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Giovanni Raffa, Maria C Quattropani, Antonino Scibilia, Alfredo Conti, Filippo Flavio Angileri, Felice Esposito, Carmela Sindorio, Salvatore Massimiliano Cardali, Antonino Germanò, Francesco Tomasello
OBJECTIVES: Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network...
March 11, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
James Hope, Frederique Vanholsbeeck, A J McDaid
In neural interfaces for peripheral nerve a trade-off exists between the level of invasiveness and the selectivity of neural recordings. In this study, we implement electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in a nerve cuff with the aim to investigate the achievable level of selectivity.
 Approach: Established modelling approaches in neural-EIT are expanded on to be used, for the first time, on myelinated fibres which are abundant in mammalian peripheral nerves and transmit motor commands. The model is then used to evaluate the viability of using EIT with a nerve cuff to record neural activity in peripheral nerves...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Tamara Weiss, Sabine Taschner-Mandl, Peter F Ambros, Inge M Ambros
This chapter emphasizes detailed protocols for the effective establishment of highly enriched human Schwann cell cultures and their characterization via immunostaining. The Schwann cells are isolated from immediately dissociated fascicle tissue and expanded prior to purification. Two purification methods are described that use either fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the Schwann cell marker TNR16 (p75NTR ) or a less-manipulative two-step enrichment exploiting the differential adhesion properties of Schwann cells and fibroblasts, which is especially useful for low Schwann cell numbers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lorenzo Vannozzi, Immihan Ceren Yasa, Hakan Ceylan, Arianna Menciassi, Leonardo Ricotti, Metin Sitti
Programming materials with tunable physical and chemical interactions among its components pave the way of generating 3D functional active microsystems with various potential applications in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and soft robotics. Here, the development of a recapitulated fascicle-like implantable muscle construct by programmed self-folding of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels is reported. The system comprises two stacked layers, each with differential swelling degrees, stiffnesses, and thicknesses in 2D, which folds into a 3D tube together...
March 14, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jie Zhang, Xuehu Wei, Sangma Xie, Zhen Zhou, Desheng Shang, Renjie Ji, Yamei Yu, Fangping He, Yue Du, Xiangming Ye, Benyan Luo
In the dual-route language model, the dorsal pathway is known for sound-to-motor mapping, but the role of the ventral stream is controversial. With the goal of enhancing our understanding of language models, this study investigated the diffusion characteristics of candidate tracts in aphasic patients. We evaluated 14 subacute aphasic patients post-stroke and 11 healthy controls with language assessment and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found multiple linguistic associations for the ventral stream, while automated fiber quantification (AFQ) showed, via reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity with increased radial diffusivity (all corrected p  < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Q Y Lao, M Sun, L Yu, J Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis of lipofibromatosis. Methods: The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles in 8 cases of lipofibromatosis diagnosed at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2008 to June 2017 were studied. Molecular analysis of β-catenin mutation by Sanger sequencing, NTKR1 and ETV6 rearrangements by FISH were performed. The follow up information was evaluated and the literature was reviewed. Results: There were 4 males and 4 females with a median age of 1...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Jamie S McPhee, James Cameron, Thomas Maden-Wilkinson, Mathew Piasecki, Moi Hoon Yap, David A Jones, Hans Degens
The contributions of fibre atrophy, fibre loss, in situ specific force and voluntary activation to weakness in sarcopenia remain unclear. To investigate, forty older (20 women; age 72±4yrs) and 31 younger adults (15 women, age 22±3yrs) completed measurements. The knee extensor maximal voluntary torque (MVC) was measured as well as voluntary activation, patella tendon moment arm length, muscle volume and fascicle architecture to estimate in situ specific force. Fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA), fibre numbers and connective tissue contents were also estimated from vastus lateralis biopsies...
February 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Svenja Caspers, Karl Zilles
This chapter summarizes current knowledge on the structural segregation of the parietal lobe based on cyto-, myelo-, and receptorarchitectonic studies, as well as the connectivity of this brain region with other cortical and subcortical structures. The anterior part of the human parietal cortex comprises the somatosensory areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2, whereas the posterior part contains seven multimodal areas in both the superior and inferior parietal lobules. Available cytoarchitectonic maps of the human intraparietal sulcus do not provide a complete picture yet...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ranu Jung, James J Abbas, Sathyakumar Kuntaegowdanahalli, Anil K Thota
The network of peripheral nerves presents extraordinary potential for modulating and/or monitoring the functioning of internal organs or the brain. The degree to which these pathways can be used to influence or observe neural activity patterns will depend greatly on the quality and specificity of the bionic interface. The anatomical organization, which consists of multiple nerve fibers clustered into fascicles within a nerve bundle, presents opportunities and challenges that may necessitate insertion of electrodes into individual fascicles to achieve the specificity that may be required for many clinical applications...
January 2018: Bioelectron Med (Lond)
S Serge Barold
This report describes a digitalis-induced regular fascicular ventricular tachycardia characterized by marked QRS alternans a manifestation not usually associated with this arrhythmia. The striking alternation of QRS configuration suggested alternating ventricular activation from either a single focus with two exits in distal branches of the left anterior fascicle or 2 different foci localized in the Purkinje-myocardial network of the left anterior fascicle.
