keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive decision making

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449363/health-literacy-interventions-for-immigrant-populations-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
M Fernández-Gutiérrez, P Bas-Sarmiento, M J Albar-Marín, O Paloma-Castro, J M Romero-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Health literacy is considered a social health determinant that influences improvement in health, patient empowerment and reduction in inequalities. There is a lack of health literacy interventions for vulnerable social groups (i.e. immigrants), and nurses have shown little familiarity with the concept. AIM: This study aimed to identify and analyse whether interventions directed at immigrant populations improve the functional (basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills), interactive (social and cognitive skills) and critical (advanced cognitive and social skills in critically analyzing information and making informed decisions) dimensions of health literacy, taking into account the role played by nursing in these interventions...
April 27, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449293/a-novel-approach-to-study-medical-decision-making-in-the-clinical-setting-the-own-point-of-view-perspective
#2
Thierry Pelaccia, Jacques Tardif, Emmanuel Triby, Bernard Charlin
BACKGROUND: Making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions is a critical activity among physicians. It relies on the ability of physicians to use cognitive processes and specific knowledge in the context of a clinical reasoning. This ability is a core competency in physicians, especially in the field of emergency medicine where the rate of diagnostic errors is high. Studies that explore medical decision-making in an authentic setting are increasing significantly. They are based on the use of qualitative methods which are applied at two separate times: 1) a video recording of the subject's actual activity in an authentic setting and 2) an interview with the subject, supported by the video recording...
April 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447309/markov-decision-process-measurement-model
#4
Michelle M LaMar
Within-task actions can provide additional information on student competencies but are challenging to model. This paper explores the potential of using a cognitive model for decision making, the Markov decision process, to provide a mapping between within-task actions and latent traits of interest. Psychometric properties of the model are explored, and simulation studies report on parameter recovery within the context of a simple strategy game. The model is then applied to empirical data from an educational game...
April 26, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444949/voxel-based-morphometry-meta-analysis-of-gray-and-white-matter-finds-significant-areas-of-differences-in-bipolar-patients-from-healthy-controls
#5
REVIEW
Rossana Ganzola, Simon Duchesne
OBJECTIVE: We present a retrospective meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) differences between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and behaviorally healthy controls. METHODS: We used the activation likelihood estimation and Sleuth software for our meta-analysis, considering P-value maps at the cluster level inference of .05 with uncorrected P<.001. Results were visualized with the software MANGO. RESULTS: We included twenty-five articles in the analysis, and separated the comparisons where BD patients had lower GM or WM concentrations than controls (573 subjects, 21 experiments, and 117 locations/180 subjects, five experiments, and 15 locations, respectively) and the comparisons where BD patients had greater GM concentrations than controls (217 subjects, nine experiments, and 49 locations)...
April 26, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444507/heuristics-and-bias-in-rectal-surgery
#6
Ewan MacDermid, Christopher J Young, Susan J Moug, Robert G Anderson, Heather L Shepherd
PURPOSE: Deciding to defunction after anterior resection can be difficult, requiring cognitive tools or heuristics. From our previous work, increasing age and risk-taking propensity were identified as heuristic biases for surgeons in Australia and New Zealand (CSSANZ), and inversely proportional to the likelihood of creating defunctioning stomas. We aimed to assess these factors for colorectal surgeons in the British Isles, and identify other potential biases. METHODS: The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) was invited to complete an online survey...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443951/bariatric-surgery-in-individuals-with-severe-cognitive-impairment-report-of-two-cases
#7
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Elaine Cristina Cândido, Luciana Bueno da Silveira Jarolavsky, Ana Maria Neder de Almeida, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has become the gold-standard treatment for refractory morbid obesity. Obesity is frequently associated with certain syndromes that include coexisting cognitive deficits. However, the outcomes from bariatric surgery in this group of individuals remain incompletely determined. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old male with Prader-Willi syndrome, whose intelligence quotient (IQ) was 54, was admitted with a body mass index (BMI) of 55 kg/m2, associated with glucose intolerance...
April 20, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441934/health-literacy-in-childhood-and-youth-a-systematic-review-of-definitions-and-models
#8
Janine Bröder, Orkan Okan, Ullich Bauer, Dirk Bruland, Sandra Schlupp, Torsten M Bollweg, Luis Saboga-Nunes, Emma Bond, Kristine Sørensen, Eva-Maria Bitzer, Susanne Jordan, Olga Domanska, Christiane Firnges, Graça S Carvalho, Uwe H Bittlingmayer, Diane Levin-Zamir, Jürgen Pelikan, Diana Sahrai, Albert Lenz, Patricia Wahl, Malcolm Thomas, Fabian Kessl, Paulo Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: Children and young people constitute a core target group for health literacy research and practice: during childhood and youth, fundamental cognitive, physical and emotional development processes take place and health-related behaviours and skills develop. However, there is limited knowledge and academic consensus regarding the abilities and knowledge a child or young person should possess for making sound health decisions. The research presented in this review addresses this gap by providing an overview and synthesis of current understandings of health literacy in childhood and youth...
April 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440095/what-does-the-literature-say-about-using-robots-on-children-with-disabilities
#9
Antonio Miguel Cruz, Adriana María Ríos Rincón, William Ricardo Rodríguez Dueñas, Daniel Alejandro Quiroga Torres, Andrés Felipe Bohórquez-Heredia
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent and type of robots used for the rehabilitation and education of children and young people with CP and ASD and the associated outcomes. METHODS: The scholarly literature was systematically searched and analyzed. Articles were included if they reported the results of robots used or intended to be used for the rehabilitation and education of children and young people with CP and ASD during play and educative and social interaction activities...
