how they interact during visual stimulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899890/causal-role-of-thalamic-interneurons-in-brain-state-transitions-a-study-using-a-neural-mass-model-implementing-synaptic-kinetics
#6
Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya, Thomas P Bond, Louise O'Hare, Daniel Turner, Simon J Durrant
Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN) receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20-25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896006/ultrahigh-speed-phase-sensitive-full-field-interferometric-confocal-microscopy-for-quantitative-microscale-physiology
#7
Ikbal Sencan, Brendan K Huang, Yong Bian, Emily Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Hui Cao, Michael Choma
We developed ultra-high-speed, phase-sensitive, full-field reflection interferometric confocal microscopy (FFICM) for the quantitative characterization of in vivo microscale biological motions and flows. We demonstrated 2D frame rates in excess of 1 kHz and pixel throughput rates up to 125 MHz. These fast FFICM frame rates were enabled by the use of a low spatial coherence, high-power laser source. Specifically, we used a dense vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array that synthesized low spatial coherence light through a large number of narrowband, mutually-incoherent emitters...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881778/attentive-motion-discrimination-recruits-an-area-in-inferotemporal-cortex
#8
Heiko Stemmann, Winrich A Freiwald
: Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874037/visualizing-epithelial-expression-of-egfr-in-vivo-with-distal-scanning-side-viewing-confocal-endomicroscope
#9
Xiyu Duan, Haijun Li, Juan Zhou, Quan Zhou, Kenn R Oldham, Thomas D Wang
Confocal endomicroscopy is an emerging imaging technology that has recently been introduced into the clinic to instantaneously collect "optical biopsies" in vivo with histology-like quality. Here, we demonstrate a fast scanner located in the distal end of a side-viewing instrument using a compact lens assembly with numerical aperture of 0.5 to achieve a working distance of 100 μm and field-of-view of 300 × 400 μm(2). The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror was designed based on the principle of parametric resonance and images at 5 frames per second...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870909/variability-of-rheotaxis-behaviors-in-larval-bullfrogs-highlights-species-diversity-in-lateral-line-function
#10
Erika E A Brown, Andrea Megela Simmons
The morphology and distribution of lateral line neuromasts vary between ecomorphological types of anuran tadpoles, but little is known about how this structural variability contributes to differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors. Previous research identified distinct differences in one such behavior, positive rheotaxis towards the source of a flow, in two tadpole species, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; type 1) and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana; type 4). Because these two species had been tested under different flow conditions, we re-evaluated these findings by quantifying flow-sensing behaviors of bullfrog tadpoles in the same flow field in which X...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870352/membranous-support-for-eyes-of-strepsirrhine-primates-and-fruit-bats
#11
Brianna M Harvey, Kunwar P Bhatnagar, Robert J Schenck, Alfred L Rosenberger, Susan J Rehorek, Anne M Burrows, Valerie B DeLeon, Timothy D Smith
Living primates have relatively large eyes and support orbital tissues with a postorbital bar (POB) and/or septum. Some mammals with large eyes lack a POB, and presumably rely on soft tissues. Here, we examined the orbits of four species of strepsirrhine primates (Galagidae, Cheirogaleidae) and three species of fruit bats (Pteropodidae). Microdissection and light microscopy were employed to identify support structures of the orbit. In bats and primates, there are two layers of fascial sheets that border the eye laterally...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864264/reproductive-success-through-high-pollinator-visitation-rates-despite-self-incompatibility-in-an-endangered-wallflower
#12
Miranda K Melen, Julie A Herman, Jessica Lucas, Rachel E O'Malley, Ingrid M Parker, Aaron M Thom, Justen B Whittall
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Self incompatibility (SI) in rare plants presents a unique challenge-SI protects plants from inbreeding depression, but requires a sufficient number of mates and xenogamous pollination. Does SI persist in an endangered polyploid? Is pollinator visitation sufficient to ensure reproductive success? Is there evidence of inbreeding/outbreeding depression? We characterized the mating system, primary pollinators, pollen limitation, and inbreeding/outbreeding depression in Erysimum teretifolium to guide conservation efforts...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852018/-functional-parcellation-of-frontal-higher-order-motor-cortex
#13
Hajime Mushiake, Keisetsu Shima
Motor areas in the frontal cortex are classified into medial and lateral functional groups. The dorsal premotor areas in the lateral groups are involved in motor guidance based on behavioral rules. The ventral premotor cortex contributes to motor guidance relying on spatial aspects of sensory information. The supplementary motor complex in the medial groups is related to the bimanual and temporal organization of multiple motor acts. The cingulate motor area is involved in motor control based on reward-prediction errors...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847468/synaptic-organization-of-microglomerular-clusters-in-the-lateral-and-medial-bulbs-of-the-honeybee-brain
