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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934529/traveling-slow-oscillations-during-sleep-a-marker-of-brain-connectivity-in-childhood
#1
Salome Kurth, Brady A Riedner, Douglas C Dean, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Oskar G Jenni, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Slow oscillations, a defining characteristic of the nonrapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), proliferate across the scalp in highly reproducible patterns. In adults, the propagation of slow oscillations is a recognized fingerprint of brain connectivity and excitability. In this study, we (1) describe for the first time maturational features of sleep slow oscillation propagation in children (n = 23; 2-13 years) using high-density (hd) EEG and (2) examine associations between sleep slow oscillatory propagation characteristics (ie, distance, traveling speed, cortical involvement) and white matter myelin microstructure as measured with multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2-magnetic resonance imaging (mcDESPOT-MRI)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916838/functionally-distinct-tendons-from-elastin-haploinsufficient-mice-exhibit-mild-stiffening-and-tendon-specific-structural-alteration
#2
Jeremy D Eekhoff, Fei Fang, Lindsey G Kahan, M G Espinosa, Austin J Cocciolone, Jessica E Wagenseil, Robert P Mecham, Spencer P Lake
Elastic fibers are present in low quantities in tendon, where they are located both within fascicles near tenocytes and more broadly in the interfascicular matrix. While elastic fibers have long been known to be significant in the mechanics of elastin-rich tissue (i.e. vasculature, skin, lungs), recent studies have suggested a mechanical role for elastic fibers in tendons that is dependent on specific tendon function. However, the exact contribution of elastin to properties of different types of tendons (e...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914740/the-role-of-precisely-matching-fascicles-in-the-quick-recovery-of-nerve-function-in-long-peripheral-nerve-defects
#3
Liwei Yan, Zhi Yao, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Jian Qi, Liqiang Gu, Jintao Fang, Xiang Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Peripheral nerve injury therapy in the clinic remains less than satisfactory. The gold standard of treatment for long peripheral nerve defects is autologous nerve grafts; however, numerous clinical complications are associated with this treatment. As tissue engineering has developed, tissue-engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) have shown potential applications as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts. To verify the important role of the biomimetic pathway of fascicle design in TENGs, we designed an animal model to study the role of the precise matching of fascicles in the effectiveness of nerve function recovery...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914166/repeated-iron-soot-exposure-and-nose-to-brain-transport-of-inhaled-ultrafine-particles
#4
Laurie E Hopkins, Emilia A Laing, Janice L Peake, Dale Uyeminami, Savannah M Mack, Xueting Li, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Kent E Pinkerton
Particulate exposure has been implicated in the development of a number of neurological maladies such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Only a few studies have focused on the olfactory pathway as a portal through which combustion-generated particles may enter the brain. The primary objective of this study was to define the deposition, uptake, and transport of inhaled ultrafine iron-soot particles in the nasal cavities of mice to determine whether combustion-generated nanoparticles reach the olfactory bulb via the olfactory epithelium and nerve fascicles...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905674/angioleiomyoma-of-uterus-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-6-cases
#5
Mayank Gupta, Mayur Suryawanshi, Ramani Kumar, Abraham Peedicayil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Angioleiomyoma is a benign perivascular neoplasm commonly involving subcutaneous tissue of extremities, head, and trunk region. They rarely involve the female genital tract. This study analyses clinicopathological features of 6 cases of uterine angioleiomyoma. METHODS: Routine sections of 6 cases were reviewed and immunohistochemical markers namely muscle-specific actin, h-caldesmon, desmin, CD10, WT-1, HMB-45, and melan-A were done. RESULTS: Of the 6 cases, 4 cases had tumor involving the corpus and 2 cases had tumor in the cervix...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904382/multidimensional-encoding-of-brain-connectomes
#6
Cesar F Caiafa, Franco Pestilli
The ability to map brain networks in living individuals is fundamental in efforts to chart the relation between human behavior, health and disease. Advances in network neuroscience may benefit from developing new frameworks for mapping brain connectomes. We present a framework to encode structural brain connectomes and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (dMRI) data using multidimensional arrays. The framework integrates the relation between connectome nodes, edges, white matter fascicles and diffusion data...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902937/inside-out-and-standard-vein-grafts-associated-with-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-in-sciatic-nerve-repair-a-histomorphometric-study
#7
José Sidney Roque, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogério Leone Buchaim, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Domingos Donizeti Roque, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues, Geraldo Marco Rosa, Luis Henrique Rapucci Moraes, Fausto Viterbo
Purpose: To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Methods: Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap...
