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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611603/inactivation-of-the-lateral-entorhinal-area-increases-the-influence-of-visual-cues-on-hippocampal-place-cell-activity
#1
Kristin M Scaplen, Rohan N Ramesh, Negin Nadvar, Omar J Ahmed, Rebecca D Burwell
The hippocampus is important for both navigation and associative learning. We previously showed that the hippocampus processes two-dimensional (2D) landmarks and objects differently. Our findings suggested that landmarks are more likely to be used for orientation and navigation, whereas objects are more likely to be used for associative learning. The process by which cues are recognized as relevant for navigation or associative learning, however, is an open question. Presumably both spatial and nonspatial information are necessary for classifying cues as landmarks or objects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601632/intraspecific-gestural-laterality-in-chimpanzees-and-gorillas-and-the-impact-of-social-propensities
#2
Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
A relevant approach to address the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the right-handedness/left-hemisphere language specialization of humans is to investigate both proximal and distal causes of language lateralization through the study of non-human primates' gestural laterality. We carried out the first systematic, quantitative comparison of within-subjects' and between-species' laterality by focusing on the laterality of intraspecific gestures of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) living in six different captive groups...
June 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592696/visual-working-memory-enhances-the-neural-response-to-matching-visual-input
#3
Surya Gayet, Matthias Guggenmos, Thomas B Christophel, John-Dylan Haynes, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Philipp Sterzer
Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain visual information available for subsequent goal-directed behavior. The content of VWM has been shown to affect the behavioral response to concurrent visual input, suggesting that visual representations originating from VWM and from sensory input draw upon a shared neural substrate (i.e., a sensory recruitment stance on VWM storage). Here, we hypothesized that visual information maintained in VWM would enhance the neural response to concurrent visual input that matches the content of VWM...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583882/numerosity-processing-in-early-visual-cortex
#4
Michele Fornaciai, Elizabeth M Brannon, Marty G Woldorff, Joonkoo Park
While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for representing numerical magnitudes, a recent event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrated selective neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital sites very early in the time course, suggesting the involvement of early visual cortices in numerosity processing. However, which brain area underlies such early activation is not known. Here, we tested whether numerosity-sensitive neural signatures arise from early visual cortex, aiming to localize the generator of these signals by taking advantage of the peculiar folding pattern of early occipital cortices around the calcarine sulcus, which predicts an inversion of polarity of ERPs arising from these areas when stimuli are presented in the upper versus lower visual field...
June 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578928/functional-interactions-between-newborn-and-mature-neurons-leading-to-integration-into-established-neuronal-circuits
#5
Jonathan Boulanger-Weill, Virginie Candat, Adrien Jouary, Sebastián A Romano, Verónica Pérez-Schuster, Germán Sumbre
From development up to adulthood, the vertebrate brain is continuously supplied with newborn neurons that integrate into established mature circuits. However, how this process is coordinated during development remains unclear. Using two-photon imaging, GCaMP5 transgenic zebrafish larvae, and sparse electroporation in the larva's optic tectum, we monitored spontaneous and induced activity of large neuronal populations containing newborn and functionally mature neurons. We observed that the maturation of newborn neurons is a 4-day process...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577432/psychophysical-assessment-of-koniocellular-pathway-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-versus-healthy-controls
#6
Ozgur Bulent Timucin, Elif Aktan Mutlu, Damla Timucin, Mehmet Emin Aslanci, Isil Isikligil, Mehmet Fatih Karadag, Esra Kizildag Ozbay
This study was designed to perform psychophysical assessment of koniocellular pathway in patients with schizophrenia versus healthy controls. A total of 26 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls were included. Snellen Visual Acuity Chart scores and Short Wavelength Automated Perimetry (SWAP) visual field testing including global visual field indices [mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), test time (min)], reliability parameters [false negative responses (%), false positive responses (%) and fixed losses (%)] and average threshold sensitivity [central (parafovea), peripheral area, and four quadrants] were recorded in both groups...
