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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328634/bridging-the-gap-engineered-porcine-derived-urinary-bladder-matrix-conduits-as-a-novel-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#1
Lyly Nguyen, Ashkan Afshari, Nathaniel D Kelm, Alonda C Pollins, R Bruce Shack, Mark D Does, Wesley P Thayer
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare engineered nerve conduits constructed from porcine-derived urinary bladder matrix (UBM) with the criterion-standard nerve autografts, for segmental loss peripheral nerve repairs. METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups. All underwent a 10-mm sciatic nerve gap injury. This was repaired using either (1) reverse autograft-the 10-mm cut segment was oriented 180 degrees and used to coapt the proximal and distal stumps or (2) UBM conduit-the 10-mm nerve gap was bridged with UBM conduit...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326567/both-standing-and-postural-threat-decrease-achilles-tendon-reflex-inhibition-from-tendon-electrical-stimulation
#2
Brian C Horslen, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Mark G Carpenter
Golgi tendon organ Ib reflexes are thought to contribute to standing balance control, but it is unknown if they are modulated when people are exposed to a postural threat. We used a novel application of tendon electrical stimulation (TStim) to elicit Ib inhibitory reflexes in the medial gastrocnemius, while actively engaged in upright standing balance, to examine a) how Ib reflexes to TStim are influenced by upright stance, and b) the effects of height-induced postural threat on Ib reflexes during standing...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326398/the-hemisoleus-rotational-flap-provides-a-novel-superior-autograft-reconstructive-option-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-extensor-mechanism-disruption
#3
Jean-Charles Auregan, James D Lin, Joseph M Lombardi, Eugene Jang, William Macaulay, Melvin P Rosenwasser
Chronic disruption of the extensor mechanism is a devastating problem after total knee arthroplasty. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occur at an estimated 0.1% prevalence in the setting of total knee arthroplasty. Complete tears of the quadriceps tendon generally have poor results and high rates of rerupture. We present a case of a quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty which reruptured after initial direct repair. The patient presented to us with a chronically retracted rerupture and was subsequently reconstructed successfully with a novel extended medial gastrocnemius-soleus-calcaneus local rotational pedicle flap...
June 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325029/noninvasive-eeg-correlates-of-overground-and-stair-walking
#4
Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
Automated walking intention detection remains a challenge in lower-limb neuroprosthetic systems. Here, we assess the feasibility of extracting motor intent from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). First, we evaluated the corticomuscular coherence between central EEG electrodes (C1, Cz, C2) and muscles of the shank and thigh during walking on level ground and stairs. Second, we trained decoders to predict the linear envelope of the surface electromyogram (EMG). We observed significant EEG-led corticomuscular coupling between electrodes and sEMG (tibialis anterior) in the high delta (3-4 Hz) and low theta (4-5 Hz) frequency bands during level walking, indicating efferent signaling from the cortex to peripheral motor neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324994/co-activation-periods-of-gastrocnemius-and-vastus-lateralis-during-walking-evaluated-by-surface-electromyography
#5
Alessandro Mengarelli, Annachiara Strazza, Agnese Sbrollini, Angela Agostinelli, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti, Francesco Di Nardo
"In vivo" studies reported that the co-activation of gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles produces ACL strain values greater than those caused by an isolated activation of either muscle. Aim of this study was to assess the co-activation of gastrocnemius (lateral head, GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) in healthy and young adults during walking. To this purpose the Statistical Gait Analysis was performed, that allows a characterization of gait considering hundreds of strides belonging to the same walking trial...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324067/gestational-protein-restriction-impairs-glucose-disposal-in-the-gastrocnemius-muscles-of-female-rats
#6
C S Blesson, V Chinnathambi, S Kumar, C Yallampalli
Gestational low protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 min...
