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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777776/distinct-roles-for-the-cell-adhesion-molecule-contactin2-in-the-development-and-function-of-neural-circuits-in-zebrafish
#1
Suman Gurung, Emilia Asante, Devynn Hummel, Ashley Williams, Oren Feldman-Schultz, Mary C Halloran, Vinoth Sittaramane, Anand Chandrasekhar
Contactin2 (Cntn2)/Transient Axonal Glycoprotein 1 (Tag1), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has established roles in neuronal migration and axon fasciculation in chick and mouse. In zebrafish, antisense morpholino-based studies have indicated roles for cntn2 in the migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, the guidance of the axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF), and the outgrowth of Rohon-Beard (RB) central axons. To study functions of Cntn2 in later stages of neuronal development, we generated cntn2 mutant zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9...
May 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776771/association-between-pain-severity-and-clinicohistopathologic-findings-in-the-mandibular-canal-and-inferior-alveolar-nerve-of-patients-with-advanced-mandibular-osteoradionecrosis
#2
Yujiro Hiraoka, Masaya Akashi, Satoshi Wanifuchi, Junya Kusumoto, Manabu Shigeoka, Takumi Hasegawa, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Takahide Komori
OBJECTIVE: Pain is one of the most problematic symptoms in patients with osteoradionecrosis of the jaws. This study investigated the associations between pain severity and morphologic alterations of the mandibular canal and inferior alveolar nerve, in respective computerized tomography images and resected specimens of mandibular osteoradionecrosis. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed 14 lesions in 13 patients who underwent segmental mandibulectomy for surgical debridement and simultaneous reconstruction with free fibula flap (1 patient exhibited bilateral lesions)...
April 16, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771690/heavily-pigmented-epithelioid-melanoma-with-loss-of-protein-kinase-a-regulatory-subunit-%C3%AE-expression
#3
Jarish N Cohen, Jessica A Spies, Fawn Ross, Angela Bohlke, Timothy H McCalmont
Heavily pigmented melanocytic neoplasms are genotypically and phenotypically diverse. Recently, a subset of this histopathologic spectrum was shown to harbor recurrent genetic alterations in the gene-encoding protein kinase A regulatory subunit-α (PRKAR1A). To date, no histopathologic descriptions of melanomas arising from this pathway have been described. We present a case of a darkly pigmented papule arising on the posterior neck of a 28-year-old man. Microscopically, the heavily pigmented compound melanocytic proliferation was centered in the dermis with permeation into the superficial subcutis...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771607/mechanistic-insights-into-the-modulatory-role-of-the-mechanoreflex-on-central-hemodynamics-using-passive-leg-movement-in-humans
#4
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of joint range of motion (ROM), muscle fascicle length (MFL) and joint angular velocity on mechanoreceptor mediated central cardiovascular dynamics using passive leg movement (PLM) in humans. Twelve healthy males (age: 23{plus minus}2 yrs, body mass index: 23.7 kg/m2 ) performed continuous PLM at various randomized joint angles ROM (0-50{degree sign} vs. 50-100{degree sign} vs. 0-100{degree sign}) and joint angular velocities ('fast': 200{degree sign}/s vs...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770587/an-unusual-case-of-pulmonary-hamartoma-with-predominant-bronchial-mucous-glands-in-the-peripheral-lung
#5
Rin Yamada, Akiko Tonooka, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Toru Motoi, Horio Hirotoshi, Tsunekazu Hishima
Pulmonary hamartoma (PH) is the most common benign lung tumor, comprising various amounts of mescenchymal components with entrapped epithelial components. We describe an unusual case of PH in the left lower lung lobe of a 60-year-old female. The tumor was 9 × 9 mm in size, light brown, weakly glistening, and microscopically found to be composed of well-developed epithelial and mesenchymal components without atypia. Both components were intermingled but without apparent transition. Epithelial components were occupied by predominant bronchial mucous glands...
May 16, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758365/white-matter-pathways-for-prosodic-structure-building-a-case-study
#6
Daniela Sammler, Katrin Cunitz, Sarah M E Gierhan, Alfred Anwander, Jens Adermann, Jürgen Meixensberger, Angela D Friederici
The relevance of left dorsal and ventral fiber pathways for syntactic and semantic comprehension is well established, while pathways for prosody are little explored. The present study examined linguistic prosodic structure building in a patient whose right arcuate/superior longitudinal fascicles and posterior corpus callosum were transiently compromised by a vasogenic peritumoral edema. Compared to ten matched healthy controls, the patient's ability to detect irregular prosodic structure significantly improved between pre- and post-surgical assessment...
