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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337140/antioxidant-and-anti-tyrosinase-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-from-rape-bee-pollen-and-inhibitory-melanogenesis-by-camp-mitf-tyr-pathway-in-b16-mouse-melanoma-cells
#1
Liping Sun, Yan Guo, Yanxin Zhang, Yongliang Zhuang
Rape bee pollen possesses many nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its abundant nutrimental and bioactive components. In this study, free (FPE) and bound (BPE) phenolic extracts of rape bee pollen were obtained, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and composition of phenolic acids was analyzed. In vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase (TYR) activities of FPE and BPE were compared, and inhibitory melanogenesis of FPE was further evaluated. Results showed FPE and BPE contain total phenolic contents of 11...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325835/picomolar-selective-and-subtype-specific-small-molecule-inhibition-of-trpc1-4-5-channels
#2
Hussein N Rubaiy, Melanie J Ludlow, Matthias Henrot, Hannah J Gaunt, Katarina Miteva, Sin Yin Cheung, Yasuyuki Tanahashi, Nurasyikin Hamzah, Katie E Musialowski, Nicola M Blythe, Hollie L Appleby, Marc A Bailey, Lynn McKeown, Roger Taylor, Richard Foster, Herbert Waldmann, Peter Nussbaumer, Mathias Christmann, Robin S Bon, Katsuhiko Muraki, David J Beech
The concentration of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and the voltage across the plasma membrane are major determinants of cell function. Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels are known to regulate these parameters but understanding of these channels remains inadequate. Here we focus on Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 4 and 5 proteins (TRPC4 and TRPC5) which assemble as homomers or heteromerize with TRPC1 to form Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels in many mammalian cell types. Multiple roles have been suggested including in epilepsy, innate fear, pain and cardiac remodeling but limitations in tools to probe these channels have restricted progress...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314870/perillyl-alcohol-a-pleiotropic-natural-compound-suitable-for-brain-tumor-therapy-targets-free-radicals
#3
REVIEW
Aline C Gomes, Angélica L Mello, Manuel G Ribeiro, Diogo G Garcia, Clovis O Da Fonseca, Marcela D'Alincourt Salazar, Axel H Schönthal, Thereza Quirico-Santos
Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are promising natural compounds with pro-oxidant properties partly due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity owing to their activity as free radical scavengers, inhibition of coenzyme Q synthesis, activation of antioxidant-responsive elements (inducing detoxification enzymes) and induction of apoptosis. Activation of ER-stress responses generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive free radicals mainly produced during mitochondrial electron transfer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis...
March 17, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302587/transcriptomic-changes-in-cho-cells-after-adaptation-to-suspension-growth-in-protein-free-medium-analysed-by-a-species-specific-microarray
#4
Smriti Shridhar, Gerald Klanert, Norbert Auer, Inmaculada Hernandez-Lopez, Maciej M Kańduła, Matthias Hackl, Johannes Grillari, Nancy Stralis-Pavese, David P Kreil, Nicole Borth
Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred cell line for production of biopharmaceuticals. These cells are capable to grow without serum supplementation, but drastic changes in their phenotype occur during adaptation to protein-free growth, which typically include the change to a suspension phenotype with reduced growth rate. A possible approach to understand this transformation, with the intention to counteract the reduction in growth by targeted supplementation of protein-free media, is gene expression profiling...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301064/mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
P Andy Li, Xiaolin Hou, Shaocai Hao
Mitochondria play a key role in energy production, calcium homeostasis, cell survival, and death. Adverse stimulations including neurodegenerative diseases may result in mitochondrial dynamic imbalance, free radical production, calcium accumulation, intrinsic cell death pathway activation and eventually cell death. Therefore, preserving or promoting mitochondrial function is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a process by which new mitochondria are produced from existing mitochondria...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292742/fatty-acid-synthesis-intermediates-represent-novel-noninvasive-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phenethyl-isothiocyanate
#6
Krishna B Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a distinctive feature of prostate cancer, which continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. Therefore, inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an attractive strategy for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. We have shown previously that dietary feeding of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a phytochemical derived from edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, inhibits incidence and burden of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286305/yipf1-yipf2-and-yipf6-are-medial-trans-golgi-and-trans-golgi-network-localized-yip-domain-family-proteins-which-play-a-role-in-the-golgi-reassembly-and-glycan-synthesis
#7
Jeerawat Soonthornsit, Noriko Sakai, Yurika Sasaki, Ryota Watanabe, Shiho Osako, Nobuhiro Nakamura
In this study, we attempted to explore the function of three uncharacterized mammalian homologs of yeast Yip domain family proteins-YIPF6, a homolog of Yip1p, and YIPF1 and YIPF2, which are homologs of Yif1p. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that YIPF1, YIPF2, and YIPF6 mainly localize in the medial-/trans-Golgi and also partially in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). On treatment with brefeldin A (BFA), the homologs co-migrated partly with medial-/trans-Golgi markers and also with a TGN marker in earlier time point, but finally redistributed within cytoplasmic punctate structures that were distinct from medial-/trans-Golgi and the TGN markers...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279077/translesion-dna-polymerases-in-eukaryotes-what-makes-them-tick
#8
Alexandra Vaisman, Roger Woodgate
Life as we know it, simply would not exist without DNA replication. All living organisms utilize a complex machinery to duplicate their genomes and the central role in this machinery belongs to replicative DNA polymerases, enzymes that are specifically designed to copy DNA. "Hassle-free" DNA duplication exists only in an ideal world, while in real life, it is constantly threatened by a myriad of diverse challenges. Among the most pressing obstacles that replicative polymerases often cannot overcome by themselves are lesions that distort the structure of DNA...
