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electrolyte and acid-base

Eliezer Zachary Nussbaum, Mark A Perazella
Anticancer drug-induced kidney disease is a problem commonly encountered by nephrologists. The number of medications employed by oncologists causing acute and chronic kidney injury as well as electrolyte and acid-base disturbances has increased significantly over the past several decades. While conventional chemotherapeutic drugs induce a number of kidney lesions, emergence of very effective and well-tolerated targeted therapies and novel immunotherapies has increased the occurrence of drug-induced acute and chronic kidney injury in cancer patients...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Xiaofu Sun, Lu Lu, Qinggong Zhu, Congyi Wu, Dexin Yang, Chunjun Chen, Buxing Han
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 into value-added product is an interesting area. In this work, we synthesized MoP nanoparticles supported on porous carbon using metal-organic frameworks as the carbon precusor, and conducted the first work on CO2 electroreduction using MoP-based catalyst. It was discovered that MoP nanoparticles supported on In-doped porous carbon had outstanding performance for CO2 reduction to formic acid. The Faradaic efficiency and current density could reach 96.5 % and 43.8 mAcm-2, respectively, when using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the supporting electrolyte...
January 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Tsering Dhondup, Qi Qian
Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
Wilfried Klingert, Jörg Peter, Christian Thiel, Karolin Thiel, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Kathrin Klingert, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk
BACKGROUND: Automated systems are available in various application areas all over the world for the purpose of reducing workload and increasing safety. However, such support systems that would aid caregivers are still lacking in the medical sector. With respect to workload and safety, especially, the intensive care unit appears to be an important and challenging application field. Whereas many closed-loop subsystems for single applications already exist, no comprehensive system covering multiple therapeutic aspects and interactions is available yet...
January 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Lili Huang, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Hai Yu
BACKGROUND: Fluid maintenance and resuscitation is an important strategy during major surgeries. There has been a debate on the choice of crystalloids over the past decades. 0.9% saline (normal saline) is more likely to cause hyperchloremic acidosis when compared to balanced crystalloids with low chloride content. Meta-analyses comparing these two kinds of crystalloids have been performed in renal transplantations. We aim to compare the safety of balanced crystalloids to normal saline among adult patients undergoing non-renal surgery...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Yameng Ren, Danyang Sun, Yiming祎明 Cao曹, Hoi Nok Tsao, Yi Yuan, Shaik M Zakeeruddin, Peng Wang, Michael Grätzel
We report a blue donor-acceptor organic dye, coded as R6, which features a primary chromophore of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 9,19-dihydrobenzo[1',10']phenanthro[3',4':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]benzo[1,10]phenanthro[3,4-d]thiophene (BPT2) coupled with a diarylamine electron-donor and 4-(7-ethynylbenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)benzoic acid acceptor. Dye R6 displays a brilliant sapphire color on a sensitized titania mesoporous film together with a Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl)-based redox electrolyte. Significantly, such judiciously tailored DSCs achieve an impressive solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xu-Jia Hong, Tian-Xiong Tan, Yu-Kai Guo, Xue-Ying Tang, Jian-Yi Wang, Wei Qin, Yue-Peng Cai
A lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as the most promising candidate for next generation energy storage systems, because of its high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mA h g-1) and specific energy (2500 W h kg-1), as well as the abundance, low cost and environmental benignity of sulfur. However, the soluble polysulfides Li2Sx (4 ≤ x ≤ 8) produced during the discharge process can cause the so-called "shuttle effect" and lead to low coulombic efficiency and rapid capacity fading of the batteries, which seriously restrict their practical application...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