May 11, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758339/population-averaged-atlas-of-the-macroscale-human-structural-connectome-and-its-network-topology
#7
Fang-Cheng Yeh, Sandip Panesar, David Fernandes, Antonio Meola, Masanori Yoshino, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
A comprehensive map of the structural connectome in the human brain has been a coveted resource for understanding macroscopic brain networks. Here we report an expert-vetted, population-averaged atlas of the structural connectome derived from diffusion MRI data (N = 842). This was achieved by creating a high-resolution template of diffusion patterns averaged across individual subjects and using tractography to generate 550,000 trajectories of representative white matter fascicles annotated by 80 anatomical labels...
May 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749627/white-matter-pathways-as-both-a-target-and-mediator-of-health-behaviors
#8
REVIEW
Alexis Porter, Regina Leckie, Timothy Verstynen
Health behaviors arise from the dynamics of highly interconnected networks in the brain and variability in these networks drives individual differences in behavior. In this review, we show how many factors that predict the physical health of the body also correlate with variability of the myelinated fascicles, called white matter, that connect brain regions together. The general pattern present in the literature is that as predictors of physical health decline, there is often a coincident reduction in the integrity of major white matter pathways...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746890/use-of-a-capillary-alginate-gel-capgel%C3%A2-to-study-the-three-dimensional-development-of-sensory-nerves-reveals-the-formation-of-a-rudimentary-perineurium
#9
Wesley A Anderson, Alicia R Willenberg, Alexander J Bosak, Bradley J Willenberg, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies affect approximately 20 million people in the United States and often stem from other chronic conditions, such as diabetes. In vitro methodologies to facilitate the understanding and treatment of these disorders often lack the cellular and functional complexity required to accurately model peripheral neuropathies. In particular, they are often 2D and fail to faithfully reproduce the 3D in vivo microenvironment. NEW METHOD: Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were inserted into laminin derivatized capillary alginate gel (Capgel™), a bioabsorbable, self-assembling biomaterial, possessing parallel microchannel architecture, and cultured to mimic normal nerve development, including Schwann cell myelination...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745256/salvage-of-cervical-motor-radiculopathy-using-peripheral-nerve-transfer-reconstruction
#10
Fardad T Afshari, Taushaba Hossain, Caroline Miller, Dominic M Power
PURPOSE: Motor nerve transfer surgery involves re-innervation of important distal muscles using either an expendable motor branch or a fascicle from an adjacent functioning nerve. This technique is established as part of the reconstructive algorithm for traumatic brachial plexus injuries. The reproducible outcomes of motor nerve transfer surgery have resulted in exploration of the application of this technique to other paralysing conditions. The objective of this study is to report feasibility and increase awareness about nerve transfer as a method of improving upper limb function in patients with cervical motor radiculopathy of different aetiology...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743109/muscle-and-tendon-morphology-alterations-in-children-and-adolescents-with-mild-forms-of-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#11
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Markus Tilp, Martin Svehlik
BACKGROUND: Early detection of changes at the muscular level before a contracture develops is important to gain knowledge about the development of deformities in individuals with spasticity. However, little information is available about muscle morphology in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) without contracture or equinus gait. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and Achilles tendon architecture of children and adolescents with spastic CP without contracture or equinus gait to that of typically developing (TD) children...
May 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734901/the-role-of-selective-peripheral-neurectomy-in-the-treatment-of-upper-limb-spasticity
#12
Li Yenn Yong, Charis H L Wong, Mark Gaston, Wee Leon Lam
BACKGROUND: Management of upper limb spasticity remains challenging. Selective peripheral neurectomy (SPN) is a relatively recent intervention for cases refractory to medical therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review looking at the efficacy and outcomes of SPN, in order to clarify the patient selection criteria and surgical technique. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, Open Grey and CINAHL was conducted...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729596/nerve-ultrasound-normal-values-readjustment-of-the-ultrasound-pattern-sum-score-upss
#13
Alexander Grimm, Hubertus Axer, Bianka Heiling, Natalie Winter
OBJECTIVE: Reference values are crucial for nerve ultrasound. Here, we reevaluated normal nerve and fascicle cross-sectional area (CSA) values in humans and compared them to published values. Based on these data, ultrasound pattern sum score (UPSS) boundary values were revisited and readjusted. METHODS: Ultrasound of different peripheral nerves was performed in 100 healthy subjects at anatomically defined landmarks. Correlations with age, gender, height and weight were calculated...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729220/post-hatching-growth-of-the-pectoralis-muscle-in-pigeon-and-its-functional-implications
#14
Xinxin Liang, Jiali Yu, Huan Wang, Zihui Zhang
The avian pectoralis muscle is responsible for the wing's downstroke, which provides birds with lift and thrust for flight. In the present study, architectural parameters were investigated through growth in the pigeon (Columba livia), an altricial bird species, from the ages of 4 days to 12 months, in order to assess the morphological changes and effects of increasing body mass. Muscle mass, fascicle length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) increased with strong positive allometry. As an indicator of force production capacity, the PCSA increased 30-fold with the changes in body mass; it grew rapidly during the nesting period and post-fledging period into sexual maturity...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723911/specialized-properties-of-the-triceps-surae-muscle-tendon-unit-in-professional-ballet-dancers
#15
M M Moltubakk, M M Magulas, F O Villars, O R Seynnes, J Bojsen-Møller
This study compared professional ballet dancers (n=10) to non-stretching controls (n=10) with the purpose of comparing muscle and tendon morphology, mechanical, neural and functional properties of the triceps surae and their role for ankle joint flexibility. Torque-angle and torque-velocity data were obtained during passive and active conditions by use of isokinetic dynamometry, while tissue morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by ultrasonography. Dancers displayed longer gastrocnemius medialis fascicles (55 ± 5 vs 47 ± 6 mm) and a longer (207 ± 33 vs 167 ± 10 mm) and more compliant (230 ± 87 vs 364 ± 106 N·mm-1 ) Achilles tendon compared to controls...
