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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135464/polybenzimidazole-mxene-composite-membranes-for-intermediate-temperature-polymer-electrolyte-membrane-fuel-cells
#1
Mingming Fei, Ruizhi Lin, Yuming Deng, Hongxi Xian, Renji Bian, Xiaole Zhang, Jigui Cheng, Chenxi Xu, Dongyu Cai
This report demonstrated the first study on the use of a new 2D nanomaterial (Mxene) for enhancing membrane performance of intermediate temperature (>100 oC) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (ITPEMFCs). In this study, a typical Ti3C2Tx-MXene was synthesized and incorporated into polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes by using a solution blending method. The composite membrane with 3wt.% Ti3C2Tx-MXene showed the proton conductivity more than 2 times higher than that of pristine PBI membrane at the temperature range of 100-170 ºC, and led to substantial increase in maximum power density of fuel cells by ~ 30% tested at 150 oC...
November 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132247/management-of-a-rare-case-with-severe-hydrofluoric-acid-burns-important-roles-of-neutralizers-and-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#2
Yuanhai Zhang, Xingang Wang, Yuezhen Liu, Xinhua Jiang, Chunjiang Ye, Liangfang Ni, Liping Zhang, Jianfen Zhang, Bin Xu, Chunmao Han
Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, is widely used in various industries and in daily life. Chemical burns caused by HF exposure occur more frequently in some regions worldwide. It has been reported that some cases with HF burns can be lethal due to the hypertoxicity of HF. In this article, we present a case of a 24-year-old worker who suffered HF burns by 53% HF solution to his face, neck, and nasal cavity. This patient quickly developed electrolyte disturbance, that is, hypocalcemia, and hypopotassemia, and myocardial injury after exposure...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125644/atomic-vacancies-control-of-pd-based-catalysts-for-enhanced-electrochemical-performance
#3
Yunpeng Zuo, Dewei Rao, Shuo Li, Tingting Li, Guilin Zhu, Shuangming Chen, Li Song, Yang Chai, Heyou Han
Structure-engineered Pd-based catalysts at the atomic level can effectively improve the catalytic performance for oxygen or small organic molecules electrocatalysis, comparable to or even superior to that of commercial Pt/C. Here, PdCuCo anisotropic structure (AS) electrocatalysts are synthesized with abundant vacancy defects on the exterior surface, which is unambiguously verified by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The PdCuCo-AS with vacancy (v-PdCuCo-AS) shows excellent electrochemical activity toward oxygen reduction (ORR) and oxidation of alcohols...
November 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115339/electro-oxidation-of-a-cobalt-based-steel-in-lioh-a-non-noble-metal-based-electro-catalyst-suitable-for-durable-water-splitting-in-an-acidic-milieu
#4
Helmut Schäfer, Karsten Küpper, Klaus Müller-Buschbaum, Diemo Daum, Martin Steinhart, Joachim Wollschläger, Ulrich Krupp, Mercedes Schmidt, Weijia Han, Johannes Stangl
The use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers is the method of choice for the conversion of solar energy when frequently occurring changes of the current load are an issue. However, this technique requires electrolytes with low pH. All oxygen evolving electrodes working durably and actively in acids contain IrOx. Due to their scarcity and high acquisition costs, noble elements like Pt, Ru and Ir need to be replaced by earth abundant elements. We have evaluated a cobalt containing steel for use as an oxygen-forming electrode in H2SO4...
November 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112381/two-players-make-a-formidable-combination-in-situ-generated-poly-acrylic-anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic-acid-2-oxirane-ethyl-ester-methyl-methacrylate-cross-linking-gel-polymer-electrolyte-toward-5-v-high-voltage-batteries
#5
Yue Ma, Jun Ma, Jingchao Chai, Zhihong Liu, Guoliang Ding, Gaojie Xu, Haisheng Liu, Bingbing Chen, Xinhong Zhou, Guanglei Cui, Liquan Chen
Electrochemical performance of high-voltage lithium batteries with high energy density is limited because of the electrolyte instability and the electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity. Hence, a cross-linking polymer network of poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) (PAMM)-based electrolyte was introduced via in situ polymerization inspired by "shuangjian hebi", which is a statement in a traditional Chinese Kungfu story similar to the synergetic effect of 1 + 1 > 2...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111277/resolution-of-ketoacidosis-in-children-with-new-onset-diabetes-evaluation-of-various-definitions
#6
Julia E von Oettingen, Erinn T Rhodes, Joseph I Wolfsdorf
AIMS: Data are sparse concerning use of serum electrolyte parameters as compared to venous blood gas (VBG) measurements to monitor acid-base status during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We explored the utility of various parameters to define DKA resolution by investigating the relationship of venous pH (vpH), anion gap (AG), serum bicarbonate (HCO3), and glucose concentration during management of DKA in children with new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). METHODS: We included all patients with NODM presenting with DKA to Boston Children's Hospital from 10/1/07-7/1/13...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111038/hybrid-composite-membranes-of-chitosan-sulfonated-polyaniline-silica-as-polymer-electrolyte-membrane-for-fuel-cells
#7
Vijayalekshmi Vijayakumar, Dipak Khastgir