April 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439398/a-practical-approach-to-the-pharmacological-management-of-hypertension-in-older-people
#10
REVIEW
Nikesh Parekh, Amy Page, Khalid Ali, Kevin Davies, Chakravarthi Rajkumar
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in adults over the age of 65. The first part of this paper is an overview, summarizing the current guidelines on the pharmacological management of hypertension in older adults in Europe and the USA, and evidence from key trials that contributed to the guidelines. In the second part of the paper, we will discuss the major challenges of managing hypertension in the context of multimorbidity, including frailty, orthostatic hypotension (OH), falls and cognitive impairment that are associated with ageing...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435173/how-attention-influences-perceptual-decision-making-single-trial-eeg-correlates-of-drift-diffusion-model-parameters
#11
Michael D Nunez, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ramesh Srinivasan
Perceptual decision making can be accounted for by drift-diffusion models, a class of decision-making models that assume a stochastic accumulation of evidence on each trial. Fitting response time and accuracy to a drift-diffusion model produces evidence accumulation rate and non-decision time parameter estimates that reflect cognitive processes. Our goal is to elucidate the effect of attention on visual decision making. In this study, we show that measures of attention obtained from simultaneous EEG recordings can explain per-trial evidence accumulation rates and perceptual preprocessing times during a visual decision making task...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430040/foraging-value-risk-avoidance-and-multiple-control-signals-how-the-acc-controls-value-based-decision-making
#12
Joshua W Brown, William H Alexander
Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428202/precision-physiology-and-rescue-of-brain-ion-channel-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey Noebels
Ion channel genes, originally implicated in inherited excitability disorders of muscle and heart, have captured a major role in the molecular diagnosis of central nervous system disease. Their arrival is heralded by neurologists confounded by a broad phenotypic spectrum of early-onset epilepsy, autism, and cognitive impairment with few effective treatments. As detection of rare structural variants in channel subunit proteins becomes routine, it is apparent that primary sequence alone cannot reliably predict clinical severity or pinpoint a therapeutic solution...
April 20, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426360/pharmaceutical-cognitive-enhancement-in-greek-university-students-differences-between-users-and-non-users-in-social-cognitive-variables-burnout-and-engagement
#14
Lambros Lazuras, Antonia Ypsilanti, Efthymios Lamprou, Christos Kontogiorgis
Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425491/the-neural-dynamics-underlying-the-interpersonal-effects-of-emotional-expression-on-decision-making
#15
Xuhai Chen, Tingting Zheng, Lingzi Han, Yingchao Chang, Yangmei Luo
Although numerous studies explore the effects of emotion on decision-making, the existing research has mainly focused on the influence of intrapersonal emotions, leaving the influence of one person's emotions on another's decisions underestimated. To specify how interpersonal emotions shape decision-making and delineate the underlying neural dynamics involved, the present study examined brain responses to utilitarian feedback combined with angry or happy faces in competitive and cooperative contexts. Behavioral results showed that participants responded slower following losses than wins when competitors express happiness but responded faster following losses than wins when cooperators express anger...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424393/-regulation-of-behavior-based-on-interoception
#16
Hideki Ohira
It is well known that the insular cortex (Brodmann areas 13, 14, 15, and 16) located deep inside the Sylvian fissure is associated with mental functions such as perception, language, cognition, affect, and movement. In particular, the insular cortex has been linked to interoception, which is the representation of bodily physiological states that is used to regulate bodily states and mental functions. Recently, a common principle to explain such functions of the insular cortex has been proposed. The principle posits that the anterior insula generates predictions of future bodily states, computes the error by comparing the prediction with the actual sensory signals, and integrates the body with the mind by minimizing the prediction error...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424392/-the-role-of-brodmann-area-12-taste-social-cognition-and-mental-time
#17
Mitsuru Kawamura
Broadman area 12, together with area 11, is located in the orbitofrontal area. A voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study revealed the association between bilateral brodmann areas 12/47 and taste disturbance in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In our VBM study in patients with Parkinson's disease, decision-making impairments were associated with atrophy of the bilateral Brodmann area 12, indicating that this area may play an important role in social cognitive function. Our recent study also demonstrated that this area may serve as time order judgement or mental time travel...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#18
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419461/assent-in-pediatric-patients
#19
Jean C Self, Jennifer A Coddington, Karen J Foli, Melanie L Braswell
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of pediatric assent. BACKGROUND: The concept of assent is poorly defined in current literature which may lead to potentially flawed practices in obtaining pediatric assent. DESIGN: The Walker and Avant (2011) method is used to provide clarity to the concept of pediatric assent. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected from PubMed, Academic Search Premier, PhilPapers, Wikipedia, and Google...
April 17, 2017: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416039/pig-cognitive-bias-affects-the-conversion-of-muscle-into-meat-by-antioxidant-and-autophagy-mechanisms
#20
Y Potes, M Oliván, A Rubio-González, B de Luxán-Delgado, F Díaz, V Sierra, L Arroyo, R Peña, A Bassols, J González, R Carreras, A Velarde, M Muñoz-Torres, A Coto-Montes
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal's emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities...
April 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
keyword
keyword
941
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"