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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815393/pattern-noise-pano-a-new-automated-functional-glaucoma-test
#1
Sylvain El-Khoury, Thomas Hannen, Diana Carmen Dragnea, Faustin Ngounou, Paul-Rolf Preußner
PURPOSE: To present a newly developed visual field device (pattern noise: PANO) designed to be sensitive to glaucoma defects, cost-effective, material-practical and easy to repair and therefore particularly suited for low-income countries, where glaucoma can be highly prevalent (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa). METHODS: This is primarily a descriptive paper, but it also includes a prospective matched case-control pilot study. Hardware, stimulus, target configuration, testing strategy and result sheet are described...
August 16, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808799/transorbital-endoscopic-approach-for-exposure-of-the-sylvian-fissure-middle-cerebral-artery-and-crural-cistern-an-anatomical-study
#2
João Paulo Almeida, Armando S Ruiz-Treviño, Sathwik R Shetty, Sacit B Omay, Vijay K Anand, Theodore H Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The availability of minimal access instrumentation and endoscopic visualization has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive skull base surgery. The transorbital endoscopic approach using an eyelid incision has been proposed as a new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of skull base pathology, mostly extradural tumors. Our study aims to evaluate the anatomical aspects and potential role of the transorbital endoscopic approach for exposure of the sylvian fissure, middle cerebral artery and crural cistern...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803949/measuring-temporal-summation-in-visual-detection-with-a-single-photon-source
#3
Rebecca Holmes, Michelle Victora, Ranxiao Frances Wang, Paul G Kwiat
Temporal summation is an important feature of the visual system which combines visual signals that arrive at different times. Previous research estimated complete summation to last for 100 ms for stimuli judged "just detectable." We measured the full range of temporal summation for much weaker stimuli using a new paradigm and a novel light source, developed in the field of quantum optics for generating small numbers of photons with precise timing characteristics and reduced variance in photon number. Dark-adapted participants judged whether a light was presented to the left or right of their fixation in each trial...
August 10, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797898/lateralization-of-spatial-rather-than-temporal-attention-underlies-the-left-hemifield-advantage-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#4
Dariusz Asanowicz, Lena Kruse, Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Rolf Verleger
In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting...
August 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781051/an-exceptionally-preserved-three-dimensional-armored-dinosaur-reveals-insights-into-coloration-and-cretaceous-predator-prey-dynamics
#5
Caleb M Brown, Donald M Henderson, Jakob Vinther, Ian Fletcher, Ainara Sistiaga, Jorsua Herrera, Roger E Summons
Predator-prey dynamics are an important evolutionary driver of escalating predation mode and efficiency, and commensurate responses of prey [1-3]. Among these strategies, camouflage is important for visual concealment, with countershading the most universally observed [4-6]. Extant terrestrial herbivores free of significant predation pressure, due to large size or isolation, do not exhibit countershading. Modern predator-prey dynamics may not be directly applicable to those of the Mesozoic due to the dominance of very large, visually oriented theropod dinosaurs [7]...