February 8, 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Julio Brandao Guimaraes, Luca Facchetti, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Alexandra S Gersing, Xiaojuan Li, Thomas M Link
OBJECTIVES: To assess (i) normal imaging anatomy of the popliteomeniscal fascicles, (ii) prevalence and natural evolution of popliteomeniscal fascicle tears (PMFT) in subjects with traumatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears over 2 years and (iii) compare knee cartilage degeneration in subjects with and without PMFT longitudinally. METHODS: 57 subjects with ACL tears were screened for PMFT. Morphological (high-resolution 3D fast spin-echo) and compositional (T1ρ and T2 mapping) MR imaging was performed prior to and 2 years after ACL reconstruction...
February 23, 2018: European Radiology
Valentina Sangiorgio, Vanna Zanagnolo, Giovanni Aletti, Luca Bocciolone, Simone Bruni, Fabio Landoni, Nicoletta Colombo, Angelo Maggioni, Enzo Ricciardi
Cervical sarcomas are rare neoplasms, accounting for <1% of all cervical malignancies and characterized by an aggressive course despite radical excision. We report the clinical and microscopic features of a spindle cell sarcoma arising as a polypoid endocervical mass in a 45-yr-old woman. The neoplasm was characterized by a monotonous, mildly atypical proliferation of spindle cells, displaying a fibrosarcoma-like parallel pattern of highly dense fascicles, growing under the cervical epithelium. Mitotic activity was conspicuous, with up to 40 mitoses per 10 HPF...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Stephan van der Zwaard, Guido Weide, Koen Levels, Michelle R I Eikelboom, Dionne A Noordhof, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Willem J van der Laarse, Jos J de Koning, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Richard T Jaspers
Rowers need to combine high sprint and endurance capacities. Muscle morphology largely explains muscle power generating capacity, however, little is known on how muscle morphology relates to rowing performance measures. The aim was to determine how muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis relates to rowing ergometer performance, sprint and endurance capacity of Olympic rowers. Eighteen rowers (12♂, 6♀, who competed at 2016 Olympics) performed an incremental rowing test to obtain maximal oxygen consumption, reflecting endurance capacity...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Benjamin R Freedman, Ashley B Rodriguez, Cody D Hillin, Stephanie N Weiss, Biao Han, Lin Han, Louis J Soslowsky
Tendon experiences a variety of multiscale changes to its extracellular matrix during mechanical loading at the fascicle, fibre and fibril levels. For example, tensile loading of tendon increases its stiffness, with organization of collagen fibres, and increases cell strain in the direction of loading. Although applied macroscale strains correlate to cell and nuclear strains in uninjured tendon, the multiscale response during tendon healing remains unknown and may affect cell mechanosensing and response. Therefore, this study evaluated multiscale structure-function mechanisms in response to quasi-static tensile loading in uninjured and healing tendons...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Charmaine Baxter, Thomas A Miller, Douglas C Ross, Christopher Doherty
Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is characterized by severe, proximal upper extremity weakness including an inability to abduct the shoulder and flex the elbow. Treatment using both medical and surgical decompression approaches has produced variable results. This paper reports the use of nerve transfers (spinal accessory to suprascapular, flexor carpi ulnaris fascicle of ulnar to biceps motor branch, radial nerve branch to triceps to axillary) to restore shoulder and elbow function in a case of unilateral cervical spondylotic amyotrophy involving C5 and C6 myotomes...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Norimitsu Shirai, Mark G Evans
We report histopathology of retinal myelination discovered in a cynomolgus monkey. It consisted of a uniform population of spindle cells arranged in fascicles within the retina at the optic disk. The present case is remarkable in that there is a paucity of reports describing myelinated retinal nerve fibers in monkeys.
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Jarred G Gillett, Glen A Lichtwark, Roslyn N Boyd, Lee A Barber
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Sample of 33 adults with spastic-type CP with a mean age of 25 (range, 15-51) years; mean ± SD body mass 70.15 ± 21.35 kg; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I n=20, level II n=13...
February 10, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Martino V Franchi, Severin Ruoss, Paola Valdivieso, Kyle W Mitchell, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marco V Narici, Martin Flück
AIMS: We assessed focal adhesion kinase (FAK) response to concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) resistance training (RT) at two vastus lateralis (VL) sites, and the relationships between FAK, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and morphological remodeling. METHODS: Six young males trained both legs unilaterally 3 times/week for 8 weeks; one leg performed CON RT, the contralateral performed ECC RT. Muscle biopsies were collected after training from VL midbelly (MID) and distal (Distal) sites at 0, 4, 8 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Patrick Feasel, Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi, Karen Fritchie, Riyam T Zriek, Wei-Lien Wang, Elizabeth Demicco, Marcela Saeb-Lima, John R Goldblum, Brian P Rubin, Jesse K McKenney, Jennifer S Ko, Steven D Billings
While superficial (cutaneous/subcutaneous) solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) have been described, definitive diagnosis is difficult due to overlapping features with other tumors. We describe the largest series to date of superficial SFT. For inclusion, SFT had to arise in dermis or subcutis. Twenty-six cases were identified. Patients ranged from 16 to 80 years (mean, 47 y) with a marked female predominance (19 F; 7 M). Tumors involved the head (11), thigh (7), back (3), shoulder (2), upper arm (1), ankle (1), and great toe (1)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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