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Cognitive decision making

Mirjam Marjolein Garvelink, Leontine Groen-van de Ven, Carolien Smits, Rob Franken, Myrra Dassen-Vernooij, France Légaré
Background: Persons with dementia (PWDs) and their caregivers often face difficult housing decisions, that is, decisions about their living arrangements, in which the perspectives of all members of the care network should be involved. Objective: We performed a qualitative data analysis to assess the extent to which housing decisions for PWDs with their formal and informal caregivers correspond to an interprofessional shared decision making (IP-SDM) approach, and what light this approach sheds on their experiences with decision making...
July 10, 2018: Gerontologist
Michelle Liou, Jih-Fu Hsieh, Jonathan Evans, I-Wen Su, Siddharth Nayak, Juin-Der Lee, Alexander N Savostyanov
Recent research has found a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive control mechanisms underlying various experimental tasks. This study explored the interaction between gender and resting-state HRV in brain oscillatory activity during visual recognition of linguistic ambiguity while taking state and trait anxiety scores into account. It is well known that stress or anxiety increases arousal levels, particularly under uncertainty situations. We tasked 50 young Mandarin speakers (26 women; average age 26...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Gurpreet K Reen, Eli Silber, Dawn W Langdon
BACKGROUND: Patients' understanding of treatment risks and benefits is a prerequisite for shared decision making. Yet, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) do not accurately understand treatment information provided in regular clinical consultations. OBJECTIVES: To identify the best methods of communicating clinical trial data to improve the understanding of treatments among patients with MS and to also examine the relationship between patients' understanding with decisional conflict, individual traits, and MS symptoms...
July 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Kenny Wolfs, Arjan E R Bos, Fraukje E F Mevissen, Gjalt-Jorn Y Peters, Jacques J D M van Lankveld
Being sexually aroused may be an important risk factor contributing to sexual decision making. Dual-process cognitive models, such as the reflective-impulsive model of Strack and Deutsch (2004), could be used to explain the effect of sexual arousal on intentions to use a condom. In this study, we investigated whether explicit and implicit attitudes toward condom use can predict intentions to use a condom when participants are sexually aroused and not aroused. In a within-subjects experimental design, male participants (N = 27) watched both a neutral and an erotic movie clip in counterbalanced order...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Lewis W Chan, Tomas L Griebling, Edwin P Arnold, Peggy S Chu, Peter W New, Adrian Wagg
PURPOSE: This paper reports the key findings of Committee 8 of the Joint SIU-ICUD Consultation on Urologic Management of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient and address issues pertaining to the older person with a SCI and the time-related changes relevant to their urological, gastrointestinal and functional management. METHODS: A literature review using the Pubmed and Ovid search engines was performed examining pertinent literature regarding SCI in the older patient...
July 12, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Jose Ramón Alameda-Bailén, Pilar Salguero-Alcañiz, Ana Merchán-Clavellino, Susana Paíno-Quesada
Objective: Cannabis, like other substances, negatively affects health, inducing respiratory problems and mental and cognitive alterations. Memory and learning disorders, as well as executive dysfunctions, are also neuropsychological disorders associated to cannabis use. Recent evidence reveals that cannabis use during adolescence may disrupt the normal development of the brain. This study is aimed to analyze possible differences between early-onset and late-onset cannabis consumers. Method: We used a task based on a card game with four decks and different programs of gains/losses...
2018: PeerJ
Daniel Birman, Justin L Gardner
Despite the central use of motion visibility to reveal the neural basis of perception, perceptual decision making, and sensory inference there exists no comprehensive quantitative framework establishing how motion visibility parameters modulate human cortical response. Random-dot motion stimuli can be made less visible by reducing image contrast or motion coherence, or by shortening the stimulus duration. Because each of these manipulations modulates the strength of sensory neural responses they have all been extensively used to reveal cognitive and other non-sensory phenomenon such as the influence of priors, attention, and choice-history biases...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Hamido Fujita, Angelo Gaeta, Vincenzo Loia, Francesco Orciuoli
A great impetus for the study of resilience in critical infrastructures (CIs) is found in the large number of initiatives and international research programmes from U.S., EU, and Asia. Politicians, decision makers, and citizens are now aware of the drastic consequences that can have the cascading effects of an adverse event in these large scale infrastructures. However, the study of resilience in CIs is challenging for several reasons, among which their large scale and interdependencies. We have to consider also that adverse events, e...