March 9, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266026/optimizing-cell-free-protein-expression-in-cho-assessing-small-molecule-mass-transfer-effects-in-various-reactor-configurations
#9
Chariz Peñalber-Johnstone, Xudong Ge, Kevin Tran, Nicholas Selock, Neha Sardesai, Chandrasekhar Gurramkonda, Manohar Pilli, Michael Tolosa, Leah Tolosa, Yordan Kostov, Douglas D Frey, Govind Rao
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an ideal platform for rapid and convenient protein production. However, bioreactor design remains a critical consideration in optimizing protein expression. Using turbo green fluorescent protein (tGFP) as a model, we tracked small molecule components in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) CFPS system to optimize protein production. Here, three bioreactors in continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) format were characterized. A GFP optical sensor was built to monitor the product in real-time...
March 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263884/comparison-of-whole-animal-costs-of-protein-synthesis-among-polar-and-temperate-populations-of-the-same-species-of-gammarid-amphipod
#10
S P S Rastrick, N M Whiteley
Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate...
March 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260165/l-arginine-promotes-protein-synthesis-and-cell-growth-in-brown-adipocyte-precursor-cells-via-the-mtor-signal-pathway
#11
Xi Ma, Meng Han, Defa Li, Shengdi Hu, Kyler R Gilbreath, Fuller W Bazer, Guoyao Wu
L-Arginine has been reported to enhance brown adipose tissue developments in fetal lambs of obese ewes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that L-arginine stimulates growth and development of brown adipocyte precursor cells (BAPCs) through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling. BAPCs isolated from fetal lambs at day 90 of gestation were incubated   for 6 h in arginine-free DMEM, and then cultured in DMEM with concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 500 or 1000 μmol L-arginine/L for 24-96 h...
March 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260110/inhibitory-effect-of-emodin-on-fatty-acid-synthase-colon-cancer-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#12
Kyung Ha Lee, Myung Sun Lee, Eun Young Cha, Ji Young Sul, Jin Sun Lee, Jin Su Kim, Jun Beom Park, Ji Yeon Kim
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key anabolic enzyme for de novo fatty acid synthesis, which is important in the development of colon carcinoma. The high expression of FASN is considered a promising molecular target for colon cancer therapy. Emodin, a naturally occurring anthraquinone, exhibits an anticancer effect in various types of human cancer, including colon cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Cell viability was evaluated using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay. The apoptosis rate of cells was quantified via flow cytometry following Annexin V/propidium iodide staining...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251976/-recombinant-small-heat-shock-protein-from-acholeplasma-laidlawii-increases-the-escherichia-coli-viability-in-thermal-stress-by-selective-protein-rescue
#13
A R Kayumov, M I Bogachev, V A Manuvera, V N Lazarev, A V Sabantsev, T O Artamonova, S N Borchsenius, I E Vishnyakov
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the survival at temperatures considerably exceeding the optimum is supported by intense synthesis of the so-called heat shock proteins (HSPs), which act to overcome the adverse effects of heat stress. Among mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), which have significantly reduced genomes, only some members of the Acholeplasmataceae family possess small HSPs of the α-crystallin type. Overproduction of a recombinant HSP IbpA (Hsp20) from the free-living mycoplasma Acholeplasma laidlawii was shown to increase the resistance of Escherichia coli to short-term heat shock...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238262/cell-free-protein-synthesis-approach-to-biosensing-htr%C3%AE-specific-endocrine-disruptors
#14
Amin S M Salehi, Miriam J Shakalli Tang, Mark T Smith, Jeremy M Hunt, Robert A Law, David W Wood, Bradley C Bundy
Here we introduce a Rapid Adaptable Portable In vitro Detection biosensor platform (RAPID) for detecting ligands that interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). The RAPID platform can be adapted for field use, allowing rapid evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) presence or absence in environmental samples, and can also be applied for drug screening. The biosensor is based on an engineered, allosterically activated fusion protein, which contains the ligand binding domain from a target NHR (human thyroid receptor β in this work)...