N J Boxall, N Adamek, K Y Cheng, N Haque, W Bruckard, A H Kaksonen
Lithium ion battery (LIB) waste contains significant valuable resources that could be recovered and reused to manufacture new products. This study aimed to develop an alternative process for extracting metals from LIB waste using acidic solutions generated by electrolysis for leaching. Results showed that solutions generated by electrolysis of 0.5 M NaCl at 8 V with graphite or mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes were weakly acidic and leach yields obtained under single stage (batch) leaching were poor (<10%)...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Duihai Tang, Kuo Li, Wenting Zhang, Zhen-An Qiao, Junjiang Zhu, Zhen Zhao
A series of Co nanoparticles embedded, N-doped mesoporous carbons have been synthesized through chelate-assisted co-assembly strategy followed by thermal treatment. The preparation is based on an assembly process, with evaporation of an ethanol-water solution containing melamine formaldehyde resin (MF resin) as carbon source, nitrogen source, and chelating agent. Moreover, F127 and Co(NO3)2 are used as template and metallic precursor, respectively. The Co nanoparticles embedded, N-doped mesoporous carbon annealed at 800 °C (denoted as MFCo800) shows high electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with high current density and low overpotential, which has the ability to operate in both acidic and alkaline electrolytes...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yuki Uematsu, Douwe Jan Bonthuis, Roland R Netz
The electrolyte surface tension exhibits a characteristic minimum around a salt concentration of 1 mM for all ion types, known as the Jones-Ray effect. We show that a consistent description of the experimental surface tension of salts, bases and acids is possible by assuming charged impurities in the water with a surface affinity typical for surfactants. Comparison with experimental data yields an impurity concentration in the nanomolar range, well below the typical experimental detection limit. Our modeling reveals salt-screening enhanced impurity adsorption as the mechanism behind the Jones-Ray effect: for very low salt concentration added salt screens the electrostatic repulsion between impurities at the surface, which dramatically increases impurity adsorption and thereby reduces the surface tension...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Nicholas M Schneider, Jeung Hun Park, Joseph M Grogan, Daniel A Steingart, Haim H Bau, Frances M Ross
Control of interfacial morphology in electrochemical processes is essential for applications ranging from nanomanufacturing to batteries. Here, we quantify the evolution of an electrochemical growth front, using liquid cell electron microscopy to access unexplored length and time scales. During galvanostatic deposition of copper from an acidic electrolyte, we find that the growth front initially evolves consistent with kinetic roughening theory. Subsequently, it roughens more rapidly, consistent with diffusion-limited growth physics...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Shuo Zhang, Lina Sui, Hongquan Kang, Hongzhou Dong, Lifeng Dong, Liyan Yu
Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) with wrinkled and bubble-like texture is fabricated by a thermal treatment. Especially, a novel sonication-assisted pretreatment with nitric acid is used to further oxidize graphene oxide and its binding with melamine molecules. There are many bubble-like nanoflakes with a dimension of about 10 nm appeared on the undulated graphene nanosheets. The bubble-like texture provides more active sites for effective ion transport and reversible capacitive behavior. The specific surface area of NG (5...
December 18, 2017: Small
Muhammad Altaf, Manzar Sohail, Muhammad Mansha, Naseer Iqbal, Muhammad Sher, Atif Fazal, Nisar Ullah, Anverhusein A Isab
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent modern class of porous materials, which can be assembled in modular manner using different metal ions and organic linkers. Due to tunable structural properties, these materials are found to be useful for gas storage and separation technologies as well as catalytic applications. Herein we report the preparation of cost-effective zinc-based MOF ([Zn(bpcda)(bdc)]n) using N,N'-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)cyclohexane-1,4-diamine, and benzene dicarboxylic acid linkers. Noteworthy, this new material exhibits remarkable photoelectrochemical (PEC) catalytic activity in water splitting for the evolution of oxygen...
