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Mingyong Gao, Paul Lu, Dan Lynam, Bridget Bednark, W Marie Campana, Jeff Sakamoto, Mark Tuszynski
OBJECTIVE: We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. APPROACH: 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Alexandra Louise Webb, Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Maria Stokes, Sarah Mottram
The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented...
October 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Sheilla de Medeiros Correia Marin, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: More than 95% of right-handed individuals, as well as almost 80% of left-handed individuals, have left hemisphere dominance for language. The perisylvian networks of the dominant hemisphere tend to be the most important language systems in human brains, usually connected by bidirectional fibres originated from the superior longitudinal fascicle/arcuate fascicle system and potentially modifiable by learning. Neuroplasticity mechanisms take place to preserve neural functions after brain injuries...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ahmed Karim Talib, Akihiko Nogami, Itsuro Morishima, Yasushi Oginosawa, Kenji Kurosaki, Shinya Kowase, Yuki Komatsu, Kenji Kuroki, Miyako Igarashi, Yukio Sekiguchi, Kazutaka Aonuma
BACKGROUND: The most common form of idiopathic Purkinje-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the reentrant type. We describe the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of focal non-reentrant fascicular tachycardia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 530 idiopathic VT patients who were referred for ablation, we identified 15 (2.8%) with non-reentrant fascicular tachycardia (11 men, 45±21 years). Sinus rhythm ECG showed normal conduction intervals with a His-ventricular interval of 41±4 ms...
October 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Cumhur Selcuk Topal, Gözde Kır, Taner Daş, Billur Sarbay, Muzaffer İlkay Tosun
Metastatic bladder tumors constitute <5% of all bladder tumors and metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. We present a case report of a metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder. A 70-year-old woman without any apparent significant clinical history was admitted to the Department of Urology for gross hematuria. Microscopic findings of the transurethral resection specimen revealed fascicles, sheets, and diffuse areas composed of oval and fusiform cells with focal pigmentation...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Nikos Makris, A Zhu, G M Papadimitriou, P Mouradian, I Ng, E Scaccianoce, G Baselli, F Baglio, M E Shenton, Y Rathi, B Dickerson, E Yeterian, M Kubicki
Originally, the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) was defined as a long association fiber tract connecting the superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole with the angular gyrus. More recently its description has been expanded to include all long postrolandic cortico-cortical association connections of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal temporal pole with the parietal and occipital lobes. Despite its location and size, which makes MdLF one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, its discovery in humans is recent...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yeshwant B Rawal, Thomas B Dodson
Four cases of cutaneous S-100 negative granular cell tumor were described in 1991. Until now, only 3 cases of oral involvement have been documented in English literature. Two additional cases of oral S-100 negative granular cell tumor are described. Immunohistochemical markers were applied to exclude other lesions that may show the presence of granular cells. The clinical findings were correlated with the histopathological and immunohistochemical features to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. S-100 negative granular cell tumors are erythematous polypoid masses commonly mistaken for granulation tissue or a pyogenic granuloma...
October 5, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
Michael C Nicoson, Michael J Franco, Thomas H Tung
BACKGROUND: With complete plexus injuries or late presentation, free functional muscle transfer (FFMT) becomes the primary option of functional restoration. Our purpose is to review cases over a 10-year period of free functioning gracilis muscle transfer after brachial plexus injury to evaluate the effect of different donor nerves used to reinnervate the FFMT on functional outcome. METHODS: A retrospective study from April 2001 to January 2011 of a single surgeon's practice was undertaken...
October 5, 2016: Microsurgery
Gautam Kumar Mandal, Indranil Das, Rahul Paul, Saunak Mitra Mustafi
A 13-year-old girl presented with chief complaints of severe headache and vomiting followed by hemiparesis. Radiological examination suggested a space occupying lesion in the right parietal lobe. Craniotomy and debulking of the tumor mass were done. Histopathological and subsequent immunohistochemical examination showed a tumor composed of fascicle of atypical spindle cells which revealed reactivity to vimentin with interspersed areas of well-differentiated cartilage tissue. Hence, the diagnosis of teratoma with sarcomatous transformation was given...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Philipp Bäumer, Henrich Kele, Annie Xia, Markus Weiler, Daniel Schwarz, Martin Bendszus, Mirko Pham
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial pattern of lesion dispersion in posterior interosseous neuropathy syndrome (PINS) by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 19 patients with PINS and 20 healthy controls, a standardized magnetic resonance neurography protocol at 3-tesla was performed with coverage of the upper arm and elbow (T2-weighted fat-saturated: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 milliseconds, in-plane resolution 0...