May 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575440/impacts-of-ocean-acidification-on-sensory-function-in-marine-organisms
#7
Molly M Ashur, Nicole K Johnston, Danielle L Dixson
Ocean acidification has been identified as a major contributor to ocean ecosystem decline, impacting the calcification, survival, and behavior of marine organisms. Numerous studies have observed altered sensory perception of chemical, auditory, and visual cues after exposure to elevated CO2. Sensory systems enable the observation of the external environment and therefore play a critical role in survival, communication, and behavior of marine organisms. This review seeks to (1) summarize the current knowledge of sensory impairment caused by ocean acidification, (2) discuss potential mechanisms behind this disruption, and (3) analyze the expected taxa differences in sensitivities to elevated CO2 conditions...
May 29, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562079/improved-visual-acuity-after-microsurgical-clipping-of-a-symptomatic-anterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-case-report
#8
Fatih Arcan, Andreas W Unterberg, Klaus Zweckberger
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery causing visual impairments are rare and preponderantly lacking in the literature. It is further under discussion, whether operative clipping or endovascular coiling might be superior in order to achieve visual recovery. We therefore present a case of a patient with progressive visual loss caused by an aneurysm of the right A1-A2 segment compressing the ipsilateral optic nerve. METHODS: A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our neurosurgical department with visual impairment of the right eye...
May 31, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560724/the-time-course-of-pupil-dilation-evoked-by-visual-sexual-stimuli-exploring-the-underlying-ans-mechanisms
#9
Johannes B Finke, Christian E Deuter, Xenia Hengesch, Hartmut Schächinger
The early processing of visual sexual stimuli shows signs of automaticity. Moreover, there is evidence for sex-specific patterns in cognitive and physiological responding to erotica. However, little is known about the time course of rapid pupillary responses to sexual stimuli and their correspondence with other measures of autonomic activity in women and men. To study pupil dilation as an implicit measure of sexual arousal at various stages of picture processing, we presented 35 heterosexual participants with pictures showing either erotic couples or single (male/female) erotic nudes, contrasted with people involved in everyday situations...
May 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554889/development-of-glutamatergic-proteins-in-human-visual-cortex-across-the-lifespan
#10
Caitlin R Siu, Simon P Beshara, David G Jones, Kathryn M Murphy
Traditionally, human primary visual cortex (V1) has been thought to mature within the first few years of life, based on anatomical studies of synapse formation, and establishment of intra- and inter-cortical connections. Human vision, however, develops well beyond the first few years. Previously, we found prolonged development of some GABAergic proteins in human V1 (Pinto et al., 2010). Yet as over 80% of synapses in V1 are excitatory, it remains unanswered if the majority of synapses regulating experience-dependent plasticity and receptive field properties develop late like their inhibitory counterparts...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541267/choroidal-melanoma-sector-melanocytosis-and-retinal-pigment-epithelial-microdetachments-in-birt-hogg-dub%C3%A3-syndrome
#11
Charlotte L Marous, Molly R Marous, R Joel Welch, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHDS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition that can predispose patients to numerous cutaneous fibrofolliculomas and other cutaneous lesions, pulmonary cysts with spontaneous pneumothorax, and multifocal renal tumors and cancer. The genetic mutations responsible for BHDS are related to tumor suppression and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Previous reports of the ocular findings in BHDS include eyelid fibrofolliculomas, "flecked chorioretinopathy," and one report of choroidal melanoma...
May 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529496/treatment-of-the-mal-de-debarquement-syndrome-a-1-year-follow-up
#12
Mingjia Dai, Bernard Cohen, Catherine Cho, Susan Shin, Sergei B Yakushin
The mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a movement disorder, occurring predominantly in women, is most often induced by passive transport on water or in the air (classic MdDS), or can occur spontaneously. MdDS likely originates in the vestibular system and is unfamiliar to many physicians. The first successful treatment was devised by Dai et al. (1), and over 330 MdDS patients have now been treated. Here, we report the outcomes of 141 patients (122 females and 19 males) treated 1 year or more ago. We examine the patient's rocking frequency, body drifting, and nystagmus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#13
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516212/anatomical-visualization-of-neural-course-and-distribution-of-anterior-ascending-aortic-plexus
#14
Tomokazu Kawashima, Fumi Sato
The aim of this study was to document the detailed anatomy of neural course and distribution on the anterior ascending aorta, to identify the high and low density areas of the anterior ascending aortic plexus for further understandings in cardiovascular surgery. The embalmed hearts of 42 elderly individuals were submacroscopically and microscopically examined, after excluding any that were macroscopically abnormal. With its origins in the anterior ascending aortic plexus, the right coronary plexus substantially innervated the right coronary artery, the right atrium and ventricle, and the sinus node...
