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electrolyte and acid-base

Laure Fillaud, Thomas Petenzi, Justine Pallu, Benoit Piro, Giorgio Mattana, Vincent Noel
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels represent a class of materials capable of reversibly switching their morphological and physicochemical characteristics. An ultrathin poly(acrylic acid) film (ca. 6 nm) grafted onto the gate of a p-type EGOFET is studied and the correlation between the swelling state of the hydrogel and the transistor output characteristics is presented. The hydrogel-related swelling process occurring in basic medium causes an increase in threshold voltage due to the abrupt and intense increase of the negative charge density on the gate electrode...
March 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Dawn M Mills, Christopher P Martin, Stephanie M Armas, Percy Calvo-Marzal, Dmitry M Kolpashchikov, Karin Y Chumbimuni-Torres
We report a label-free universal biosensing platform for highly selective detection of long nucleic acid strands. The sensor consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) probe and two adaptor strands that form a 4J structure in the presence of a specific DNA/RNA analyte. The sensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using K3 [Fe(CN)6 ]/K4 [Fe(CN)6 ] redox couple in solution. An increase in charge transfer resistance (RCT ) was observed upon 4J structure formation, the value of which depends on the analyte length...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Joshua I Hardt, Joel S Perlmutter, Christopher J Smith, Kevin L Quick, Ling Wei, Subhasish K Chakraborty, Laura L Dugan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fullerene-based compounds are a novel class of molecules being developed for a variety of biomedical applications, with nearly 1000 publications in this area in the last 4 years alone. One such compound, the e,e,e-methanofullerene(60)-63-tris malonic acid (designated C3 ), is a potent catalytic superoxide dismutase mimetic which has shown neuroprotective efficacy in a number of animal models of neurologic disease, including Parkinsonian Macaca fascicularis monkeys...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Kolleboyina Jayaramulu, Deepak P Dubal, Bhawna Nagar, Vaclav Ranc, Ondrej Tomanec, Martin Petr, Kasibhatta Kumara Ramanatha Datta, Radek Zboril, Pedro Gómez-Romero, Roland A Fischer
The design of advanced high-energy-density supercapacitors requires the design of unique materials that combine hierarchical nanoporous structures with high surface area to facilitate ion transport and excellent electrolyte permeability. Here, shape-controlled 2D nanoporous carbon sheets (NPSs) with graphitic wall structure through the pyrolysis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are developed. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NPSs are used as the electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon-sheet-based symmetric cell shows an ultrahigh Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-area-normalized capacitance of 21...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Georgios Polychronis, Youssef S Al Jabbari, Theodore Eliades, Spiros Zinelis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to assess galvanic behavior of lingual orthodontic brackets coupled with representative types of orthodontic wires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three types of lingual brackets: Incognito (INC), In-Ovation L (IOV), and STb (STB) were combined with a stainless steel (SS) and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwire. All materials were initially investigated by scanning electron microscopy / x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) while wires were also tested by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD)...
March 6, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Katja N Adamik, Rafael Obrador, Judith Howard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL) or saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on electrolyte concentrations and acid-base parameters in healthy anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 40 client-owned dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgical procedures or diagnostic imaging. METHODS: During anaesthesia, dogs were intravenously administered 15 mL kg-1 of either HES-SAL (n = 20) or HES-BAL (n = 20) over 30-40 minutes...
January 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Jennifer L Johns, Kaitlin A Moorhead, Jing Hu, Roberta C Moorhead
Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Christian H Pfob, Matthias Eiber, Peter Luppa, Florian Maurer, Tobias Maurer, Robert Tauber, Calogero D'Alessandria, Benedikt Feuerecker, Klemens Scheidhauer, Armin Ott, Uwe Heemann, Markus Schwaiger, Christoph Schmaderer
BACKGROUND: Amino acid co-infusion for renal protection in endoradiotherapy (ERT) applied as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy (RLT) or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been shown to cause severe hyperkalemia. The pathophysiology behind the rapid development of hyperkalemia is not well understood. We hypothesized that the hyperkalemia should be associated with metabolic acidosis. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients underwent ERT...
February 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Mujan Varasteh Kia, Sharon Barone, Alicia A McDonough, Kamyar Zahedi, Jie Xu, Manoocher Soleimani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are prone to the development of metabolic alkalosis; however, the pathogenesis of this life threatening derangement remains unknown. We hypothesized that altered acid base transport machinery in the kidney collecting duct underlies the mechanism of impaired bicarbonate elimination in the CF kidney. METHODS: Balance studies in metabolic cages were performed in WT and CFTR knockout (CF) mice with the intestinal rescue in response to bicarbonate loading or salt restriction, and the expression levels and cellular distribution of acid base and electrolyte transporters in the proximal tubule, collecting duct and small intestine were examined by western blots, northern blots and/or immunofluorescence labeling...
February 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jing Lin, Zhen Cheng, Xiaoqiang Ding, Qi Qian
Acid-base and electrolyte alterations are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney failure (ESRD). The alterations become more complex as CKD advances to ESRD, leading to morbidity and mortality. Three cases are presented illustrating some key prototypic features in CKD and ESRD. Each is accompanied by discussion of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options. Newer investigational results are integrated into the existing body of knowledge. Although rigorous assessment of various dialysis prescriptions is scanty, in its current state, instituting a well thought-out, multi-pronged management plan to minimize CKD/ESRD and dialysis-related electrolyte and acid-base disruptions is appropriate...
