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electrolyte and acid-base

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622725/self-supported-biocarbon-fiber-electrode-decorated-with-molybdenum-carbide-nanoparticles-for-highly-active-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#1
Jian Xiao, Yan Zhang, Zheye Zhang, Qi-Ying Lv, Feng Jing, Kai Chi, Shuai Wang
To devise and facilely synthesize an efficient noble metal-free electrocatalyst for accelerating the sluggish kinetics in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are still a big challenge for electrolytic water splitting. Herein, we present a simple one-step approach for constructing self-supported biocarbon fiber cloth decorated with molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (BCF/Mo2C) electrodes by a direct annealing treatment of the Mo oxyanions loaded cotton T-shirt. The Mo2C nanoparticles not only serve as the catalytic active sites toward the HER but also enhance the hydrophilicity and conductivity of resultant electrodes...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622631/equilibria-model-for-ph-variations-and-ion-adsorption-in-capacitive-deionization-electrodes
#2
Ali Hemmatifar, Diego I Oyarzun, James W Palko, Steven A Hawks, Michael Stadermann, Juan G Santiago
Ion adsorption and equilibrium between electrolyte and microstructure of porous electrodes are at the heart of capacitive deionization (CDI) research. Surface functional groups are among the factors which fundamentally affect adsorption characteristics of the material and hence CDI system performance in general. Current CDI-based models for surface charge are mainly based on a fixed (constant) charge density, and do not treat acid-base equilibria of electrode microstructure including so-called micropores. We here expand current models by coupling the modified Donnan (mD) model with weak electrolyte acid-base equilibria theory...
May 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620821/administration-of-exogenous-melatonin-after-the-onset-of-systemic-inflammation-is-hardly-beneficial
#3
Lisa Brencher, Maren Oude Lansink, Katharina Effenberger-Neidnicht
Melatonin improves survival and functional impairment including hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and hypotension when administered in a prophylactic manner or early after initiation of sepsis or endotoxemia. In the present study, melatonin was given not before first symptoms of systemic inflammation became manifest. Lipopolysaccharide was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg × h to induce systemic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Melatonin (single dose 3 mg/kg × 15 min) was intravenously administered 180 and 270 min after starting of the lipopolysaccharide infusion...
June 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608260/water-electrolyte-acid-base-and-trace-elements-alterations-in-cirrhotic-patients
#4
REVIEW
Carlos G Musso, Rossina Juarez, Richard J Glassock
Chronic hepatic patients, and particularly those suffering from cirrhosis, are predisposed to different sort of water, electrolyte, acid-base, and trace elements disorders due to their altered liver function, and also to their exposition to infectious, inflammatory, oncologic, and pharmacologic variables whose combination undermines their homeostatic capability. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory, and metabolic alkalosis are the main internal milieu alterations in this group...
June 12, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607973/role-of-electrochemically-in-house-synthesized-and-functionalized-graphene-nanofillers-in-the-structural-performance-of-epoxy-matrix-composites
#5
Sumanta Kumar Sahoo, Bankim Chandra Ray, Archana Mallik
The present study focuses on the intriguing enhancement in the mechanical properties of an epoxy-based composite structure resulting from the incorporation of in-house synthesized functionalized graphene nanosheets (f-GNSs) as nanofillers. The f-GNSs were obtained by anionic electrochemical intercalation and exfoliation with 2 M H2SO4, HClO4, and HNO3 protic electrolytes. The structural properties of the as-synthesized GNSs were analyzed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The (002) and (001) lattice planes of graphene and graphene oxide are observed at around 24...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605126/tin-sulfide-based-nanohybrid-for-high-performance-anode-of-sodium-ion-batteries
#6
Jaewon Choi, Na Rae Kim, Kyungmi Lim, Kyojin Ku, Hyeon Ji Yoon, Jin Gu Kang, Kisuk Kang, Paul V Braun, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Young Soo Yun
Nanohybrid anode materials for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) based on conversion and/or alloying reactions can provide significantly improved energy and power characteristics, while suffering from low Coulombic efficiency and unfavorable voltage properties. An NIB paper-type nanohybrid anode (PNA) based on tin sulfide nanoparticles and acid-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes is reported. In 1 m NaPF6 dissolved in diethylene glycol dimethyl ether as an electrolyte, the above PNA shows a high reversible capacity of ≈1200 mAh g(-1) and a large voltage plateau corresponding to a capacity of ≈550 mAh g(-1) in the low-voltage region of ≈0...