July 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753397/lateral-meniscal-allograft-transplant-via-a-medial-approach-leads-to-less-extrusion
#6
Nam-Hong Choi, Jeong-Ki Choi, Bong-Seok Yang, Doe-Hyun Lee, Brian N Victoroff
BACKGROUND: Accurate positioning of the bony bridge is crucial to prevent extrusion of meniscal allografts after transplant. However, oblique or lateralized placement of the bony bridge of the lateral meniscal allograft may occur due to technical error or a limited visual field. The patellar tendon may be an obstacle to approaching the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus, resulting in a laterally placed allograft. Therefore, lateral meniscal transplant through a medial arthrotomy would be an alternative approach...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752567/auditory-visual-integration-modulates-location-specific-repetition-suppression-of-auditory-responses
#7
Talia Shrem, Micah M Murray, Leon Y Deouell
Space is a dimension shared by different modalities, but at what stage spatial encoding is affected by multisensory processes is unclear. Early studies observed attenuation of N1/P2 auditory evoked responses following repetition of sounds from the same location. Here, we asked whether this effect is modulated by audiovisual interactions. In two experiments, using a repetition-suppression paradigm, we presented pairs of tones in free field, where the test stimulus was a tone presented at a fixed lateral location...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733571/a-rare-case-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-cerebral-abscess-secondary-to-conjunctivitis
#8
Y K Gan, A Z Azmi, S A Ghani, A Samsudin
This case report discusses the rare association of cerebral abscess related to conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy child. A 6 year old boy presented with conjunctivitis was treated with topical antibiotics and resolved after a week. Conjunctival swab cultures grew MRSA. A month later he developed status epileptics and CT scans revealed a large cerebral abscess. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics which covered for MRSA, along with an incision and drainage for the cerebral abscess. Pus cultures grew MRSA...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733050/the-optical-imaging-of-an-idiopathic-paracentral-acute-middle-maculopathy-chinese-young-man-and-review-of-the-literatures
#9
REVIEW
Yanyan Chen, Yuedong Hu
We report a case of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy with typical optical imaging and clinical features. A 26-year-old Chinese policeman presented with a 20-day history of paracentral scotoma in the left eye after early wake-up and long-time working in front of computer the day before. He experienced sudden-onset strong flash in his left eye. Paracentral scotoma appeared in his left eye after 6hours of rest. The general history was negative. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 OU. Anterior segment, dilated fundus examination, papillary evaluation and intraocular pressure were normal...
July 18, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713816/effect-of-the-camelid-s-seminal-plasma-ovulation-inducing-factor-%C3%AE-ngf-a-kisspeptin-target-hypothesis
#10
REVIEW
Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709682/hemifield-coding-in-ventral-object-sensitive-areas-evidence-from-visual-hemiagnosia
#11
Johannes Rennig, Hans-Otto Karnath, Sonja Cornelsen, Helmut Wilhelm, Marc Himmelbach
Electrophysiological monkey and human neuroimaging studies have reported a lateralization of signal processing in object perception. However, it is unclear whether these results point to a unique topographically organized signal processing in either hemisphere, or if these results represent a rather negligible spatial organization of otherwise redundant object perception systems in both hemispheres. We tested a group of 10 patients with lesions to ventral object processing regions and spared primary visual functions with lateral presentations of different categories of object stimuli...
June 28, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701109/emotion-processing-in-persons-who-respond-vicariously-towards-others-in-pain-disinhibited-left-lateralized-neural-activity-for-threatening-expressions
#12
Melita J Giummarra, Govinda Poudel, P Amanda Niu, Michael E R Nicholls, Joanne Fielding, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Izelle Labuschagne
We investigated emotional processing in vicarious pain (VP) responders. VP responders report an explicit sensory and emotional feeling of pain when they witness another in pain, which is greater in magnitude than the empathic processing of pain in the general population. In Study 1, 31 participants completed a chimeric faces task, judging whether emotional chimera in the left, or right, visual field was more intense. VP responders took longer to judge emotionality than non-responders, and fixated more on the angry hemiface in the right visual field, whereas non-responder controls had no lateralized fixation bias...
July 12, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700578/a-novel-mechanism-for-mechanosensory-based-rheotaxis-in-larval-zebrafish
#13
Pablo Oteiza, Iris Odstrcil, George Lauder, Ruben Portugues, Florian Engert
When flying or swimming, animals must adjust their own movement to compensate for displacements induced by the flow of the surrounding air or water. These flow-induced displacements can most easily be detected as visual whole-field motion with respect to the animal's frame of reference. Despite this, many aquatic animals consistently orient and swim against oncoming flows (a behaviour known as rheotaxis) even in the absence of visual cues. How animals achieve this task, and its underlying sensory basis, is still unknown...