September 28, 2016: Neurology
Maud Pradines, Ingrid Masson, Raphaël Portero, Caroline Giroux, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in muscle architectural parameters of the muscle-tendon unit of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (GM) in patients with chronic hemiparesis, after 1 year of rehabilitation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 20 chronic hemiparetic patients (8W, mean age: 56 [12], time since lesion 9 [8]) were evaluated. Muscle architectural parameters including muscle fascicle length, pennation angle, thickness, tendon and muscle belly lengths were evaluated in vivo using ultrasonography in passive condition (verified by electromyographic recording) in a seated patient with ankle, knee and hip on the paretic side at 90°...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Ji-Hey Lim, Natasha J Olby
OBJECTIVE To identify an optimal technique for isolation, purification, and amplification of Schwann cells (SCs) from biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of dogs. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves from the cadavers of three 1- to 2-year-old dogs. PROCEDURES Nerve specimens were dissected, predegenerated, and dissociated to isolate single cells. After culture to enhance SC growth, cells were immunopurified by use of magnetic beads. Cell purity was evaluated by assessing expression of cell surface antigens p75 (to detect SCs) and CD90 (to detect fibroblasts)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Matthew N Bourne, Steven J Duhig, Ryan G Timmins, Morgan D Williams, David A Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K Kerr, Anthony J Shield
BACKGROUND: The architectural and morphological adaptations of the hamstrings in response to training with different exercises have not been explored. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in biceps femoris long head (BFLH) fascicle length and hamstring muscle size following 10-weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) or hip extension (HE) training. METHODS: 30 recreationally active male athletes (age, 22.0±3.6 years; height, 180.4±7 cm; weight, 80...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
S Tsitkanou, K Spengos, A-N Stasinaki, N Zaras, G Bogdanis, G Papadimas, G Terzis
Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week)...
September 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
M Galukande, A Khingi
BACKGROUND: Chest wall schwannomas are rare tumors arising from the intercostals nerves. Schwannomas are lobulated, encapsulated spherical masses, different from neurofibromas in that matter. Men and women are equally affected in their third and fourth decades. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42 year old female presented with a 6 month history of progressively worsening pain over the right shoulder and chest wall, aggravated by movement and with associated right arm oedema and paraesthesia...
2016: SpringerPlus
Maxime Chamberland, Benoit Scherrer, Sanjay P Prabhu, Joseph Madsen, David Fortin, Kevin Whittingstall, Maxime Descoteaux, Simon K Warfield
Streamline tractography algorithms infer connectivity from diffusion MRI (dMRI) by following diffusion directions which are similarly aligned between neighboring voxels. However, not all white matter (WM) fascicles are organized in this manner. For example, Meyer's loop is a highly curved portion of the optic radiation (OR) that exhibits a narrow turn, kissing and crossing pathways, and changes in fascicle dispersion. From a neurosurgical perspective, damage to Meyer's loop carries a potential risk of inducing vision deficits to the patient, especially during temporal lobe resection surgery...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Khin Thway, Dirk C Strauss, Dorte Wren, Cyril Fisher
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a soft tissue tumor of intermediate biologic potential and uncertain differentiation that most frequently occurs in the superficial extremities of children and young adults. It is histologically typified by nodules of ovoid to spindle cells with pseudoangiomatoid spaces and a surrounding dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, desmin expression in about 50%, and association with EWSR1-CREB1, EWSR1-ATF1 or FUS-ATF1 gene fusions. The diagnosis still poses a challenge because AFH may not display all classic features, can show a variety of unusual histologic findings and lacks a specific immunoprofile...
September 3, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Mana Fukushima, Inga-Marie Schaefer, Christopher D M Fletcher
Myolipoma of soft tissue, which was first described by Meis and Enzinger (1991), is a rare benign neoplasm characterized by the admixture of mature adipocytes and well-differentiated smooth muscle cells. Recently, cytogenetic alteration of the HMGA2 gene has been reported in 2 myolipomas. We present the clinicopathologic features of 34 cases of myolipoma of soft tissue, study immunoreactivity for HMGA2, and review the previous literature. In our series, there were 32 women and 2 men, with age at presentation ranging from 35 to 94 years (median, 55 y)...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Qiang Liu, Michael Shehata, Ruhong Jiang, Lu Yu, Shiquan Chen, Jun Zhu, Ashkan Ehdaie, Ali A Sovari, Eugenio Cingolani, Sumeet S Chugh, Chenyang Jiang, Xunzhang Wang
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms of reentry during left posterior fascicular ventricular tachycardia (LPF-VT) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to describe the components of LPF-VT reentry circuit and their electrophysiological properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen consecutive patients with LPF-VT underwent electrophysiology study and radiofrequency ablation. Via a multipolar electrode catheter placed from a retrograde aortic approach, a sharp inflection, high-frequency potential (P1) was detected in 9 patients (64%)...
September 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
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