May 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514631/the-hawk-eyed-songbird-retinal-morphology-eye-shape-and-visual-fields-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#15
Luke P Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Swallows are a unique group of songbirds because they are active-pursuit predators that execute all aspects of hunting prey in flight: search, detection, pursuit, and capture. We show that swallows have evolved a visual system that is unlike that of any other studied songbird. Swallows have a bifoveate retina that provides sharp lateral and frontal vision, an unusually long eye that enhances spatial resolution, a large posterior blind area, and a narrow binocular field. We also show that swallows and diurnal raptors (hawks and falcons) have converged on a similar visual configuration but that, interestingly, predatory songbirds that ambush prey (flycatchers) have not converged on the same suite of traits...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514458/effect-of-expedited-microneedle-assisted-photodynamic-therapy-for-field-treatment-of-actinic-keratoses-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Tatyana A Petukhova, Lauren A Hassoun, Negar Foolad, Mayanka Barath, Raja K Sivamani
Importance: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and cosmetically favorable treatment modality for actinic keratoses (AKs). However, prolonged incubation times and pain associated with treatment are burdensome to the patient and a hindrance to widespread use of PDT as standard field therapy for AK. Objective: To evaluate efficacy and pain associated with microneedle expedited PDT. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Microneedle Photodynamic Therapy II (MNPDT-II) study was a randomized, single-blinded, split-face controlled, 2-arm clinical trial...
May 17, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501539/spatiotemporal-oscillatory-dynamics-of-visual-selective-attention-during-a-flanker-task
#17
Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
The flanker task is a test of visual selective attention that has been widely used to probe error monitoring, response conflict, and related constructs. However, to date, few studies have focused on the selective attention component of this task and imaged the underlying oscillatory dynamics serving task performance. In this study, 21 healthy adults successfully completed an arrow-based version of the Eriksen flanker task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). All MEG data were pre-processed and transformed into the time-frequency domain...
May 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490152/keyhole-approach-and-neuroendoscopy-for-cerebral-aneurysms
#18
REVIEW
Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Chang Wan Oh
Treating diseases in the field of neurosurgery has progressed concomitantly with technical advances. Here, as a surgical armamentarium for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the history and present status of the keyhole approach and the use of neuroendoscopy are reviewed, including our clinical data. The major significance of keyhole approach is to expose an essential space toward a target, and to minimize brain exposure and retraction. Among several kinds of keyhole approaches, representative keyhole approaches for anterior circulation aneurysms include superciliary and lateral supraorbital, frontolateral, mini-pterional and mini-interhemispheric approaches...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488238/trans-oral-miniature-x-ray-radiation-delivery-system-with-endoscopic-optical-feedback
#19
Axel Boese, Fredrick Johnson, Till Ebert, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Christoph Arens, Michael Friebe
PURPOSE: Surgery, chemo- and/or external radiation therapy are the standard therapy options for the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Trans-oral access for the surgery reduces traumata and hospitalization time. A new trend in treatment is organ-preserving surgery. To avoid regrowth of cancer, this type of surgery can be combined with radiation therapy. Since external radiation includes healthy tissue surrounding the cancerous zone, a local and direct intraoral radiation delivery would be beneficial...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487249/combining-tdcs-with-prismatic-adaptation-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation-of-the-motor-cortex
#20
Martina Bracco, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Massimiliano Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Prismatic adaptation (PA) shifts visual field laterally and induces lateralized deviations of spatial attention. Recently, it has been suggested that prismatic goggles are also able to modulate brain excitability, with cognitive after-effects documented even in tasks not necessarily spatial in nature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test whether neuromodulatory effects obtained from tDCS and prismatic goggles could interact and induce homeostatic changes in corticospinal excitability...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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