January 30, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321652/role-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-glucocorticoid-induced-muscle-change-in-mice
#7
Yukinori Tamura, Naoyuki Kawao, Takeshi Shimoide, Kiyotaka Okada, Osamu Matsuo, Hiroshi Kaji
We recently revealed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a serine protease inhibitor, is involved in diabetes, osteoporosis and muscle wasting induced by glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in mice. In the present study, we investigated the detailed mechanisms by which GC induces muscle wasting through PAI-1 in vivo and in vitro. PAI-1 deficiency suppressed the mRNA levels of atrogin1 and muscle RING-Finger Protein 1 (MuRF1), ubiquitin ligases leading to muscle degradation, elevated by GC treatment in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319872/intrathecal-baclofen-bolus-reduces-exaggerated-extensor-coactivation-during-pre-swing-and-early-swing-of-gait-after-acquired-brain-injury
#8
John W Chow, Stuart A Yablon, Dobrivoje S Stokic
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the concurrent activation of rectus femoris (RF) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (extensor coactivation) during gait in subjects with pronounced resting hypertonia after acquired brain injury (ABI) and examine changes after intrathecal baclofen (ITB) bolus injection. METHODS: Magnitude and duration of extensor coactivation during different phases of gait were assessed by recording gait kinematics and activity in bilateral RF and MG muscles in 18 controls and 18 ABI subjects before and at 2, 4, and 6h after a 50-μg ITB injection...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#9
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316588/alterations-of-muscle-activation-pattern-in-stroke-survivors-during-obstacle-crossing
#10
Chenming Ma, Na Chen, Yurong Mao, Dongfeng Huang, Rong Song, Le Li
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates changes in the neuromuscular activation pattern of the lower limb muscles in stroke survivors when crossing obstacles of three different heights. METHODS: Eight stroke survivors and eight age-, height-, and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited and instructed to cross over obstacles with heights of 10, 20, and 30% leg length. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) of both limbs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315675/low-intensity-training-and-the-c5a-complement-antagonist-nox-d21-rescue-the-mdx-phenotype-through-modulation-of-inflammation
#11
Janek Hyzewicz, Jun Tanihata, Mutsuki Kuraoka, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Teiva Beylier, Urs T Ruegg, Axel Vater, Shin'ichi Takeda
Inflammatory events occurring in dystrophic muscles contribute to the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Low-intensity training (LIT) attenuates the phenotype of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD. Therefore, we postulated that LIT could have anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed levels of inflammatory cytokines and infiltrated immune cells in gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice after LIT. We detected high levels of complement component C5a, chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages, and proinflammatory M1 macrophages in muscles of mdx mice...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302707/neuropeptide-y3-36-incorporated-into-pvax-nanoparticle-improves-functional-blood-flow-in-a-murine-model-of-hind-limb-ischemia
#12
Derek Eshun, Rabya Saraf, Soochan Bae, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Feroze Mahmood, Serkan Dilmen, Qingen Ke, Dongwon Lee, Peter M Kang, Robina Matyal
We generated a novel nanoparticle called PVAX, which has intrinsic anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. This nanoparticle was loaded with Neuropeptide Y3-36, an angiogenic neuro-hormone that plays a central role in angiogenesis. Subsequently, we investigated whether PVAX-NPY3-36 could act as a therapeutic agent and induce angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Adult C57BL/J6 mice (n=40) were assigned to treatment groups: Control, Ischemia PBS, Ischemia PVAX, Ischemia NPY3-36, and Ischemia PVAX-NPY3-36 Ischemia was induced by ligation of the femoral artery in all groups except Control and given relevant treatments (PBS, PVAX, NPY3-36, and PVAX-NPY3-36)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301525/muscle-activities-during-walking-and-running-at-energetically-optimal-transition-speed-under-normobaric-hypoxia-on-gradient-slopes
#13
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Masahiro Horiuchi
Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT; J·kg-1·km-1) displays a U-shaped fashion in walking and a linear fashion in running as a function of gait speed (v; km·h-1). There exists an intersection between U-shaped and linear CoT-v relationships, being termed energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS; km·h-1). Combined effects of gradient and moderate normobaric hypoxia (15.0% O2) were investigated when walking and running at the EOTS in fifteen young males. The CoT values were determined at eight walking speeds (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294417/progressive-resistance-loaded-voluntary-wheel-running-increases-hypertrophy-and-differentially-affects-muscle-protein-synthesis-ribosome-biogenesis-and-proteolytic-markers-in-rat-muscle
#14
C B Mobley, A M Holland, W C Kephart, P W Mumford, R P Lowery, A N Kavazis, J M Wilson, M D Roberts
We examined if 6 weeks of progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running in rats induced plantaris, soleus, and/or gastrocnemius hypertrophy and/or affected markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and markers of proteolysis. For 6 weeks, 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats (~9-10 weeks of age, ~300-325 g) rats were assigned to the progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running model (EX), and ten rats were not trained (SED). For EX rats, the wheel-loading paradigm was as follows - days 1-7: free-wheel resistance, days 8-15: wheel resistance set to 20%-25% body mass, days 16-24: 40% body mass, days 25-32: 60% body mass, days 33-42: 40% body mass...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293722/pattern-of-cardiotoxin-induced-muscle-remodeling-in-distinct-tlr-4-deficient-mouse-strains
#15
Eustáquio Luiz Paiva-Oliveira, Rafael Ferreira da Silva, Maria Bellio, Thereza Quirico-Santos, Jussara Lagrota-Candido
Tissue damage triggers innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR) that recognizes endogenous host danger molecules associated with cell death and tissue inflammation, although the precise role of TLR-4 signaling in muscle tissue repair is still uncertain. Previously, we observed that TLR-4 exerted a protective effect preventing excessive muscular damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu crude venom. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of TLR-4 at early stages of muscular tissue remodeling in distinct mouse strains after injection of purified snake venom...
