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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535272/measures-of-financial-capacity-a-review
#1
Angela R Ghesquiere, Caitlin McAfee, Jason Burnett
Purpose of the Study: Capacity to manage finances and make financial decisions can affect risk for financial exploitation and is often the basis for legal determinations of conservatorship/guardianship. Several structured assessments of financial capacity have been developed, but have not been compared regarding their focus, validity, or reliability. Therefore, we conducted a review of financial capacity measures to examine these factors. Design and Methods: We searched electronic databases, reference lists in identified articles, conference proceedings and other grey literature for measures of financial capacity...
May 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534169/-capacity-to-consent-to-treatment-in-dementia-patients-interdisciplinary-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Julia Haberstroh, Tanja Müller
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no concrete, evidence-based default procedures to adequately assess the capacity to consent to medical treatment. This explains why different raters use individual heuristics, differing both within and between disciplines. The lack of a procedure that is standardized, validated, and equally accepted across disciplines to assess the capacity to consent to treatment has led to an uncertainty in legal and medical practice regarding appropriate action and decision making...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534149/joint-effects-of-peer-presence-and-fatigue-on-risk-and-reward-processing-in-late-adolescence
#3
Karol Silva, Jamie Patrianakos, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
Peers are thought to increase adolescents' risk-taking behavior, at least in part, by heightening their sensitivity to rewards. In this study, we investigate whether the effect of peers on late adolescent males is exacerbated when youth are cognitively fatigued, a state characterized by weakened cognitive control and heightened orientation toward rewards, and well established as a factor that compromises decision making. We hypothesized that fatigued adolescents' top-down regulation of reward-related impulses may be compromised, thereby potentially amplifying the effect of peers on reward- and risk-seeking behavior...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#4
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531644/safety-evaluation-of-driver-cognitive-failures-and-driving-errors-on-right-turn-filtering-movement-at-signalized-road-intersections-based-on-fuzzy-cellular-automata-fca-model
#5
Chen Chai, Yiik Diew Wong, Xuesong Wang
This paper proposes a simulation-based approach to estimate safety impact of driver cognitive failures and driving errors. Fuzzy Logic, which involves linguistic terms and uncertainty, is incorporated with Cellular Automata model to simulate decision-making process of right-turn filtering movement at signalized intersections. Simulation experiments are conducted to estimate the relationships between cognitive failures and driving errors with safety performance. Simulation results show Different types of cognitive failures are found to have varied relationship with driving errors and safety performance...
May 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528347/discriminative-accuracy-of-physician-and-nurse-predictions-for-survival-and-functional-outcomes-6-months-after-an-icu-admission
#6
Michael E Detsky, Michael O Harhay, Dominique F Bayard, Aaron M Delman, Anna E Buehler, Saida A Kent, Isabella V Ciuffetelli, Elizabeth Cooney, Nicole B Gabler, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Mark E Mikkelsen, Scott D Halpern
Importance: Predictions of long-term survival and functional outcomes influence decision making for critically ill patients, yet little is known regarding their accuracy. Objective: To determine the discriminative accuracy of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses in predicting 6-month patient mortality and morbidity, including ambulation, toileting, and cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study conducted in 5 ICUs in 3 hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and enrolling patients who spent at least 3 days in the ICU from October 2013 until May 2014 and required mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or both...
May 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#7
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
May 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528023/medication-management-activities-performed-by-informal-caregivers-of-older-adults
#8
Kevin A Look, Jamie A Stone
BACKGROUND: Medication management is commonly performed by informal caregivers, yet they are often unprepared and ill-equipped to manage complex medication regimens for their older adult care recipients. In order to develop interventions that will enhance the caregiver's ability to safely and confidently manage medications, it is critical to first understand caregiver challenges and unmet needs related to medication management. OBJECTIVES: To explore how informal caregivers manage medications for their older adult care recipients by identifying the activities involved in medication management and the tools or strategies used to facilitate these activities...