June 12, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601772/mechanism-and-optimization-for-plasma-electrolytic-liquefaction-of-sawdust
#7
Dengke Xi, Rusen Zhou, Renwu Zhou, Xianhui Zhang, Liyi Ye, Jiangwei Li, Congcong Jiang, Qiang Chen, Guoya Sun, Qinghuo Liu, Size Yang
In this work, plasma electrolytic technology was successfully employed to achieve fast liquefaction of sawdust when polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and glycerol were used as liquefacient in the presence of the catalyst sulfuric acid. Results showed that H ions could heat the solution effectively during the plasma electrolytic liquefaction (PEL) process. The influence of some key parameters including liquefaction time, catalyst percentage, liquefacient/sawdust mass ratio, and PEG 200/glycerol molar ratio on the liquefaction yield were investigated...
May 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580076/postoperative-acute-kidney-injury
#8
REVIEW
Jung Tak Park
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Several definitions of AKI have been proposed recently, and include both increases in serum creatinine levels and decreases in urine output as diagnostic criteria. The pathophysiology of postoperative AKI is complex and involves both ischemic injury and systemic inflammation. Identifying risk factors, such as old age, underlying diabetes, heart failure, and obesity, may aid in the application of preventative methods for postoperative AKI...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574554/mesoporous-titanium-and-niobium-nitrides-as-conductive-and-stable-electrocatalyst-supports-in-acid-environments
#9
Kevin E Fritz, Peter A Beaucage, Fumiaki Matsuoka, Ulrich Wiesner, Jin Suntivich
The stability of carbon-based catalyst supports represents one of the biggest challenges for the commercialisation of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Metal nitrides are an attractive alternative to carbon-based supports, owing to their high bulk conductivity and acid stability. We report the electrochemical stability evaluation of high-surface-area metal nitrides in acidic electrolytes. Three-dimensional mesoporous titanium (TiN) and niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were prepared using block copolymer self-assembly and were evaluated without using any conductive carbon additives or a carbon-based substrate...
June 2, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573174/optimal-intake-of-clear-liquids-during-preparation-for-afternoon-colonoscopy-with-low-volume-polyethylene-glycol-plus-ascorbic-acid
#10
Masahiro Tajika, Tsutomu Tanaka, Makoto Ishihara, Yutaka Hirayama, Sachiyo Oonishi, Nobumasa Mizuno, Kazuo Hara, Susumu Hijioka, Hiroshi Imaoka, Toshihisa Fujiyoshi, Nobuhiro Hieda, Nozomi Okuno, Tsukasa Yoshida, Kenji Yamao, Vikram Bhatia, Masahiko Ando, Yasumasa Niwa
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : The standard colonoscopy preparation regimen in Japan for afternoon procedures is sequential intake of 1 L of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution containing ascorbic acid (PEG-ASC), 0.5 L of clear liquid, 0.5 L of PEG-ASC, and finally 0.25 L of clear fluids (all at a rate of 0.25 L every 15 min). However, this regimen seems poorly tolerated and complicated for many patients compared to previous regimen of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558906/carbamoylated-azithromycin-incorporated-zirconia-hybrid-monolith-for-enantioseparation-of-acidic-chiral-drugs-using-non-aqueous-capillary-electrochromatography
#11
Shuchi Dixit, Il Seung Lee, Jung Hag Park
Carbamoylated derivatives of two antibiotics, namely, clindamycin phosphate (CLIP) and erythromycin (ERY) were successfully employed as co-precursors, in combination of zirconium tetrabutoxide as a precursor, to prepare chiral organic-zirconia hybrid monoliths (i.e., CLIP-ZHMs and ERY-ZHMs, respectively) via a single-step in-situ sol-gel approach in our previous works. Their superiority over chiral organic-zirconia/silica monoliths, prepared by post-modification approach, in terms of better enantioresolution and enhanced stability inspired us to prepare ZHMs based on an another antibiotic, azithromycin (i...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544611/detection-of-nitric-oxide-from-living-cells-using-polymeric-zinc-organic-framework-derived-zinc-oxide-composite-with-conducting-polymer
#12
Min-Yeong Kim, Malenahalli Halappa Naveen, Nanjanagudu Ganesh Gurudatt, Yoon-Bo Shim
Sensitive and selective detection of nitric oxide (NO) in the human body is crucial since it has the vital roles in the physiological and pathological processes. This study reports a new type of electrochemical NO biosensor based on zinc-dithiooxamide framework derived porous ZnO nanoparticles and polyterthiophene-rGO composite. By taking advantage of the synergetic effect between ZnO and poly(TTBA-rGO) (TTBA = 3'-(p-benzoic acid)-2,2':5',2″-terthiophene, rGO = reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposite layer, the poly(TTBA-rGO)/ZnO sensor probe displays excellent electrocatalytic activity and explores to detect NO released from normal and cancer cell lines...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537626/highly-transparent-supercapacitors-based-on-zno-mno2-nanostructures
#13
M A Borysiewicz, M Ekielski, Z Ogorzałek, M Wzorek, J Kaczmarski, T Wojciechowski
The recent rapid development of transparent electronics, notably displays and control circuits, requires the development of highly transparent energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors. The devices reported to date utilize carbon-based electrodes for high performance, however at the cost of their low transparency around 50%, insufficient for real transparent devices. To overcome this obstacle, in this communication highly transparent supercapacitors were fabricated based on ZnO/MnO2 nanostructured electrodes...
