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electrolyte and acid-base

Sihang Zhang, Gang Sun, Yongfeng He, Runfang Fu, Yingchun Gu, Sheng Chen
Based on nanocellulose obtained by acidic swelling and ultrasonication, rod-like nanocellulose/polyaniline nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been prepared via in situ polymerization. Compared to pure polyaniline, the nanocomposites show superior film forming properties and the prepared nanocomposite films demonstrate excellent electrochemical and electrochromic properties in electrolyte solution. Nanocomposite films, especially the one prepared with 40% polyaniline coated nanocomposite, exhibited faster response time (1...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qianqian Zhang, Xiulin Li, Yang Chen, Qian Zhang, Huixue Liu, Jin Zhai, Xiaoda Yang
Based on electron and proton transfer events occurring in biological respiration, a mitochondria-based biocell is constructed by combining with artificial nanochannels. In this biocell, mitochondria transfer electrons to the working electrode and pump protons into the electrolyte through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The nanochannels provide passages for protons to transport along the transmembrane concentration gradient to consume electrons on the counter electrode, forming a continuous and stable current...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Sonja M Vidojkovic, Marko P Rakin
Deposits and scales formed on heat transfer surfaces in power plant water/steam circuits have a significant negative impact on plant reliability, availability and performance, causing tremendous economic consequences and subsequent increases in electricity cost. Consequently, the improvement of the understanding of deposition mechanisms on power generating surfaces is defined as a high priority in the power industry. The deposits consist principally of iron oxides, which are steel corrosion products and usually present in colloidal form...
August 18, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
E C Christopoulou, T D Filippatos, E Megapanou, M S Elisaf, G Liamis
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption...
April 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tobias Janoschka, Christian Friebe, Martin D Hager, Norbert Martin, Ulrich S Schubert
By combining a viologen unit and a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical in one single combi-molecule, an artificial bipolar redox-active material, 1-(4-(((1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)carbonyl)benzyl)-1'-methyl-[4,4'-bipyridine]-1,1'-diium-chloride (VIOTEMP), was created that can serve as both the anode (-0.49 V) and cathode (0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl) in a water-based redox-flow battery. While it mimics the redox states of flow battery metals like vanadium, the novel aqueous electrolyte does not require strongly acidic media and is best operated at pH 4...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
Zhifang Huang, Yan Zhao, Yuehong Song, Jingzhe Zhao
Three-dimensional (3D) Co3O4 nanoclusters were fabricated with the assistance of tetrasodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTANa4) through a one-pot wet-chemical reaction, featuring self-limiting assembly of building blocks and controlled regrowth process. The molar ratio of Co(2+) and EDTANa4 plays a key role in building initial clusters as blocks, and the amount of NaOH effects the regrowth process. A possible formation mechanism for the Co3O4 nanoclusters was proposed based on the characterization results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Fabrice Odobel, Yoann Farre, Mahfoudh Raissi, Arnaud Fihey, Yann Pellegrin, Errol Blart, Denis Jacquemin
We have prepared a series of four new diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs) based sensitizers that exhibit high molar extinction coefficients, extended absorption into the long wavelengths and well suited photoredox properties to act as sensitizers in p-DSSCs. These new DPP dyes, composed of a thienyl DPP core, are substituted on one end either by a thiophene carboxylic (Th) or a 4,4'-((phenyl)aza)dibenzoic acid as anchoring group and, on the other extremity, either by a proton or a naphthalene diimide (NDI) moiety...
April 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yang Lu, Sui Gu, Jing Guo, Kun Rui, Chunhua Chen, Sanpei Zhang, Jun Jin, Jianhua Yang, Zhaoyin Wen
Lithium sulfur battery is one of the most prospective chemistries in secondary energy storage field due to its high energy density and high theoretical capacity. However, the dissolution of polysulfides in liquid electrolytes causes shuttle effect and the rapid decay of lithium sulfur battery has greatly hindered its practical application. Herein, combination of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) interlayer on the separator is adopted to suppress the shuttle effect. We speculate that this SRGO layer plays as two roles: physically blocking the migration of polysulfide as ion selective layer and anchoring lithium polysulfide by the electronegative sulfonic group...
April 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhifeng Ye, Jia Yang, Bo Li, Lei Shi, Hengxing Ji, Li Song, Hangxun Xu
Developing cost-effective electrocatalysts with high activity and stability for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) plays an important role in modern hydrogen economy. Amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx ) has recently emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to Pt-based catalysts in HER, especially in acidic electrolytes. Here this study reports a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method to synthesize hybrid HER catalysts composed of MoSx firmly attached on entangled carbon nanotube nanospheres (MoSx /CNTs)...