January 26, 2018: Blood Purification
Hatice Gulcin Gumus, Miriam Illa, Laura Pla, Monica Zamora, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perinatal effects of a prenatal therapy based on intra-amniotic nutritional supplementation in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: IUGR was surgically induced in pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25 by ligating 40-50% of uteroplacental vessels of each gestational sac. At the same time, modified-parenteral nutrition solution (containing glucose, amino acids and electrolytes) was injected into the amniotic sac of nearly half of the IUGR fetuses (IUGR-T group n = 106), whereas sham injections were performed in the rest of fetuses (IUGR group n = 118)...
2018: PloS One
Ying-Qiang Zhang, Gao-Feng Shi, Bo Chen, Guo-Ying Wang, Tai-Chun Guo
Biomass-based carbon nanofibers were prepared by double-nozzle electrospinning the aqueous solution of acid treated the waste medicine Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai extraction and poly-acrylonitrile followed by thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere. The structural, constituent and surface properties of biomass-based carbon nanofibers were investigated by means of spectroscopic, microscopy, energy spectrometer and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) techniques. The results showed that the biomass-based carbon nanofibers had abundant pore structure and large specific surface area...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sadaf Hafeez, Atif Islam, Nafisa Gull, Abbas Ali, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Saba Zia, Kalsoom Anwar, Saba Urooge Khan, Tahir Jamil
Novel pH-sensitive γ-irradiated low molecular weight chitosan (CS) (pre-irradiated) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended injectable hydrogels, crosslinked with varying concentrations of glycerol, were fabricated for drug delivery application. The effect of low molecular weight irradiated CS on controlled drug release was evaluated to address the problem of higher viscosity and lower solubility of high molecular weight CS. The FTIR spectra of hydrogels depicted the presence of all the incorporated functional groups and the developed interactions (physical and chemical)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiaojie Zhang, Junhui He
We herein report a facile approach to passivate Si(100) nanowires (SiNWs) array by methylation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating as stable photoanode in aqueous electrolytes. The photoanode was stable in both acid and base electrolytes. This facile approach deals with both the dangling bond and the anti-corrosion protection of SiNWs array. A combination of microstructural characterization, photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis were employed to confirm the methyl-terminated SiNWs/PEDOT (CH3-SiNWs/PEDOT) array structure and the role of methylation in enhancing the photocurrent of SiNWs array photoanode...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Bin Yin, Shu Tang, Jiarui Sun, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiao Xu, Liangjiao Di, Zhihong Li, Yurong Hu, Endong Bao
Heat stress is exacerbated by global warming and affects human and animal health, leading to heart damage caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system, acid-base chemistry, electrolytes and respiratory alkalosis. Vitamin C scavenges excess ROS, and sodium bicarbonate maintains acid-base and electrolyte balance, and alleviates respiratory alkalosis. Herein, we explored the ability of vitamin C alone and in combination with equimolar sodium bicarbonate (Vitamin C-Na) to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSPs) to relieve heat stress in H9C2 cells...
February 13, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Richard C Semelka, Miguel Ramalho, Michael Jay, Lisa Hickey, Joseph Hickey
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the use of intravenous calcium (Ca)-/zinc (Zn)-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) for the treatment of 25 symptomatic patients diagnosed with gadolinium deposition disease (GDD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Written informed consent was obtained. Twenty-five patients (18 women; mean age, 46.8 ± 15.3 years) with a diagnosis of GDD were included. All patients had received at least 1 administration of a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent...
February 6, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Priyakshree Borthakur, Manash R Das
The semiconductor NiS2 nanoparticles with an average size of 10 ± 0.317 nm were successfully deposited on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by simple hydrothermal method. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various instrumental techniques like XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDX, HRTEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer analysis. In this study we mainly focus on the determination of the surface potential values of NiS2-rGO and CoS-rGO nanocomposite under different experimental conditions and evaluated the photodegradation efficiency towards azo dye Congo Red (CR) molecule under natural sunlight irradiation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ryo Kanzaki, Clément Guibert, Jérôme Fresnais, Véronique Peyre
HYPOTHESIS: Ionic liquids (ILs) are extremely concentrated electrolyte solutions. The ubiquitous presence of ions induces specific behaviors for chemical reactions compared to reactions in water solutions. This is also the case for the stability of colloidal dispersions, for which the DLVO model cannot be applied as the ionic strength is out of the model range. In a previous work, in the protic IL ethylammonium nitrate (doi:, we observed an unexpected influence of the pH on the stability of dispersion of maghemite nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) (pAA)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Gonzalo Pérez-Mitta, Waldemar A Marmisolle, Loïc Burr, María Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Christina Trautmann, Omar Azzaroni
During the last decade, nanofluidic devices based on solid-state nanopores and nanochannels have come into scene in materials science and will not leave anytime soon. One of the main reasons for this is the excellent control over ionic transport exerted by such devices that promises further important advances when integrated into more complex molecular devices. As a result, pH, temperature, and voltage-regulated devices have been obtained. However, nowadays, there is still a necessity for molecule-driven nanofluidic devices...
February 5, 2018: Small
Maqsood Ahmed Khan, Kevin B Patel, Mohammed Nooruddin, Garth Swanson, Louis Fogg, Ali Keshavarzian, Michael Brown
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350, approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only for constipation, combined with 1.9 L of sports drink (SD) (GatoradeR) and bisacodyl (B) is commonly used in outpatient practice for bowel preparation due to cited patient satisfaction and tolerability of this specific regimen. We aim to compare PEG-3350 (MiralaxR) with PEG-AA-based (MoviPrepR) in terms of efficacy, patient satisfaction, and the effects of these two regimen on serum electrolytes...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
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