A series of novel ionic cross-linked chitosan (CS) based hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by using polyaniline/nano silica (PAni/SiO2) as inorganic filler and sulfuric acid as an ionic cross-linking agent. The CS-PAni/SiO2 nanocomposites show enhanced mechanical properties and improved oxidative stabilities. These nanocomposites can be effectively used as environmental friendly proton exchange membranes. Incorporation of PAni/SiO2 into CS matrix enhances water uptake and facilitates the phase separation which enables the formation of hydrophilic domains and improves the proton transport...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102867/advanced-oxidation-of-real-sulfamethoxazole%C3%A2-trimethoprim-formulations-using-different-anodes-and-electrolytes
#8
Juan C Murillo-Sierra, Ignasi Sirés, Enric Brillas, Edgar J Ruiz-Ruiz, Aracely Hernández-Ramírez
A commercial sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim formulation has been degraded in 0.050 M Na2SO4 at pH 3.0 by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton with a 6-W UVA lamp (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF). The tests were performed in an undivided cell with an IrO2-based, Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 electrogeneration. The anode material had little effect on the accumulated H2O2 concentration...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102666/a-90-day-subchronic-gavage-toxicity-study-in-fischer-344-rats-with-3-methylfuran
#9
S Gill, M Kavanagh, W Cherry, C Bourque, D Caldwell, G Wang, G Bondy
A 90-day gavage study was conducted with 0.0, 0.02, 0.075, 0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 mg/kg bw/day dose groups of 3-methylfuran to identify a no-observed adverse effect level for hepatotoxicity and to characterize non-neoplastic effects including changes in gross anatomy, histopathology, clinical biochemistry and hematology. There were significant changes in the serum clinical biochemistry markers related to liver injury where males were more affected than the females for most parameters analysed. The serum liver injury marker γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were significantly increased in males in the 4...
November 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091806/electrochemical-fenton-based-treatment-of-tetracaine-in-synthetic-and-urban-wastewater-using-active-and-non-active-anodes
#10
Carlota Ridruejo, Francesc Centellas, Pere L Cabot, Ignasi Sirés, Enric Brillas
The electrochemical degradation of tetracaine hydrochloride has been studied in urban wastewater. Treatments in simulated matrix with similar ionic composition as well as in 0.050 M Na2SO4 were comparatively performed. The cell contained an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 electrogeneration and an anode selected among active Pt, IrO2-based and RuO2-based materials and non-active boron-doped diamond (BDD). Electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) were comparatively assessed at pH 3...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090696/defect-free-network-formation-and-swelling-behavior-in-ionic-liquid-based-electrolytes-of-tetra-arm-polymers-synthesized-using-a-michael-addition-reaction
#11
Mari Yoshitake, Yuji Kamiyama, Kengo Nishi, Nobuko Yoshimoto, Masayuki Morita, Takamasa Sakai, Kenta Fujii
The gelation mechanism of tetra-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (TetraPEG) prepolymers via a Michael addition reaction was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical reaction kinetics. The polymer network was formed by mixing two different TetraPEGs functionalized with maleimide and thiol terminal groups (TetraPEG-MA and TetraPEG-SH) in aqueous solutions, and the gelation rate was strongly dependent on the solution pH. We found that the gelation reaction can be a second-order reaction when the acid-base equilibrium of the terminal SH groups (-SH ⇆ -S(-) + H(+)) was taken into account, resulting in a quantitative estimation of the rate constant (kgel) in the current polymer solution system...
November 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084177/a-highly-flexible-supercapacitor-based-on-mno%C3%A2-rgo-nanosheets-and-bacterial-cellulose-filled-gel-electrolyte
#12
Haojie Fei, Nabanita Saha, Natalia Kazantseva, Robert Moucka, Qilin Cheng, Petr Saha
The flexible supercapacitors (SCs) of the conventional sandwich-type structure have poor flexibility due to the large thickness of the final entire device. Herein, we have fabricated a highly flexible asymmetric SC using manganese dioxide (MnO₂) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheet-piled hydrogel films and a novel bacterial cellulose (BC)-filled polyacrylic acid sodium salt-Na₂SO₄ (BC/PAAS-Na₂SO₄) neutral gel electrolyte. Apart from being environmentally friendly, this BC/PAAS-Na₂SO₄ gel electrolyte has high viscosity and a sticky property, which enables it to combine two electrodes together...
October 30, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083497/iridium-based-multimetallic-porous-hollow-nanocrystals-for-efficient-overall-water-splitting-catalysis
#13
Jianrui Feng, Fan Lv, Weiyu Zhang, Peihao Li, Kai Wang, Chao Yang, Bin Wang, Yong Yang, Jinhui Zhou, Fei Lin, Gui-Chang Wang, Shaojun Guo
The development of active and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting is mandatory for renewable energy conversion. This study reports a general method for controllable synthesis of a class of IrM (M = Co, Ni, CoNi) multimetallic porous hollow nanocrystals (PHNCs), through etching Ir-based, multimetallic, solid nanocrystals using Fe(3+) ions, as catalysts for boosting overall water splitting. The Ir-based multimetallic PHNCs show transition-metal-dependent bifunctional electrocatalytic activities for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acidic electrolyte, with IrCo and IrCoNi PHNCs being the best for HER and OER, respectively...