March 14, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292886/optical-probing-of-gastrocnemius-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-characterizes-myopathic-biochemical-alterations-and-correlates-with-stage-of-disease
#16
Ryan A Becker, Kim Cluff, Nithyanandhi Duraisamy, Hootan Mehraein, Hussam Farhoud, Tracie Collins, George P Casale, Iraklis I Pipinos, Jeyamkondan Subbiah
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition caused by atherosclerotic blockages in the arteries supplying the lower limbs and is characterized by ischemia of the leg, progressive myopathy, and increased risk of limb loss. The affected leg muscles undergo significant changes of their biochemistry and metabolism including variations in the levels of many key proteins, lipids, and nucleotides. The mechanisms behind these changes are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to correlate the severity of the PAD disease stage and associated hemodynamic limitation (determined by the ankle brachial index, ABI) in the legs of the patients with alterations in the biochemistry of chronically ischemic leg muscle as determined by ATR-Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292829/non-linear-modulation-of-cutaneous-reflexes-with-increasing-speed-of-locomotion-in-spinal-cats
#17
Marie-France Hurteau, Yann Thibaudier, Charline Dambreville, Anass Chraibi, Etienne Desrochers, Alessandro Telonio, Alain Frigon
Cutaneous reflexes are important for rapidly responding to perturbations, correcting limb trajectory and strengthening support. During locomotion, they are modulated by phase to generate functionally appropriate responses. The goal of the present study was to determine if cutaneous reflexes and their phase-dependent modulation are altered with increasing speed and whether this is accomplished at a spinal level. Four adult cats that recovered stable hindlimb locomotion following spinal transection were implanted with electrodes to chronically record hindlimb muscle activity and to electrically stimulate the superficial peroneal nerve to evoke cutaneous reflexes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291304/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-calf-muscles-of-patients-with-combined-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-diabetes-type-2
#18
Brian Lindegaard Pedersen, Niels Bækgaard, Bjørn Quistorff
BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark...
March 14, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290240/popliteal-cyst-before-william-baker-first-report-in-the-galenic-corpus
#19
Marios Papadakis, Andreas Manios, Constantinos Trompoukis
INTRODUCTION: A popliteal cyst, also known as Baker cyst, is a benign fluctuant swelling of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa in the popliteal fossa at the back of the knee. The cyst is named after William Morrant Baker, who is considered to have first described this fluid collection with new sac formation outside of the knee-joint in 1877. We herein present a short description contained in the Galenic Corpus that appears to match to what we now call the Baker cyst. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Α thorough survey of Kühn's Galenic Corpus was performed...
April 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290056/relationship-between-isometric-contraction-intensity-and-muscle-hardness-assessed-by-ultrasound-strain-elastography
#20
Takayuki Inami, Toru Tsujimura, Takuya Shimizu, Takemasa Watanabe, Wing Yin Lau, Kazunori Nosaka
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound elastography is used to assess muscle hardness or stiffness; however, no previous studies have validated muscle hardness measures using ultrasound strain elastography (SE). This study investigated the relationship between plantar flexor isometric contraction intensity and gastrocnemius hardness assessed by SE. We hypothesised that the muscle would become harder linearly with an increase in the contraction intensity of the plantar flexors. METHODS: Fifteen young women (20...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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