#14
Theo Mota, Sabine Kreissl, Ana Carrasco Durán, Damien Lefer, Giovanni Galizia, Martin Giurfa
The honeybee Apis mellifera is an established model for the study of visual orientation. Yet, research on this topic has focused on behavioral aspects and has neglected the investigation of the underlying neural architectures in the bee brain. In other insects, the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU), the lateral (LX) and the central complex (CX) are important brain regions for visuospatial performances. In the central brain of the honeybee, a prominent group of neurons connecting the AOTU with conspicuous microglomerular synaptic structures in the LX has been recently identified, but their neural organization and ultrastructure have not been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843911/immunoglobulin-g4-related-ophthalmic-disease-involving-the-sclera-misdiagnosed-as-intraocular-tumor-report-of-one-case
#15
Hiroshi Goto, Shunichiro Ueda
AIMS: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is known to have diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease misdiagnosed as intraocular tumor. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 41-year-old man was referred to our department with a diagnosis of intraocular tumor, presumably choroidal melanoma. Although MR imaging was compatible with choroidal melanoma, he had been observed periodically without treatment because fundus findings were not typical of melanoma and visual function was preserved...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843696/position-selectivity-in-face-sensitive-visual-cortex-to-facial-and-nonfacial-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#16
David F Nichols, Lisa R Betts, Hugh R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evidence for position sensitivity in object-selective visual areas has been building. On one hand, most of the relevant studies have utilized stimuli for which the areas are optimally selective and examine small sections of cortex. On the other hand, visual field maps established with nonspecific stimuli have been found in increasingly large areas of visual cortex, though generally not in areas primarily responsive to faces. METHODS: fMRI was used to study the position sensitivity of the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA) to both standard rotating wedge retinotopic mapping stimuli and quadrant presentations of synthetic facial stimuli...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832270/transverse-chromatic-aberration-across-the-visual-field-of-the-human-eye
#17
Simon Winter, Ramkumar Sabesan, Pavan Tiruveedhula, Claudio Privitera, Peter Unsbo, Linda Lundström, Austin Roorda
The purpose of this study was to measure the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) across the visual field of the human eye objectively. TCA was measured at horizontal and vertical field angles out to ±15° from foveal fixation in the right eye of four subjects. Interleaved retinal images were taken at wavelengths 543 nm and 842 nm in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To obtain true measures of the human eye's TCA, the contributions of the AOSLO system's TCA were measured using an on-axis aligned model eye and subtracted from the ocular data...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824897/functional-plasticity-after-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-infarction-in-human-positron-emission-tomography
#18
Sandra Becker-Bense, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Bernhard Baier, Mathias Schreckenberger, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Zwergal, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806782/-modified-minimally-invasive-video-assisted-lateral-neck-dissection-for-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-series-of-130-cases
#19
D G Zhang, L Gao, L Xie, G F He, L Fang, J Chen, Y W Miao, Z Z Wang
Objective: To discuss the feasibility, safety and oncologic completeness of modified minimally invasive video-assisted lateral neck dissection (MIVALND) for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Data of 130 patients from Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical School, Zhejiang University undergoing MIVALND from January 2013 to September 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 31 male and 99 female patients with the mean age of (39±11) years. The thyroidectomy and central compartment dissection were performed under a direct visual field or video-assisted (VA) approach, lateral neck dissection was performed via the VA approach...
November 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798177/synaptic-contributions-to-receptive-field-structure-and-response-properties-in-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#20
Vandana Suresh, Ulaş M Çiftçioğlu, Xin Wang, Brittany M Lala, Kimberly R Ding, William A Smith, Friedrich T Sommer, Judith A Hirsch
: Comparative physiological and anatomical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of sensory systems. Many lines of evidence show that the murine lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has unique attributes, compared with other species such as cat and monkey. For example, in rodent, thalamic receptive field structure is markedly diverse, and many cells are sensitive to stimulus orientation and direction. To explore shared and different strategies of synaptic integration across species, we made whole-cell recordings in vivo from the murine LGN during the presentation of visual stimuli, analyzed the results with different computational approaches, and compared our findings with those from cat...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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