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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806708/predictive-simulation-of-diabetic-gait-individual-contribution-of-ankle-stiffness-and-muscle-weakening
#1
Gilmar F Santos, Aline A Gomes, Isabel C N Sacco, Marko Ackermann
Diabetic neuropathic individuals present massive muscle strength reduction at the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors and increased joint stiffness. Our aim is to investigate the adaptation strategies to these musculoskeletal alterations during walking by means of predictive simulations. We used a seven segment planar musculoskeletal model actuated by eight Hill-type muscles in each leg. The effect of all passive tissue in muscles and other joint structures was modeled by net passive joint moment curves. The predictive simulations were generated by solving an optimal control problem that minimized a cost function, including effort and tracking terms, using direct collocation and a commercial optimal control package...
August 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804634/muscle-mri-findings-in-a-one-year-old-girl-with-merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-type-1a-due-to-lama2-mutation-a-case-report
#2
Yingyin Liang, Guidian Li, Songlin Chen, Rongxing He, Xiangxue Zhou, Yingming Chen, Xue Xu, Ronglan Zhu, Cheng Zhang
The objective of the present study was to characterize the muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a 1-year-old girl with merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A). Beginning as an infant, this patient exhibited severe hypotonia and proximal weakness, as well as delays in developmental milestones. Her serum creatine kinase levels at 3 months, 8 months and 1 year were 2,959, 1,621 and 1,659 U/l, respectively. Brain MRI indicated symmetric, mild T1WI low, mild T2WI and FLAIR high radial patterns in the white matter of the Cornu posterius of the ventricular lateral...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801518/effects-of-plyometric-and-isometric-training-on-muscle-and-tendon-stiffness-in%C3%A2-vivo
#3
Keitaro Kubo, Tomonobu Ishigaki, Toshihiro Ikebukuro
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800153/increased-autolysis-of-%C3%AE-calpain-in-skeletal-muscles-of-chronic-alcohol-fed-rats
#4
Yulia V Gritsyna, Nikolay N Salmov, Alexander G Bobylev, Anna D Ulanova, Nikolay I Kukushkin, Zoya A Podlubnaya, Ivan M Vikhlyantsev
BACKGROUND: Proteolysis can proceed via several distinct pathways such as the lysosomal, calcium-dependent, and ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome-dependent pathways. Calpains are the main proteases that cleave a large variety of proteins, including the giant sarcomeric proteins titin and nebulin. Chronic ethanol feeding for 6 weeks did not affect the activities of μ-calpain and m-calpain in the m. gastrocnemius. In our research, changes in μ-calpain activity were studied in the m. gastrocnemius and m...
August 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799160/intramuscular-perfusion-response-in-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-doms-a-quantitative-analysis-with-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus
#5
Marion Kellermann, Rafael Heiss, Bernd Swoboda, Kolja Gelse, Jürgen Freiwald, Casper Grim, Armin Nagel, Michael Uder, Dane Wildner, Thilo Hotfiel
The purpose of this study was to analyse intramuscular perfusion response in ultrastructural muscle lesions, by applying contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model. Results of this analysis were compared to high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI T2-weighted sequences. 14 healthy participants were recruited. Average perfusion parameters, represented as Peak enhancement (contrast agent inflow) and wash-in area under curve (WiAUC) of the gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus muscle (SM) were assessed before (baseline) and 60 h after inducing DOMS by eccentric exercise...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798156/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-and-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-combination-therapy-has-antifibrotic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-mdx-mice-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#6
Yasunori Nio, Masayuki Tanaka, Yoshihiko Hirozane, Yo Muraki, Mitsugi Okawara, Masatoshi Hazama, Takanori Matsuo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscular dystrophy. Patients experience DMD in their 20s from cardiac or respiratory failure related to progressive muscle wasting. Currently, the only treatments for the symptoms of DMD are available. Muscle fibrosis, a DMD feature, leads to reduced muscle function and muscle mass, and hampers pharmaceutical therapeutic efficacy. Although antifibrotic agents may be useful, none is currently approved. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitors have exhibited antifibrotic effects in human and animal models...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797961/influence-of-different-degrees-of-bilateral-emulated-contractures-at-the-triceps-surae-on-gait-kinematics-the-difference-between-gastrocnemius-and-soleus
#7
M Attias, A Bonnefoy-Mazure, G De Coulon, L Cheze, S Armand
INTRODUCTION: Ankle plantarflexion contracture results from a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon complex. It often leads to gait alterations. The objective of this study was to compare the kinematic adaptations of different degrees of contractures and between isolated bilateral gastrocnemius and soleus emulated contractures using an exoskeleton. METHODS: Eight combinations of contractures were emulated bilaterally on 10 asymptomatic participants using an exoskeleton that was able to emulate different degrees of contracture of gastrocnemius (biarticular muscle) and soleus (monoarticular muscle), corresponding at 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° ankle plantarflexion contracture (knee-flexed and knee-extended)...