July 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678316/resting-state-functional-thalamic-connectivity-abnormalities-in-patients-with-post-stroke-sleep-apnoea-a-pilot-case-control-study
#14
M L Sacchetti, M T Di Mascio, E Tinelli, C Mainero, G Russo, M Fiorelli, V Calistri, C de Lena, A Minni, F Caramia
OBJECTIVE: Sleep apnoea is common after stroke, and has adverse effects on the clinical outcome of affected cases. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are only partially known. Increases in brain connectivity after stroke might influence networks involved in arousal modulation and breathing control. The aim of this study was to investigate the resting state functional MRI thalamic hyper-connectivity of stroke patients affected by sleep apnoea (SA) with respect to cases not affected, and to healthy controls (HC)...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674177/retinotopic-organization-of-scene-areas-in-macaque-inferior-temporal-cortex
#15
Michael J Arcaro, Margaret S Livingstone
Primates have specialized domains in inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are responsive to particular image categories. Though IT traditionally has been regarded as lacking retinotopy, several recent studies in monkeys have shown that retinotopic maps extend to face patches along the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and neighboring regions of IT cortex. Here, we used fMRI to map the retinotopic organization of medial ventral temporal cortex in four monkeys (2 male and 2 female). We confirm the presence of visual field maps within and around the lower bank of the STS and extend these prior findings to scene-selective cortex in the ventral-most regions of IT...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667266/noninvasive-spatiotemporal-imaging-of-neural-transmission-in-the-subcortical-visual-pathway
#16
Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Ayako Onodera, Tetsu Goto, Hisato Sugata, Shiro Yorifuji
Spatiotemporal signal transmission in the human subcortical visual pathway has not been directly demonstrated to date. To delineate this signal transmission noninvasively, we investigated the early latency components between 45 ms (P45m) and 75 ms (N75m) of visually-evoked neuromagnetic fields (VEFs). Four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Hemi-visual field light flash stimuli were delivered a total of 1200 times. Neuromagnetic responses were measured with a 160-channel whole-head gradiometer...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665478/phacoemulsification-outcomes-with-different-illumination-techniques
#17
Juan B Yepez, Felipe A Murati, Félix García, Vivian Calderon, Jazmin Cedeño de Yepez, J Fernando Arévalo
PURPOSE: To compare surgeon experience and the outcomes of phacoemulsification using 2 different illumination techniques for cataract extraction. METHODS: A prospective interventional case series was performed on 20 consecutive patients (20 eyes) with senile cataract who underwent phacoemulsification enhanced with a 23-G endoillumination probe. The main outcome measures were the surgeon's perception of depth of field and quality of visibility of intraocular structures, ease of performance of the surgical procedure, effectiveness, and complications related to the procedure...
June 26, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663887/structured-illumination-multimodal-3d-resolved-quantitative-phase-and-fluorescence-sub-diffraction-microscopy
#18
Shwetadwip Chowdhury, Will J Eldridge, Adam Wax, Joseph A Izatt
Sub-diffraction resolution imaging has played a pivotal role in biological research by visualizing key, but previously unresolvable, sub-cellular structures. Unfortunately, applications of far-field sub-diffraction resolution are currently divided between fluorescent and coherent-diffraction regimes, and a multimodal sub-diffraction technique that bridges this gap has not yet been demonstrated. Here we report that structured illumination (SI) allows multimodal sub-diffraction imaging of both coherent quantitative-phase (QP) and fluorescence...
May 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661826/ultrasound-diagnosis-of-calf-injuries
#19
REVIEW
Jacob Michael Bright, Karl B Fields, Ryan Draper
CONTEXT: The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation...
July 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660245/plasticity-in-the-structure-of-visual-space
#20
Chen Song, Andrew M Haun, Giulio Tononi
Visual space embodies all visual experiences, yet what determines the topographical structure of visual space remains unclear. Here we test a novel theoretical framework that proposes intrinsic lateral connections in the visual cortex as the mechanism underlying the structure of visual space. The framework suggests that the strength of lateral connections between neurons in the visual cortex shapes the experience of spatial relatedness between locations in the visual field. As such, an increase in lateral connection strength shall lead to an increase in perceived relatedness and a contraction in perceived distance...
May 2017: ENeuro
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