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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926379/tendon-length-calf-muscle-atrophy-and-strength-deficit-after-acute-achilles-tendon-rupture-long-term-follow-up-of-patients-in-a-previous-study
#1
Juuso Heikkinen, Iikka Lantto, Juuso Piilonen, Tapio Flinkkilä, Pasi Ohtonen, Pertti Siira, Vesa Laine, Jaakko Niinimäki, Ari Pajala, Juhana Leppilahti
BACKGROUND: In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925568/the-fibular-meniscus-of-the-kangaroo-as-an-adaptation-against-external-tibial-rotation-during-saltatorial-locomotion
#2
Adrian C Miller, Martin A Cake, Natalie M Warburton
The kangaroo knee is, as in other species, a complex diarthrodial joint dependent on interacting osseous, cartilaginous and ligamentous components for its stability. While principal load bearing occurs through the femorotibial articulation, additional lateral articulations involving the fibula and lateral fabella also contribute to the functional arrangement. Several fibrocartilage and ligamentous structures in this joint remain unexplained or have been misunderstood in previous studies. In this study, we review the existing literature on the structure of the kangaroo 'knee' before providing a new description of the gross anatomical and histological structures...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921721/effects-of-the-availability-of-accurate-proprioceptive-information-on-older-adults-postural-sway-and-muscle-co-contraction
#3
Chesney E Craig, Glenn H M Calvert, Michail Doumas
During conditions of increased postural instability, older adults exhibit greater lower-limb muscle co-contraction. This response has been interpreted as a compensatory postural strategy, which may be used to i006Ecrease proprioceptive information from muscle spindles or to stiffen the lower limb as a general response to minimise postural sway. The current study aimed to test these two hypotheses by investigating use of muscle co-contraction during sensory transitions that manipulated proprioceptive input. Surface EMG was recorded from the bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles, in young (aged 18-30) and older adults (aged 68-80) during blind-folded postural assessment...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917979/plantar-reflex-excitability-is-increased-in-the-evening-in-restless-legs-syndrome-patients
#4
Chloe Dafkin, Andrew Green, Benita Olivier, Warrick McKinon, Samantha Kerr
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if diurnal changes in spinal excitability (plantar reflex) occur in restless legs syndrome (RLS) participants compared to healthy matched controls. METHODS: Thirteen RLS participants and 13 healthy control participants' plantar reflex responses were evaluated in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Plantar reflex responses were assessed electromyographically, using motion analysis (kinematically) and by subjective nociception (Visual Analogue Scale)...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917976/low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-ameliorates-hindlimb-ischemic-injury-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#5
Zhiqiang Wang, Tiantian Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Hongjie You, Quanbin Zhang, Jingyi Xue, Yuanyuan Zheng, Dali Luo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), extracted from Laminaria japonica Areschoug, is a traditional Chinese medicine, commonly used to alleviate edema, particularly for feet with numbness and pain. AIM OF THE STUDY: Diabetic mellitus (DM) patients are at high risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Individuals with DM and PAD co-morbidity have a much higher risk of critical limb ischemia. LMWF showed several beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-thrombosis, and enhancing revascularization...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917641/changes-in-innervation-of-lumbar-motoneurons-and-organization-of-premotor-network-following-training-of-transected-adult-rats
#6
Loubna Khalki, Karina Sadlaoud, Julie Lerond, Jacques-Olivier Coq, Jean-Michel Brezun, Laurent Vinay, Patrice Coulon, Hélène Bras
Rats with complete spinal cord transection (SCT) can recover hindlimb locomotor function under strategies combining exercise training and 5-HT agonist treatment. This recovery is expected to result from structural and functional re-organization within the spinal cord below the lesion. To begin to understand the nature of this reorganization, we examined synaptic changes to identified gastrocnemius (GS) or tibialis anterior (TA) motoneurons (MNs) in SCT rats after a schedule of early exercise training and delayed 5-HT agonist treatment...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915625/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#7
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914762/the-1-week-and-8-month-effects-of-a-ketogenic-diet-or-ketone-salt-supplementation-on-multi-organ-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#8
Wesley C Kephart, Petey W Mumford, Xuansong Mao, Matthew A Romero, Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Christopher B Mobley, John C Quindry, Kaelin C Young, Darren T Beck, Jeffrey S Martin, Danielle J McCullough, Dominic P D'Agostino, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis, Michael D Roberts
We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914616/effect-of-full-length-carbon-fiber-insoles-on-lower-limb-kinetics-in-patients-with-midfoot-osteoarthritis-a-pilot-study
#9
Taeim Yi, Jung Hyun Kim, Mooyeon Oh-Park, Ji Hye Hwang
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of full-length carbon fiber (FCF) insoles on gait, muscle activity, kinetics, and pain in patients with midfoot osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: We enrolled 13 patients with unilateral midfoot OA (mild: Visual Analog Scale [VAS] range, 1-3; moderate, VAS range, 4-7) and healthy controls. All participants were asked to walk under two conditions: with and without FCF insole. The outcome measures were ground reaction force, quantitative gait parameters, electromyography activities and pain severity (VAS)...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914131/safety-and-efficacy-of-repeat-open-label-abobotulinumtoxina-treatment-in-pediatric-cerebral-palsy
#10
Mauricio R Delgado, Marcin Bonikowski, Jorge Carranza, Edward Dabrowski, Dennis Matthews, Barry Russman, Ann Tilton, Juan Carlos Velez, Anne-Sophie Grandoulier, Philippe Picaut
This was a prospective, repeat-treatment, open-label study (NCT01251380) of abobotulinumtoxinA for the management of lower limb spasticity in children who had completed a double-blind study. Children (2-17 years) received injections into the gastrocnemius-soleus complex, and other distal and proximal muscles as required (maximum total dose per injection cycle: 30 U/kg or 1000U). A total of 216 of the 241 double-blind patients entered the extension study and 207 received ≥1 open label injection into the gastrocnemius-soleus; 17-24% of patients also had injections into the hamstrings...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912874/dietary-vitamin-b6-modulates-the-gene-expression-of-myokines-nrf2-related-factors-myogenin-and-hsp60-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-rats