July 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797897/ultrasonographic-quantification-of-architectural-response-in-tibialis-anterior-to-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation
#8
Emilie Simoneau-Buessinger, Sébastien Leteneur, Alix Bisman, François Gabrielli, Jennifer Jakobi
While muscle contraction in voluntary efforts has been widely investigated, little is known about contraction during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). The aim of this study was to quantify in vivo muscle architecture of agonist and antagonist muscles at the ankle joint during NMES. Muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles of the tibialis anterior (TA) and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were assessed via ultrasonography in 8 healthy young males. Measures were obtained during maximal NMES and torque-matched voluntary dorsiflexion contractions...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796340/application-of-differentiated-human-tonsil-derived-stem-cells-to-trembler-j-mice
#9
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Geon Kwak, Young Bin Hong, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types. METHODS: We investigated the potential of human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) for neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice: a model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. RESULTS: T-MSCs differentiated toward skeletal myocytes with increased expression of skeletal muscle-related markers (including troponin I type 1, and myogenin), and the formation of myotubes in vitro...
August 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795882/medial-gastrocnemius-muscle-flap-for-the-reconstruction-of-unhealed-amputation-stumps
#10
B Tosun, O Selek, U Gok, O Tosun
OBJECTIVE: Unhealed amputation stumps after transtibial amputation are common and often require reamputation futher up the leg. The aim of our study is to describe our experience with medial gastrocnemius muscle flap coverage following a transtibial amputation. METHOD: We retrospectively examined the records of patients who had an unhealed transtibial amputation stump who were then treated with a medial gastrocnemius muscle flap. RESULTS: We identified seven patients, all had diabetes mellitus and an initial amputation by the long posterior flap technique...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795058/functional-histopathological-and-immunohistichemical-assessments-of-cyclosporine-a-on-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-using-allografts-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-model
#11
Amir Amniattalab, Rahim Mohammadi
OBJECTIVES: To study the functional, histopathological and immunohistochemical effect of cyclosporine A on sciatic nerve regeneration using allografts in a rat sciatic nerve model. METHODS: Thirty male white Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 10), randomly: Normal control group (NC), allograft group (ALLO), CsA treated group (ALLO/ CsA). In NC group left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis muscle was sutured...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794635/electrophysiological-findings-of-turkish-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome
#12
Ahmet Özsimsek, Hasan Rifat Koyuncuoglu
We aimed to investigate changes in electrophysiological findings in Turkish patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS), including F-wave latency (FWL), peripheral silent period (PSP), and Hoffmann reflex. The study took place in a university hospital in Turkey and involved 30 newly diagnosed RLS patients and 30 healthy controls who were matched for age and gender. Participant's demographics (age, gender, weight, and height), laboratory findings, and electrophysiological test outcomes were gathered and analyzed...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789925/hif-1%C3%AE-represses-the-expression-of-the-angiogenesis-inhibitor-thrombospondin-2
#13
Susan C MacLauchlan, Nicole E Calabro, Yan Huang, Meenakshi Krishna, Tara Bancroft, Tanuj Sharma, Jun Yu, William C Sessa, Frank Giordano, Themis R Kyriakides
Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis whose expression is dynamically regulated following injury. In the present study, it is shown that HIF-1α represses TSP2 transcription. Specifically, in vitro studies demonstrate that the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG or hypoxia decrease TSP2 expression in fibroblasts. This effect is shown to be via a transcriptional mechanism as hypoxia does not alter TSP2 mRNA stability and this effect requires the TSP2 promoter. In addition, the documented repressive effect of nitric oxide (NO) on TSP2 is shown to be non-canonical and involves stabilization of HIF-1α...