June 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535065/silica-polymerization-from-supersaturated-dilute-aqueous-solutions-in-the-presence-of-alkaline-earth-salts
#14
M Kley, A Kempter, V Boyko, K Huber
The early stages of silica polymerization in aqueous solution proceed according to a mechanism based on three steps: nucleation, particle growth, and agglomeration of the particles. Application of time-resolved static and dynamic light scattering as a powerful in situ technique in combination with spectrophotometric analysis of the monomer consumption based on the molybdenum blue method was carried out to further investigate this 3-step process. Experiments were carried out at four different initial silicic acid contents covering a range between 350 and 750 ppm in the presence of either 10 mM NaCl or 5 mM of a mixture of CaCl2 and MgCl2...
June 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524071/flexible-low-cost-sensor-based-on-electrolyte-gated-carbon-nanotube-field-effect-transistor-for-organo-phosphate-detection
#15
Vijay Deep Bhatt, Saumya Joshi, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523755/asymmetric-supercapacitors-based-on-rgo-pmo12-as-a-positive-and-rgo-pw12-as-a-negative-electrode
#16
Deepak Dubal, Nilesh Chodankar, Ajayan Vinu, Do-Heyoung Kim, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Nanofabrication via "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into well-defined architecture is essential for the next generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalates (POMs) based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitor. Firstly, the redox active nanoclusters of POMs (phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) and phosphotungstic acid (PW12)) are uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO)...
May 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521999/hyaluronan-random-coils-in-electrolyte-solutions-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#17
Marek Ingr, Eva Kutálková, Josef Hrnčiřík
A computational method of modeling random coils of hyaluronan was developed based on the molecular-dynamics simulations. An oligosaccharide of 48 monosaccharide units was equilibrated within a 70-100ns simulation and randomly chosen pieces of this molecule from different simulation frames were combined to constitute a long polysaccharide chain, both for hyaluronan and its non-ionic analog containing glucose instead of glucuronic acid. The dihedral angles of the glycoside connections of the pieces obeyed the statistics deduced from the simulation...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514836/oxidation-of-organic-contaminant-in-a-self-driven-electro-natural-maghemite-peroxydisulfate-system-efficiency-and-mechanism
#18
Suding Yan, Weihui Xiong, Shuya Xing, Yueqi Shao, Rui Guo, Hui Zhang
Electro-assisted iron-mediated persulfate (PS) activation process has been successfully employed to oxidize organic contaminant. However, a majority of iron-based catalysts used for PS activation was synthesized through complicated or demanding procedures and may have potential risks on environment during the preparation process. Herein, natural maghemite (NM) which is abundant on the earth was employed to activate peroxydisulfate (PDS) in an electrolytic cell. The voltage was provided by microbial fuel cell (MFC) instead of external power as reported in the previous studies, so as to establish a self-driven electro/natural maghemite/PDS system (MFC/NM/PDS) for the oxidation of acid orange 7 (AO7)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508567/p-doped-moo3-x-nanosheets-as-efficient-and-stable-electrocatalysts-for-hydrogen-evolution
#19
Ling Li, Ting Zhang, Junqing Yan, Xuediao Cai, Shengzhong Frank Liu
A P doped MoO3-x nanocomposite material with rich oxygen vacancies is successfully fabricated by a two-step intercalation method, which presents superior activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction with low overpotential and fast electron transfer. In 0.5 m H2 SO4 , it displays an overpotential of 166 mV for driving the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) . Moreover, it also shows a good catalytic stability in the electrolytes with different pH, 0.5 m H2 SO4 (strong acid), 0.5 m Na2 SO4 (neutral solution), and 0...
May 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507663/molecular-engineering-and-sequential-cosensitization-for-preventing-the-trade-off-effect-with-photovoltaic-enhancement
#20
Weiwei Zhang, Yongzhen Wu, Xin Li, Erpeng Li, Xiongrong Song, Huiyun Jiang, Chao Shen, Hao Zhang, He Tian, Wei-Hong Zhu
In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is essential to use rational molecular design to obtain promising photosensitizers with well-matched energy levels and narrow optical band gaps. However, the "trade-off" effect between the photocurrent and photovoltage is still a challenge. Here we report four benzoxidazole based D-A-π-A metal-free organic dyes (WS-66, WS-67, WS-68 and WS-69) with different combinations of π-spacer units and anchoring-acceptor groups. Either extending the π-spacer or enhancing the electron acceptor can efficiently modulate the molecular energy levels, leading to a red-shift in the absorption spectra...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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