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Female genital mutilation / cutting

Lillian Mwanri, Glory Joy Gatwiri
BACKGROUND: It is well acknowledged that Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C/C) leads to medical, psychological and sociocultural sequels. Over 200 million cases of FGM/C exist globally, and in Kenya alone, a total of 12,418,000 (28%) of women have undergone FGM/C, making the practice not only a significant national, but also a global health catastrophe. FGM/C is rooted in patriarchal and traditional cultures as a communal experience signifying a transition from girlhood to womanhood...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Rigmor C Berg, Nora Sahly, Susan Alkafy, Faten Alzaban, Hassan Abduljabbar
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that involves several types of removal or other injury to the external female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although much international research has focused on the health consequences of the practice, little is known about sexual functioning among women with various types of FGM/C. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of FGM/C on the sexual functioning of Sudanese women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Doctor Erfan and Bagedo Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
R Elise B Johansen
BACKGROUND: The most pervasive form of female genital mutilation/cutting-infibulation-involves the almost complete closure of the vaginal orifice by cutting and closing the labia to create a skin seal. A small opening remains for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. This physical closure has to be re-opened-defibulated-later in life. When they marry, a partial opening is made to enable sexual intercourse. The husband commonly uses his penis to create this opening. In some settings, a circumciser or traditional midwife opens the infibulated scar with a knife or razor blade...
February 10, 2017: Reproductive Health
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Jean-Christophe Tille, Patrick Petignat
BACKGROUND: Traumatic neuromas are the result of regenerative disorganized proliferation of the proximal portion of lesioned nerves. They can exist in any anatomical site and are responsible for neuropathic pain. Post-traumatic neuromas of the clitoris have been described as an uncommon consequence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). FGM/C involves partial or total removal of the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons. It can involve cutting of the clitoris and can cause psychological, sexual, and physical complications...
February 8, 2017: Reproductive Health
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Francesco Bianchi Demicheli, Alexia Willame, Nathalie Recordon, Patrick Petignat
BACKGROUND: Evidence on clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation is lacking. CASE: A woman with female genital mutilation experiencing clitoral pain during sex consulted to undergo clitoral reconstruction. The surgery was complicated by a wound infection responsible for severe postoperative pain. Such genital pain made our patient recall the traumatic experience of genital mutilation and experience a relapse of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms...
February 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mohammad-Hossein Biglu, Alireza Farnam, Parvaneh Abotalebi, Sahar Biglu, Mostafa Ghavami
BACKGROUND: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran...
December 2016: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Elinor Clarke
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
Rehana A Salam, Anadil Faqqah, Nida Sajjad, Zohra S Lassi, Jai K Das, Miriam Kaufman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescents have special sexual and reproductive health needs (whether or not they are sexually active or married). This review assesses the impact of interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (including the interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting [FGM/C]) and to prevent intimate violence. Our review findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and contraceptive provision are effective in increasing sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, and decreasing adolescent pregnancy...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Vincenzo Puppo
The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden...
January 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Abiodun S Adeniran, Munirdeen A Ijaiya, Adegboyega A Fawole, Olayinka R Balogun, Kikelomo T Adesina, Abdul Waheed O Olatinwo, Adebunmi O Olarinoye, Peace I Adeniran
BACKGROUND: The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ema Conde, Telma Santos, Rita Leite, Carla Vicente, António Mesquita Figueiredo
Self-mutilation is understood as any willful gesture or alteration of the body tissue without a suicidal intent. The most common self-mutilating gestures are, to a great extent, those that are superficial or moderate, such as cuts, burns, or bites. The most severe, as is the case of genital self-mutilation (GSM), are extremely rare and, in most cases, observed in patients suffering from psychosis. Furthermore, they are mostly reported from a surgical standpoint. Here, we report the case of a 20-year-old female patient who resorted to the emergency department after having amputated her clitoris with surgical scissors...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Sophie McLaren, Michel Boulvain, Olivier Irion
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentage of women with female genital mutilation/cutting who request postpartum reinfibulation, and to assess outcomes after specific care and counseling. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive medical files of immigrant women with FGM/C who attended a center in Geneva, Switzerland, between April 1, 2010, and January 8, 2014. The number of postpartum reinfibulation requests and outcomes were assessed. If a patient requests postpartum reinfibulation despite receiving detailed information and counseling, a longer follow-up is arranged for further counseling...
October 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Spencer Craven, Alex Kavanagh, Rose Khavari
A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients' lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States...
2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
A L Teixeira, M Lisboa
OBJECTIVES: Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. STUDY DESIGN: Prevalence estimation. METHODS: Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged <15 years living in Portugal who have undergone or will probably undergo FGM/C...
October 2016: Public Health
Barbara Nowak
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences...
September 2016: NASN School Nurse
Mathilde Vital, Sophie de Visme, Matthieu Hanf, Henri-Jean Philippe, Norbert Winer, Sophie Wylomanski
OBJECTIVES: Few prospective studies have evaluated sexual function in women with female genital mutilation by cutting (FGM/C) before and after clitoral reconstructive surgery, and none used a validated questionnaire. A validated questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the first time, to assess the impact of reconstructive surgery on sexual function in women with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) before and after clitoral reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Women with FGM/C consulting at the Nantes University Hospital for clitoral reconstruction between 2013 and 2014 were prospectively included...
July 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mimmi Koukkula, Ilmo Keskimäki, Päivikki Koponen, Mulki Mölsä, Reija Klemetti
BACKGROUND: The tradition of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread in Europe as a result of immigration. Although it is known to have negative health impacts, the exact prevalence of FGM/C and its health effects in Finland are unknown. This study explores the prevalence of FGM/C, the sociodemographic characteristics associated with it, and its health effects among women of Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Migrant Health and Well Being Study carried out in 2010-2012...
September 2016: Birth
Adriana Kaplan Marcusán, Laura Riba Singla, Mass Laye, Dodou M Secka, Mireia Utzet, Marie-Alix Le Charles
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs) in The Gambia...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Jacinta K Muteshi, Suellen Miller, José M Belizán
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis...
April 18, 2016: Reproductive Health
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