#11
Sofya Suidasari, Shinji Uragami, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Previous studies have suggested that vitamin B6 is an ergogenic factor. However, the role of dietary vitamin B6 in skeletal muscle has not been widely researched. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the gene expression of 19 myokines, 14 nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated factors, 8 myogenesis-related factors and 4 heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may serve important roles in skeletal muscles. Rats were fed a diet containing 1 (marginal vitamin B6 deficiency), 7 (recommended dietary level) or 35 mg/kg of pyridoxine (PN) HCl/ for 6 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#12
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911802/transient-gestational-exposure-to-drinking-water-containing-excess-hexavalent-chromium-modifies-insulin-signaling-in-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-of-rat-progeny
#13
Navaneethabalakrishnan Shobana, Mariajoseph Michael Aruldhas, Lalmuankimi Tochhawng, Ayyalu Loganathan, Sadhasivam Balaji, Mani Kathiresh Kumar, Liaquat Alikhan Sheerin Banu, Ajit Kumar Navin, Chinnaiyan Mayilvanan, Ramachandran Ilangovan, Karundevi Balasubramanian
Chromium (Cr), an essential micronutrient potentiates insulin action, whereas excess hexavalent Cr (CrVI) acts as an endocrine disruptor. Pregnant mothers living in areas abutting industries using the metal and chromite ore dumps are exposed to ground water contaminated with Cr. Nevertheless, the impact of prenatal exposure to excess CrVI on insulin signaling in the progeny remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to drinking water containing excess CrVI may modify insulin signaling during postnatal life"...
September 11, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902116/adding-whole-body-vibration-to-preconditioning-squat-exercise-increases-cycling-sprint-performance
#14
Sébastien Duc, Bent R Rønnestad, William Bertucci
This study investigated the effect of performing a preconditioning exercise with or without whole-body vibration (WBV) on a subsequent cycling sprint performance. Fourteen trained subjects performed two separate test sessions in randomized order. After a warm-up, the preconditioning exercise (body-loaded half squats) was applied: 30-seconds of half-squats with WBV (40 Hz, 2 mm) or 30-seconds of half-squats without WBV with a 10-second all-out sprint performed after one minute. Surface electromyography (EMG) was measured from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis during the sprints...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900767/quantitative-assessment-of-muscular-stiffness-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-ultrasound-elastography
#15
Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Tumay Bekci, Yasemin Ulus, Hamit Ozyurek, Omer Faruk Aydin, Leman Tomak, Mustafa Bekir Selcuk
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of quantitative analysis of muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Seventeen children with spastic CP and 25 healthy children participated in the study between the years 2016-2017. The medial GCM in the CP group was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) by a physiatrist. ARFI was used to measure the shear-wave velocities (SWVs) of the medial GCM...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900414/alterations-in-spectral-attributes-of-surface-electromyograms-after-utilization-of-a-foot-drop-stimulator-during-post-stroke-gait
#16
Rakesh Pilkar, Arvind Ramanujam, Karen J Nolan
BACKGROUND: A foot drop stimulator (FDS) is a rehabilitation intervention that stimulates the common peroneal nerve to facilitate ankle dorsiflexion at the appropriate time during post-stroke hemiplegic gait. Time-frequency analysis (TFA) of non-stationary surface electromyograms (EMG) and spectral variables such as instantaneous mean frequency (IMNF) can provide valuable information on the long-term effects of FDS intervention in terms of changes in the motor unit (MU) recruitment during gait, secondary to improved dorsiflexion...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899515/the-water-extract-of-liuwei-dihuang-possesses-multi-protective-properties-on-neurons-and-muscle-tissue-against-deficiency-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#17
Yu-Ting Tseng, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Wei-Fang Liang, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899419/increased-plasma-lipid-levels-exacerbate-muscle-pathology-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Nadia Milad, Zoe White, Arash Y Tehrani, Stephanie Sellers, Fabio M V Rossi, Pascal Bernatchez
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. METHODS: To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx (4cv) mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets...
September 12, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895770/the-use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-in-the-treatment-of-gastrocnemius-strains-a-retrospective-observational-study
#19
Paolo Borrione, Chiara Fossati, Maria Teresa Pereira, Silvana Giannini, Marco Davico, Carlo Minganti, Fabio Pigozzi
The aim of the present retrospective observational study was to evaluate the time of functional recovery following a specific combined therapeutic approach characterized by an active exercise therapy carried out immediately after Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment of the muscular lesion of the distal musculotendinous junction of the gastrocnemius medial head.Medical records of 31 subjects treated with three PRP intra-lesional ultrasound guided injections and 30 patients treated with the standard therapeutic approach (control group) were analyzed...
September 12, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895466/lower-limb-muscle-activity-during-table-tennis-strokes
#20
Yann Le Mansec, Sylvain Dorel, François Hug, Marc Jubeau
This study aimed to compare the muscle activity of lower limbs across typical table tennis strokes. Fourteen high-level players participated in this study in which five typical strokes (backhand top, forehand top, forehand spin, forehand smash, flick) were analysed. Surface electromyography activity (EMG) of eight muscles was recorded (gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus) and normalised to the maximal activity measured during squat jump or isometric maximal voluntary contractions...
September 12, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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