August 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899757/segmentation-of-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-the-human-brain-a-white-matter-dissection-and-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#8
Francesco Latini, Johanna Mårtensson, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Fredrik Åhs, Mats Hjortberg, Håkan Aldskogius, Mats Ryttlefors
The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898452/distinct-histomorphology-for-growth-arrest-and-digitate-outgrowth-in-cultivated-haliclona-sp-porifera-demospongiae
#9
Rodrigo Wanick, Claudia Mermelstein, Ivone R Andrade, Ricardo E Santelli, Rodolfo P R Paranhos, Cristiano C Coutinho
The use of sponges in biotechnological processes is limited by the supply problem, and sponge biomass production is becoming a current topic of research. The distinction between characteristics for growth and growth arrest is also important for environmental monitoring. In this study, we analyze the morphology of the digitate outgrowths from the sponge Haliclona sp. The sponge Haliclona sp. was successfully cultivated for 14 months in a closed system. The morphological characterization of growth arrest was performed after submitting explants to starvation-stress for approximately 2 weeks, to correlate morphology with growth and growth arrest...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891073/sexual-dimorphism-in-jaw-muscles-of-the-japanese-sparrowhawk-accipiter-gularis
#10
H Wang, J Yan, Z Zhang
Materials suitable for anatomical research of raptorial birds are rare. Bird-eating raptors show distinct inter-sexual differences in body size and parental roles. The large females catch larger prey and prepare small morsels to feed their young using their hooked beaks. Here, we investigated the architectural properties of different jaw muscles of the Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) and examined whether there is sexual dimorphism in their architectural design. The results showed that musculus depressor mandibulae, the opener of the lower jaw, was characterized by relatively long fascicle length, whereas musculus pterygoideus was characterized by its larger mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in both sexes...
September 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883087/modulation-of-muscle-tendon-interaction-in-the-human-triceps-surae-during-an-energy-dissipation-task
#11
Amelie Werkhausen, Kirsten Albracht, Neil J Cronin, Rahel Meier, Jens Bojsen-Møller, Olivier R Seynnes
The compliance of elastic elements allows muscles to dissipate energy safely during eccentric contractions. This buffering function is well documented in animal models but our understanding of its mechanism in humans is confined to non-specific tasks, requiring a subsequent acceleration of the body. The present study aimed to examine the behaviour of the human triceps surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) during a pure energy dissipation task, under two loading conditions.Thirty-nine subjects performed a single-leg landing task, with- and without added mass...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882331/demonstration-of-extended-field-of-view-ultrasound-s-potential-to-increase-the-pool-of-muscles-for-which-in-vivo-fascicle-length-is-measurable
#12
Amy N Adkins, Patrick W Franks, Wendy M Murray
Static, B-mode ultrasound is the most common method of measuring fascicle length in vivo. However, most forearm muscles have fascicles that are longer than the field-of-view of traditional ultrasound (T-US). As such, little work has been done to quantify in vivo forearm muscle architecture. The extended field-of-view ultrasound (EFOV-US) method, which fits together a sequence of B-mode images taken from a continuous ultrasound scan, facilitates direct measurements of longer, curved fascicles. Here, we test the validity and reliability of the EFOV-US method for obtaining fascicle lengths in the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882300/synchrotron-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-and-electron-microscopy-characterization-of-structures-and-forces-in-microtubule-tau-mixtures
#13
Peter J Chung, Chaeyeon Song, Herbert P Miller, Youli Li, Uri Raviv, Myung Chul Choi, Leslie Wilson, Stuart C Feinstein, Cyrus R Safinya
Tau, a neuronal protein known to bind to microtubules and thereby regulate microtubule dynamic instability, has been shown recently to not only undergo conformational transitions on the microtubule surface as a function of increasing microtubule coverage density (i.e., with increasing molar ratio of Tau to tubulin dimers) but also to mediate higher-order microtubule architectures, mimicking fascicles of microtubules found in the axon initial segment. These discoveries would not have been possible without fine structure characterization of microtubules, with and without applied osmotic pressure through the use of depletants...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871500/computational-neuroanatomy-of-human-stratum-proprium-of-interparietal-sulcus
#14
Maiko Uesaki, Hiromasa Takemura, Hiroshi Ashida
Recent advances in diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) and tractography have enabled identification of major long-range white matter tracts in the human brain. Yet, our understanding of shorter tracts, such as those within the parietal lobe, remains limited. Over a century ago, a tract connecting the superior and inferior parts of the parietal cortex was identified in a post-mortem study: stratum proprium of interparietal sulcus (SIPS; Sachs, Das hemisphärenmark des menschlichen grosshirns. Verlag von georg thieme, Leipzig, 1892)...