October 30, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075731/identification-of-ph-dependent-synergy-on-ru-mos2-interface-a-comparison-of-alkaline-and-acidic-hydrogen-evolution
#14
Jinlong Liu, Yao Zheng, Dongdong Zhu, Anthony Vasileff, Tao Ling, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Engineering bifunctional interfaces for enhanced alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) kinetics is achieved by rational coupling of Ru nanoparticles and defect-rich MoS2 nanosheets via a simple wet-chemical method. Comprehensive material characterizations, especially high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, reveal well-defined interfaces between both components, leading to interfacial synergy whereby Ru expedites water dissociation and nearby defect-rich MoS2 enables favorable hydrogen adsorption for recombination into H2...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073182/blood-parameters-as-biomarkers-in-a-salmonella-spp-disease-model-of-weaning-piglets
#15
Emili Barba-Vidal, Victor Fernando Buttow Roll, Edgar Garcia Manzanilla, Carlos Torrente, José Antonio Moreno Muñoz, José Francisco Pérez, Susana María Martín-Orúe
BACKGROUND: The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP) are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information of such indicators in the weaning pig. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of different BP as indicators in an experimental model of salmonellosis. METHODOLOGY: Seventy-two 28-day-old piglets were divided into four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement, with animals receiving or not a probiotic combination based on B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068248/diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-the-cat-recognition-and-essential-treatment
#16
Elke Rudloff
Practical relevance: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a not uncommon emergency in both newly diagnosed and poorly regulated diabetic cats. When there is a heightened metabolic rate and energy requirement due to concurrent illness, an increase in the release of glucose counter-regulatory hormones causes insulin receptor resistance, lipolysis, free fatty acid release and ketogenesis. This necessitates not only treatment to eliminate the ketosis and control blood glucose, but also investigation of concurrent illnesses...
November 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067456/effects-of-shu-gan-jian-pi-formula-on-rats-with-carbon-tetrachloride%C3%A2-induced-liver-fibrosis-using-serum-metabonomics-based-on-gas-chromatography%C3%A2-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#17
Hui Jiang, Xiu-Juan Qin, Wei-Ping Li, Rong Ma, Ting Wang, Zhu-Qing Li
Liver fibrosis is a common stage in the majority of chronic liver diseases, regardless of the etiology, and its progression may lead to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolomics, a powerful approach in systems biology, is a discipline used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the small molecule metabolites of cells at specific times and under certain conditions. The present study aimed to investigate serum metabolic changes following Shu Gan Jian Pi formula (SGJPF) treatment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced liver fibrosis in rats using gas chromatography‑time of flight mass spectrometry (GC‑TOFMS)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059613/capillary-electrophoresis-separation-of-phenethylamine-enantiomers-using-amino-acid-based-ionic-liquids
#18
Joachim Wahl, Ulrike Holzgrabe
In recent years increasing interest was drawn towards ionic liquids in analytical separation science, such as capillary electrophoresis. Ionic liquids combining tetrabutylammonium cations with chiral amino acid based anions were prepared and investigated as capillary electrophoresis background electrolyte additives for the enantioseparation of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine isomers. For the optimization of buffer pH and ionic liquid concentration a design of experiments approach was performed...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058912/quantifying-the-selective-modification-of-au-111-facets-via-electrochemical-and-electroless-treatments-for-manipulating-gold-nanorod-surface-composition
#19
Elizabeth A Fisher, Kaylyn K Leung, Jannu Casanova-Moreno, Tamiko Masuda, Jeff Young, Dan Bizzotto
Manipulating the composition of a mixed alkylthiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified gold surface using both electrochemical and electroless methods is demonstrated. Through the use of fluorophore labeled thiolated DNA and in situ fluorescence microscopy with a gold single crystal bead electrode, a procedure was developed to study and quantify the selective desorption of an alkylthiolate SAM. This method enabled a self-consistent measurement of the removal of the SAM from the 111 surface compared to the 100 surface region at various potentials...
November 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053698/simultaneous-multi-surface-anodizations-and-stair-like-reverse-biases-detachment-of-anodic-aluminum-oxides-in-sulfuric-and-oxalic-acid-electrolyte
#20
Healin Im, Seok Hwan Jeong, Dong Hyuk Park, Sunkook Kim, Young Ki Hong
After reporting on the two-step anodization, nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides (AAOs) have been widely utilized in the versatile fields of fundamental sciences and industrial applications owing to their periodic arrangement of nanopores with relatively high aspect ratio. However, the techniques reported so far, which could be only valid for mono-surface anodization, show critical disadvantages, i.e., time-consuming as well as complicated procedures, requiring toxic chemicals, and wasting valuable natural resources...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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