December 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Sven Enerbäck, Daniel Nilsson, Noel Edwards, Mikael Heglind, Sumaya Alkanderi, Emma Ashton, Asma Deeb, Feras E B Kokash, Abdulrahim R A Bakhsh, William Van't Hoff, Stephen B Walsh, Felice D'Arco, Arezoo Daryadel, Soline Bourgeois, Carsten A Wagner, Robert Kleta, Detlef Bockenhauer, John A Sayer
Maintenance of the composition of inner ear fluid and regulation of electrolytes and acid-base homeostasis in the collecting duct system of the kidney require an overlapping set of membrane transport proteins regulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXI1. In two unrelated consanguineous families, we identified three patients with novel homozygous missense mutations in FOXI1 (p.L146F and p.R213P) predicted to affect the highly conserved DNA binding domain. Patients presented with early-onset sensorineural deafness and distal renal tubular acidosis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Jing-Qi Chi, Wen-Kun Gao, Jia-Hui Lin, Bin Dong, Kai-Li Yan, Jun-Feng Qin, Bin Liu, Yong-Ming Chai, Chen-Guang Liu
The ultrafine RuPx nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in uniform N, P co-doped hollow carbon nanospheres (RuPx@NPC) have been synthesized through a facile route of using aniline-pyrrole polymer nanospheres to disperse Ru ions with followed gas phosphorization process. The as-prepared RuPx@NPC exhibits uniform core-shell hollow nanospherical structures with ultrafine RuPx NPs as core and N, P co-doped carbon (NPC) as shell. So this strategy integrates many advantages of designing hollow nanostructures, providing conductive substrate and doping non-metal element...
December 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Anders Hagfeldt, Parnian Ferdowsi, Yasemin Saygili, Weiwei Zhang, Tomas Edvinsson, Ladislav Kavan, Javad Mokhtari, Shaik M Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel
We designed, synthesized and characterized a novel metal-free organic sensitizer, suitable for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), both experimentally and theoretically. The structure of the novel donor-acceptor-π-bridge-acceptor (D-A-π-A) dye has triphenylamine (TPA) segment and 4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl) benzoic acid (BTEBA). The triphenylamine unit is widely used as electron donor for the photosensitizers due to its outstanding characteristics, i.e. the non-planar molecular configuration and excellent electron donating capability while 4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl) benzoic acid is used as electron acceptor unit...
December 11, 2017: ChemSusChem
Meng Qian, Yuan Wang, Feng Xu, Wei Zhao, Tianquan Lin, Fuqiang Huang
Highly capacitive carbons are viewed as promising commercial materials for supercapacitors, but few species satisfy the requirements of high capacitance and low cost. Here we demonstrate an extraordinary porous few-layer carbon by facile Pechini combustion of magnesium nitrate gel, which combined salicylic acid as a complexing agent with magnesium nitrate as inorganic metal salt. As synthesized carbon material delivers a capacitance of 415 F g-1, mostly stemming from large specific surface area (∼1312 m2 g-1), fluent channel for transport of electrolyte, as well as electrochemical redox reactions at O, N-associated active sites...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kazuma Niinomi, Satoru Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro Hibino, Noritaka Mizuno, Sayaka Uchida
Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM)-based compounds have long been considered as one of the environmentally friendly candidates of solid electrolytes exhibiting high proton conductivity under high relative humidity (RH >95%). However, their application has been limited by the lack of structural stability and large decrease in conductivity with a slight decrease in RH. In order to overcome these disadvantages, we report a series of crystalline composites based on Preyssler-type POMs ([Na(H2O)P5W30O110]14-, [Bi(H2O)P5W30O110]12-), which are known to show higher acidity in comparison to Keggin-type POMs, and polymers (polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyallylamine (PAA))...
December 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Rosanne W Meijboom, Koen P Grootens
BACKGROUND: The necessity of annual laboratory follow-up in patients treated with valproic acid (VPA) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the need for annual laboratory follow-up of liver enzymes, electrolytes, and full blood count (FBC) in patients treated with VPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search in Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), MEDLINE, and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2016 to identify all published articles investigating or citing valproic acid, liver function disorders, electrolyte disorders, and FBC deviations...
December 6, 2017: CNS Drugs
Jiajing Wu, Jing Peng, Zhi Yu, Yuan Zhou, Yuqiao Guo, Zejun Li, Yue Lin, Keqing Ruan, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie
Conductive porous structures are favorable as active electrode materials for energy storage by boosting the active sites and specific surface area, but have been rarely achieved in transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, we developed acid-assisted exfoliation for the first time, to successfully exfoliate TaS2 into very large-sized conductive monolayers with controllable in-plane sub-nanopores. By inducing both interlayer lattice expansion and basal in-plane etching, hydrogen ion, previously regarded disastrous in charged system, was creatively utilized as an efficient and easy accessible assistant in simultaneous exfoliation and controllable structural modification...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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