September 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860425/marked-expression-of-tnf-receptors-in-human-peritendinous-tissues-including-in-nerve-fascicles-with-axonal-damage-studies-on-tendinopathy-and-tennis-elbow
#15
C Spang, L Renström, H Alfredson, S Forsgren
BACKGROUND: The peritendinous connective tissues can have importance in chronic tendon pain. Recently cytokine TNF-α has been suggested to be involved in tendinopathic processes. It is not known how TNF-α and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed in peritendinous tissues. METHODS: The objective for this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression patterns of these in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons and the one located superficially to the extensor origin at the elbow region for patients with tendinopathy/tennis elbow...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860176/shifting-gears-dynamic-muscle-shape-changes-and-force-velocity-behaviour-in-the-medial-gastrocnemius
#16
Taylor Jessica Marie Dick, James Michael Wakeling
When muscles contract, they bulge in thickness or in width to maintain a (nearly) constant volume. These dynamic shape changes are tightly linked to the internal constraints placed on individual muscle fibres and play a key functional role in modulating the mechanical performance of skeletal muscle by increasing its range of operating velocities. Yet to date, we have a limited understanding of the nature and functional implications of in vivo dynamic muscle shape change under submaximal conditions. This study determined how the in vivo changes in medial gastrocnemius (MG) fascicle velocity, pennation angle, muscle thickness and subsequent muscle gearing varied as a function of force and velocity...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859831/automatic-reconstruction-of-the-muscle-architecture-from-the-superficial-layer-fibres-data
#17
Josef Kohout, David Cholt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a muscle plays a significant role in determining the force contribution of muscle fascicles to skeletal movement. This parameter is typically calculated from the lengths of muscle fibres selectively sampled from the superficial layer of the muscle. However, recent studies have found that the length of fibres in the superficial layer often differs significantly (p < 0.5) from the length of fibres in the deep layer...
October 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856690/the-transcription-factor-phox2b-distinguishes-between-oral-and-non-oral-sensory-neurons-in-the-geniculate-ganglion
#18
Lisa Ohman-Gault, Tao Huang, Robin Krimm
Many basic characteristics of gustatory neurons remain unknown, partly due to the absence of specific markers. Some neurons in the geniculate ganglion project to taste regions in the oral cavity, whereas others innervate the outer ear. We hypothesized that the transcription factor Phox2b would identify oral cavity-projecting neurons in the geniculate ganglion. To test this possibility, we characterized mice in which Phox2b-Cre mediated gene recombination labeled neurons with tdTomato. Nerve labeling revealed that all taste neurons projecting through the chorda tympani (27%) and greater superficial petrosal nerves (15%) expressed Phox2b during development, whereas non-oral somatosensory neurons (58%) in the geniculate ganglion did not...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855560/elastin-is-localised-to-the-interfascicular-matrix-of-energy-storing-tendons-and-becomes-increasingly-disorganised-with-ageing
#19
Marta S C Godinho, Chavaunne T Thorpe, Steve E Greenwald, Hazel R C Screen
Tendon is composed of fascicles bound together by the interfascicular matrix (IFM). Energy storing tendons are more elastic and extensible than positional tendons; behaviour provided by specialisation of the IFM to enable repeated interfascicular sliding and recoil. With ageing, the IFM becomes stiffer and less fatigue resistant, potentially explaining why older tendons become more injury-prone. Recent data indicates enrichment of elastin within the IFM, but this has yet to be quantified. We hypothesised that elastin is more prevalent in energy storing than positional tendons, and is mainly localised to the IFM...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855494/charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-2-caused-by-homozygous-mme-gene-mutation-superimposed-by-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#20
Miwako Fujisawa, Yasuteru Sano, Masatoshi Omoto, Jyun-Ichi Ogasawara, Michiaki Koga, Hiroshi Takashima, Takashi Kanda
We report a 59-year-old Japanese male who developed gradually worsening weakness and numbness of distal four extremities since age 50. His parents were first cousins, and blood and cerebral spinal examinations were unremarkable. Homozygous mutation of MME gene was detected and thus he was diagnosed as autosomal-recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2T (AR-CMT2T); however, electrophysiological examinations revealed scattered demyelinative changes including elongated terminal latency in several peripheral nerve trunks...
August 31, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
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