May 16, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527216/effects-of-healthy-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-on-a-real-life-decision-making-task
#9
Marie-Theres Pertl, Thomas Benke, Laura Zamarian, Margarete Delazer
In this study, we investigated the effects of age and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on decision making under risk by adopting a task representing real-life health-related situations and involving complex numerical information. Moreover, we assessed the relationship of real-life decision making to other cognitive functions such as number processing, executive functions, language, memory, and attention. For this reason, we compared the performance of 19 healthy, relatively younger adults with that of 18 healthy older adults as well as the performance of the 18 healthy older adults with that of 17 patients with MCI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527206/social-representation-of-dementia-an-analysis-of-5-792-consecutive-cases-evaluated-in-a-memory-clinic
#10
Pilar Cañabate, Gabriel Martínez, Maitée Rosende-Roca, Mariola Moreno, Silvia Preckler, Sergi Valero, Oscar Sotolongo, Isabel Hernández, Montserrat Alegret, Gemma Ortega, Ana Espinosa, Ana Mauleón, Liliana Vargas, Octavio Rodríguez, Carla Abdelnour, Domingo Sánchez, Elvira Martín, Agustín Ruiz, Lluís Tárraga, Mercè Boada
BACKGROUND: Different interpretations of cognitive impairment and dementia due to differences in health structures, such as cultural differences could affect the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. it is reasonable to expect that the social and family impact of the disease and coping strategies will differ among societies. OBJECTIVE: The general aim of this study is to understand the social representations of dementia, its associated practices, and the effects they imply...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526585/impaired-response-selection-during-stepping-predicts-falls-in-older-people-a-cohort-study
#11
Daniel Schoene, Kim Delbaere, Stephen R Lord
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, an important executive function, has been identified as a risk factor for falls in older people. This study investigated whether step tests that include different levels of response inhibition differ in their ability to predict falls and whether such associations are mediated by measures of attention, speed, and/or balance. METHODS: A cohort study with a 12-month follow-up was conducted in community-dwelling older people without major cognitive and mobility impairments...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526009/measuring-health-literacy-among-low-literate-people-an-exploratory-feasibility-study-with-the-hls-eu-questionnaire
#12
Hannelore Storms, Neree Claes, Bert Aertgeerts, Stephan Van den Broucke
BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) is defined as necessary competencies to make well-informed decisions. As patients' decision making is a key element of patient-centered health care, insight in patients' HL might help healthcare professionals to organize their care accordingly. This is particularly true for people in a vulnerable situation, potentially with limited HL, who are, for instance, at greater risk of having limited access to care [1, 2]. As HL correlates with education, instruments should allow inclusion of low literate people...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523960/the-health-literacy-dyad-the-contribution-of-future-gps-in-england
#13
Oana R Groene, Jane Wills, Nicola Crichton, Gill Rowlands, Rima R Rudd
BACKGROUND: Health literacy studies have primarily focused on the cognitive and social skills of individuals needed to gain access to, understand, and use health information. This area of study is undergoing a paradigm shift with increased attention being paid to the skills of practitioners and an examination of their contribution to the link between literacy and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the health literacy related competencies of General Practice (GP) trainees who will soon be responsible for the clinical encounter...
May 19, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521070/drug-therapy-for-symptoms-associated-with-anxiety-in-adult-palliative-care-patients
#14
REVIEW
Susan Salt, Caroline A Mulvaney, Nancy J Preston
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 (Issue 1) and previously updated in 2012 (Issue 10). Anxiety is common in palliative care patients. It can be a natural response to the complex uncertainty of having a life-limiting illness or impending death, but it may represent a clinically significant issue in its own right. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of drug therapy for treating symptoms of anxiety in adults with a progressive life-limiting illness who are thought to be in their last year of life...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520551/strategies-for-sustained-weight-management-perspectives-from-african-american-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Felicia Hill-Briggs
Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify effective strategies for sustained weight management used by African American patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Methods In this study, nominal group technique was used to identify effective strategies for weight management used by 12 African Americans with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes who successfully lost or maintained their weight after completing DECIDE (Decision-making Education for Choices In Diabetes Everyday), a 9-module, literacy-adapted diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) education and problem-solving training program...
June 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516209/foreign-language-effect-and-psychological-distance
#16
Hong Im Shin, Juyoung Kim
Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from Greene et al. (Cognition 107: 1144-1155, 2008). Non-fluent Korean-English bilingual participants (N = 161) indicated decisions regarding four moral dilemmas in either Korean or English languages...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514983/adverse-effects-of-consuming-high-fat-sugar-diets-on-cognition-implications-for-understanding-obesity
#17
Martin R Yeomans
There is increasing evidence for important roles of key cognitive processes, including attention, memory and learning, in the short-term decision making about eating. There is parallel evidence that people who are overweight or obese tend to perform worse on a variety of cognitive tasks. In this review, the evidence for these two ideas is summarised and then the idea that overconsumption of Western-style high-fat (HF)-high-sugar diets may underlie the association between obesity and poorer cognitive performance is explored...
May 18, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514921/a-study-of-relationships-among-technical-tactical-physical-parameters-and-final-outcomes-in-elite-soccer-matches-as-analyzed-by-a-semiautomatic-video-tracking-system
#18
Cristoforo Filetti, Bruno Ruscello, Stefano D'Ottavio, Vito Fanelli
The performance of a soccer team depends on many factors such as decision-making, cognitive and physical skills, and dynamic ever-changing space-time interactions between teammate and opponents in relation to the ball. Seventy ( n = 70) matches of the Italian SERIE A season 2013-2014 were investigated to analyze the mean performance of 360 players in terms of physical (physical efficiency index; PEI) and technical-tactical (technical efficiency index; TEI) standpoints. Using a semiautomatic video analysis system that has incorporated new parameters able to measure technical-tactical and physical efficiency (Patent IB2010/002593, 2011-ISA), the correlation between these new variables and how much it relates to the likelihood of winning were verified...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512438/are-neurodynamic-organizations-a-fundamental-property-of-teamwork
#19
Ronald H Stevens, Trysha L Galloway
When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507895/diverging-volumetric-trajectories-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Emily L Dennis, Joshua Faskowitz, Faisal Rashid, Talin Babikian, Richard Mink, Christopher Babbitt, Jeffrey Johnson, Christopher C Giza, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern, and can be especially disruptive in children, derailing on-going neuronal maturation in periods critical for cognitive development. There is considerable heterogeneity in post-injury outcomes, only partially explained by injury severity. Understanding the time course of recovery, and what factors may delay or promote recovery, will aid clinicians in decision-making and provide avenues for future mechanism-based therapeutics. We examined regional changes in brain volume in a pediatric/adolescent moderate-severe TBI (msTBI) cohort, assessed at two time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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