August 5, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783736/glutamate-alleviates-muscle-protein-loss-by-modulating-tlr4-nods-akt-foxo-and-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-lps-challenged-piglets
#14
Ping Kang, Xiuying Wang, Huanting Wu, Huiling Zhu, Yongqing Hou, Longmei Wang, Yulan Liu
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the glutamate (Glu) on muscle protein loss through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs), Akt/Forkhead Box O (Akt/FOXO) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned into four treatments: (1) Control; (2) LPS+0% Glu; (3) LPS + 1.0% Glu; (4) LPS + 2.0% Glu. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. On d 28, the piglets in the LPS challenged groups were injected with LPS on 100 μg/kg body weight (BW), and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same volume of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783557/inter-individual-similarities-and-variations-in-muscle-forces-acting-on-the-ankle-joint-during-gait
#15
Michalina Błażkiewicz, Ida Wiszomirska, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk, Roozbeh Naemi, Andrzej Wit
Muscle forces acting over the ankle joint play an important role in the forward progression of the body during gait. Yet despite the importance of ankle muscle forces, direct in-vivo measurements are neither possible nor practical. This makes musculoskeletal simulation useful as an indirect technique to quantify the muscle forces at work during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify the maximum peaks of individual ankle muscle forces during gait; 2) investigate the order over which the muscles are sorted based on their maximum peak force...
July 29, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781933/effects-of-kinesio-%C3%A2-taping-on-dynamic-balance-following-fatigue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Noh Zulfikri, Maria Justine
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of Kinesio taping (KT) in inhibiting fatigue and preserving dynamic balance. Male recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were blinded from the group assignment and divided into four groups (Group A; KT and fatigue, Group B; no tape and fatigue, Group C; KT and no fatigue and Group D; no tape and no fatigue) using sequentially opaque, sealed envelopes. Pre and post measurements of Modified Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) composite score and normalized reach distance were used to measure dynamic balance...
2017: Physical Therapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780695/quantitative-multimodal-evaluation-of-passaging-human-neural-crest-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#17
Jian Du, Huanwen Chen, Kailiang Zhou, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injury is a major burden to societies worldwide, however, current therapy options (e.g. autologous nerve grafts) are unable to produce satisfactory outcomes. Many studies have shown that stem cell transplantation holds great potential for peripheral nerve repair, and human neural crest stem cells (hNCSCs), which give rise to a variety of tissues in the peripheral nervous system, are particularly promising. NCSCs are one of the best candidates for clinical translation, however, to ensure the viability and quality of NCSCs for research and clinical use, the effect of in vitro cell passaging on therapeutic effects needs be evaluated given that passaging is required to expand NCSCs to meet the demands of transplantation in preclinical research and clinical trials...
August 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780341/the-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-injection-in-an-elite-sportsman-with-functional-popliteal-artery-entrapment-syndrome-a-case-report
#18
Myles Murphy, Jonathon Charlesworth, Eamon Koh
BACKGROUND: Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A) is an effective intervention for Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (FPAES) however, concerns with this intervention include reductions in strength and performance. CASE REPORT: This case presents an elite male athlete with FPAES who underwent BoNT-A injection and the results of testing before and after injection. The athlete experienced a decrease in strength and performance at one week post-injection however, he returned to baseline levels within four weeks...
June 17, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777275/gait-deviations-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-type-i
#19
Christina R Garman, Adam Graf, Joseph Krzak, Angela Caudill, Peter Smith, Gerald Harris
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital connective tissue disorder often characterized by orthopaedic complications that impact normal gait. As such, mobility is of particular interest in the OI population as it is associated with multiple aspects of participation and quality of life. The purpose of the current study was to identify and describe common gait deviations in a large sample of individuals with type I OI and speculate the etiology with a goal of improving function...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775069/the-effect-of-a-pre-hop-on-the-muscle-tendon-interaction-during-vertical-jumps
#20
Jeroen Aeles, Glen A Lichtwark, Dries Peeters, Christophe Delecluse, Ilse Jonkers, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Many movements use stretch-shortening cycles of a muscle-tendon unit (MTU) for storing and releasing elastic energy. The required stretching of medial gastrocnemius (MG) tendinous tissue during jumps, however, requires large length changes of the muscle fascicles, due to the lack of MTU length changes. This has a negative impact on the force generating capacity of the muscle fascicles. The purpose of this study was to induce a MG MTU stretch prior to shortening by adding a pre-hop to the squat jump. Eleven well-trained athletes specialized in jumping performed a pre-hop squat jump (PHSJ) and a standard squat jump (SSJ)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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