March 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215509/triphenylphosphonium-modified-poly-ethylene-glycol-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-micelles-for-mitochondria-targeted-gambogic-acid-delivery
#15
Yingqi Xu, Shengpeng Wang, Hon Fai Chan, Yuling Liu, Hui Li, Chengwei He, Zeyong Li, Meiwan Chen
Mitochondria are important targets for the intracellular delivery of drugs and DNA. For mitochondria-targeted delivery, a mitochondriotropic molecule, triphenylphosphonium (TPP), was applied to the synthesis of amphiphilic TPP-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (TPP-PEG-PCL) polymers. The TPP-PEG-PCL polymer was used to prepare micelles using a solvent evaporation method for the delivery of gambogic acid (GA) (GA-TPP). The micelles were obtained with a favorable particle size of 150.07±11.71nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 80...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208246/combined-proteome-and-eicosanoid-profiling-approach-for-revealing-implications-of-human-fibroblasts-in-chronic-inflammation
#16
Ammar Tahir, Andrea Bileck, Besnik Muqaku, Laura Niederstaetter, Dominique Kreutz, Rupert L Mayer, Denise Wolrab, Samuel M Meier, Astrid Slany, Christopher Gerner
During inflammation, proteins and lipids act in a concerted fashion, calling for combined analyses. Fibroblasts are powerful mediators of chronic inflammation. However, little is known about eicosanoid formation by human fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the formation of the most relevant inflammation mediators including proteins and lipids in human fibroblasts upon inflammatory stimulation and subsequent treatment with dexamethasone, a powerful antiphlogistic drug. Label-free quantification was applied for proteome profiling, while an in-house established data-dependent analysis method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was applied for eicosadomics...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207247/ortho-methoxyphenols-as-convenient-oxidative-bioconjugation-reagents-with-application-to-site-selective-heterobifunctional-cross-linkers
#17
Adel M ElSohly, James I MacDonald, Nina B Hentzen, Ioana L Aanei, Kareem M El Muslemany, Matthew B Francis
The synthesis of complex protein-based bioconjugates has been facilitated greatly by recent developments in chemoselective methods for biomolecular modification. The oxidative coupling of o-aminophenols or catechols with aniline functional groups is chemoselective, mild, and rapid; however, the oxidatively sensitive nature of the electron-rich aromatics and the paucity of commercial sources pose some obstacles to the general use of these reactive strategies. Herein, we identify o-methoxyphenols as air-stable, commercially available derivatives that undergo efficient oxidative couplings with anilines in the presence of periodate as oxidant...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195470/total-synthesis-confirms-the-molecular-structure-proposed-for-oxidized-levuglandin-d2
#18
Yu-Shiuan Cheng, Wenyuan Yu, Yunfeng Xu, Robert G Salomon
Levuglandins (LG)D2 and LGE2 are γ-ketoaldehyde levulinaldehyde derivatives with prostanoid side chains produced by spontaneous rearrangement of the endoperoxide intermediate PGH2 in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Covalent adduction of LGs with the amyloid peptide Aβ1-42 promotes formation of the type of oligomers that have been associated with neurotoxicity and are a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Within 1 min of their generation during the production of PGH2 by cyclooxygenation of arachidonic acid, LGs are sequestered by covalent adduction to proteins...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183860/diminished-satellite-cell-fusion-and-s6k1-expression-in-myotubes-derived-from-skeletal-muscle-of-low-birth-weight-neonatal-pigs
#19
Ying Chen, Haibo Zhu, Sydney R McCauley, Lidan Zhao, Sally E Johnson, Robert P Rhoads, Samer W El-Kadi
Low birth weight (LBWT) is consistently associated with impaired postnatal muscle growth in mammals. Satellite cell (SC)-mediated myonuclear incorporation precedes protein accumulation in the early stages of postnatal muscle development and growth. The objective of this study was to investigate proliferation and differentiation of SCs and the regulation of protein synthesis signaling in response to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I stimulation in SC-derived myotubes of LBWT neonatal pigs. SCs isolated from Longissimus dorsi muscle of LBWT and NBWT pigs (3-d-old, n = 8) were cultured and induced to proliferate and differentiate to myotubes in vitro...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183064/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-reveals-perturbation-of-lipid-metabolic-pathways-in-the-liver-of-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-treated-with-pcb-153
#20
Fekadu Yadetie, Eystein Oveland, Anne Døskeland, Frode Berven, Anders Goksøyr, Odd André Karlsen
PCB 153 is one of the most abundant PCB congeners detected in biological samples. It is a persistent compound that is still present in the environment despite the ban on production and use of PCBs in the late 1970s. It has strong tendencies to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota, and studies have suggested that it is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor. In order to study mechanisms of toxicity, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to various doses of PCB 153 (0, 0.5, 2 and 8mg/kg body weight) for two weeks and examined the effects on expression of liver proteins using label-free quantitative proteomics...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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