April 11, 2017: Small
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Tamás Fekete, Judit Borsa, Erzsébet Takács, László Wojnárovits
Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)/acrylic acid (AAc) copolymer gels with superabsorbent properties were synthesized from aqueous solutions by radiation-initiated crosslinking. The effect of the acrylic acid content on gel properties was determined at different synthesis conditions. The partial replacement of the cellulose derivative with acrylic acid improved the gelation, leading to higher gel fraction and lower water uptake even in very low concentrations (1-5%). In the presence of acrylic acid lower dose and solute concentration was required for the gel synthesis...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hendrik Laube, Jana Boden, Roland Schneider
During the production of bio-based bulk chemicals, such as lactic acid (LA), organic impurities have to be removed to produce a ready-to-market product. A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous detection of LA and organic impurities in less than 10 min was developed. LA and organic impurities were detected using a direct UV detection method with micellar background electrolyte, which consisted of borate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. We investigated the effects of electrolyte composition and temperature on the speed, sensitivity, and robustness of the separation...
April 5, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Joseph G Ayenimo, Samuel B Adeloju
A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Pavol Ďurč, František Foret, Eva Pokojová, Lukáš Homola, Jana Skřičková, Vladimír Herout, Milan Dastych, Hana Vinohradská, Petr Kubáň
A new approach for sweat analysis used in cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis is proposed. It consists of a noninvasive skin-wipe sampling followed by analysis of target ions using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection (C4D). The skin-wipe sampling consists of wiping a defined skin area with precleaned cotton swab moistened with 100 μL deionized water. The skin-wipe sample is then extracted for 3 min into 400 μL deionized water, and the extract is analyzed directly. The developed sampling method is cheap, simple, fast, and painless, and can replace the conventional pilocarpine-induced sweat chloride test commonly applied in CF diagnosis...
March 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Le Thi Hong Gam, Frank Bo Jensen, Christian Damsgaard, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Mark Bayley
The clown knifefish is a facultative air breather, which is widely farmed in freshwater ponds in Vietnam. Here we report a very high nitrite tolerance (96h LC50 of 7.82mM) in this species and examine the effects of 1mM (LC5) and 2.5mM (LC10) ambient nitrite on haemoglobin (Hb) derivatives, electrolyte levels, acid-base status, and total body water content during 7days of exposure. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that erythrocyte methaemoglobin (metHb) reductase activity is upregulated by nitrite exposure...
March 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Christopher R Stephenson, Amy T Wang, Jason H Szostek, Sara L Bonnes, John T Ratelle, Saswati Mahapatra, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Thomas J Beckman, Christopher M Wittich
INTRODUCTION: New teaching approaches for CME are needed. In flipped classrooms, coursework is completed beforehand and applied during class time. Studies of flipped classrooms and their potential benefits in CME have not been published. We sought to develop and validate an instrument measuring flipped classroom perceptions, identify whether participation changed perceptions, and determine which flipped classroom components were perceived as most effective. METHODS: In this cross-sectional validation study, 167 participants in the Mayo Clinic's 2015 Internal Medicine Board Review course received surveys...
October 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Sari M Tähkä, Ashkan Bonabi, Ville P Jokinen, Tiina M Sikanen
This work describes aqueous and non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis on thiol-ene-based microfluidic separation devices that feature fully integrated and sharp electrospray ionization (ESI) emitters. The chip fabrication is based on simple and low-cost replica-molding of thiol-ene polymers under standard laboratory conditions. The mechanical rigidity and the stability of the materials against organic solvents, acids and bases could be tuned by adjusting the respective stoichiometric ratio of the thiol and allyl ("ene") monomers, which allowed us to carry out electrophoresis separation in both aqueous and non-aqueous (methanol- and ethanol-based) background electrolytes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Minghao Yu, Dun Lin, Haobin Feng, Yinxiang Zeng, Yexiang Tong, Xihong Lu
The voltage of carbon-based aqueous supercapacitors is limited by the water splitting reaction occurring in one electrode, generally resulting in the promising but unused potential range of the other electrode. Exploiting this unused potential range provides the possibility for further boosting their energy density. An efficient surface charge control strategy was developed to remarkably enhance the energy density of multiscale porous carbon (MSPC) based aqueous symmetric supercapacitors (SSCs) by controllably tuning the operating potential range of MSPC electrodes...
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Kunmei Gong, Shikui Guo, Kunhua Wang
Duodenal injury is a serious abdominal organ injury. Duodenal fistula is one of the most serious complications in gastrointestinal surgery, which is concerned for its critical status, difficulty in treatment and high mortality. Thoracic and abdominal compound closed injury and a small part of open injury are common causes of duodenal injury. Iatrogenic or traumatic injury, malnutrition, cancer, tuberculosis, Crohn's disease etc. are common causes of duodenal fistula, however, there has been still lacking of ideal diagnosis and treatment by now...
March 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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