May 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723229/effects-of-an-acute-bout-of-dynamic-stretching-on-biomechanical-properties-of-the-gastrocnemius-muscle-determined-by-shear-wave-elastography
#16
George M Pamboris, Marika Noorkoiv, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Hulya Gokalp, Robert Marzilger, Amir A Mohagheghi
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of dynamic stretching (DS) exercise on passive ankle range of motion (RoM), resting localized muscle stiffness, as measured by shear wave speed (SWS) of medial gastrocnemius muscle, fascicle strain, and thickness. METHODS/RESULTS: Twenty-three participants performed a DS protocol. Before and after stretching, SWS was measured in the belly of the resting medial gastrocnemius muscle (MGM) using shear wave elastography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708263/parameters-and-functional-analysis-of-the-deep-epaxial-muscles-in-the-thoracic-lumbar-and-sacral-regions-of-the-equine-spine
#17
J A García Liñeiro, G H Graziotti, J M Rodríguez Menéndez, C M Ríos, N O Affricano, C L Victorica
The epaxial muscles produce intervertebral rotation in the transverse, vertical and axial axes. These muscles also counteract the movements induced by gravitational and inertial forces and movements produced by antagonistic muscles and the intrinsic muscles of the pelvic limb. Their fascicles are innervated by the dorsal branch of the spinal nerve, which corresponds to the metamere of its cranial insertion in the spinous process. The structure allows the function of the muscles to be predicted: those with long and parallel fibres have a shortening function, whereas the muscles with short and oblique fibres have an antigravity action...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706442/the-effect-of-functional-stretching-exercises-on-neural-and-mechanical-properties-of-the-spastic-medial-gastrocnemius-muscle-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ehsan Ghasemi, Khosro Khademi-Kalantari, Minoo Khalkhali-Zavieh, Asghar Rezasoltani, Mehri Ghasemi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Majid Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Following spasticity, neural and mechanical changes of the paretic muscle often occur, which affect the muscle function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of functional stretching exercises on neural and mechanical properties of the spastic muscle in patients with stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-blinded, randomized control trial. Forty five patients with stroke (experimental group: n = 30; control group: n = 15) participated in this study...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700758/assessing-sarcopenia-with-vastus-lateralis-muscle-ultrasound-an-operative-protocol
#19
Andrea Ticinesi, Marco V Narici, Fulvio Lauretani, Antonio Nouvenne, Elena Colizzi, Marco Mantovani, Andrea Corsonello, Francesco Landi, Tiziana Meschi, Marcello Maggio
BACKGROUND: Muscle ultrasound (MUS) has so far not been implemented for sarcopenia assessment in clinical geriatric practice due to allegedly low reproducibility of results in the absence of standardization of procedures. However, rigorous and standardized application of this technique yields highly reproducible results. Its application, especially if integrated with clinical evaluation and comprehensive geriatric assessment, proofs very useful for rapidly obtaining information on muscle mass and architecture...
April 26, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683410/the-effect-of-dry-needling-on-spasticity-gait-and-muscle-architecture-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-a-case-series-study
#20
Sarafraz Hadi, Otadi Khadijeh, Mohammadreza Hadian, Ayoobi Yazdi Niloofar, Gholamreza Olyaei, Bagheri Hossein, Sandra Calvo, Pablo Herrero
Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the short-term effects of dry needling on spasticity, gait, and muscle architecture of patients with chronic stroke. Methods A case series study was designed; and six chronic stroke patients with ankle spasticity and gait impairment received a single session of dry needling for gastrocnemius medialis, lateralis, and soleus muscles. The main outcome measures were the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS), and Timed Up and Go test (TUG). In addition, ultrasonography measurements (e...
April 23, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
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