March 29, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Chanjuan Liu, Enqiang Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Xiaopeng Wei
The decision-making process, which is regarded as cognitive and ubiquitous, has been exploited in diverse fields, such as psychology, economics, and artificial intelligence. This paper considers the problem of modeling agent cognition in a class of game-theoretic decision-making scenarios called extensive games. We present a novel framework in which artificial neural networks are incorporated to simulate agent cognition regarding the structure of the underlying game and the goodness of the game situations therein...
January 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
S Duke Han, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Debra A Fleischman, Lei Yu, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
Temporal discounting, the tendency to select a smaller reward offered sooner over a larger reward offered at a later time, has been associated with a number of real-world decision-making outcomes important for health and wellbeing. Neurobiological mechanisms supporting temporal discounting have been explored among younger participants, and these have considered white matter integrity. However, the white matter correlates of temporal discounting in older adults are unclear. We hypothesized that greater temporal discounting would be associated with poorer white matter integrity measures, more specifically lower fractional anisotropy and higher trace, in older adults...
July 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ronghui Ju, Chenhui Hu, Pan Zhou, Quanzheng Li
Computerized healthcare has undergone rapid development thanks to the advances in medical imaging and machine learning technologies. Especially, recent progress on deep learning opens a new era for multimedia based clinical decision support. In this paper, we use deep learning with brain network and clinical relevant text information to make early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The clinical relevant text information includes age, gender and ApoE gene of the subject. The brain network is constructed by computing functional connectivity of brain regions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data...
November 23, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Mehdy Ghaeminia, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Hwee-Ling Koh, Gavin S Dawe, Chay Hoon Tan
Background: Panax ginseng is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs worldwide for a variety of therapeutic properties including neurocognitive effects. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most abundant active chemical constituents of this herb with known neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and cognition improving effects. Methods: We investigated the effects of Rg1 on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a key brain region involved in cognition, information processing, working memory, and decision making...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: "Hitting the wall" (HTW) can be understood as a psychophysiological stress process characterised by (A) discrete and poignant onset, (B) dynamic interplay between physiological, affective, motivational, cognitive, and behavioural systems, and (C) unintended alteration of pace and performance. A preceding companion article investigated the psychophysiological responses to 20-km self-paced treadmill time trials after producing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) via a standardised muscle-lengthening contraction protocol...
July 10, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Kah Poh Loh, Heidi D Klepin
The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) increases with age, but the outcomes for older adults with AML are poor due to underlying tumor biology, poor tolerance to aggressive treatment, and the physiologic changes of aging. Because of the underlying heterogeneity in health status, treatment decisions are difficult in this population. A geriatric assessment (GA) refers to the use of various validated tools to assess domains that are important in older adults including physical function, cognition, comorbidities, polypharmacy, social support, and nutritional status...
July 6, 2018: Cancers
Sandra L Winkler, John A Kairalla, Hua Feng
OBJECTIVES: To provide knowledge about (a) the provision of assistive devices in practice and (b) the challenges of standardizing device provision. DESIGN: Retrospective study using Department of Veteran Affairs National Prosthetic Patient Database and other administrative databases. The cohort included all veterans treated by the VA for stroke during fiscal years 2007-2008. Descriptive methods were used to analyze data with emphasis on inspecting relationships between device provision and motor and cognitive function using Functional Independence Measure scores...
July 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Fay J Hlubocky, Greg A Sachs, Eric R Larson, Halla S Nimeiri, David Cella, Kristen E Wroblewski, Mark J Ratain, Jeffery M Peppercorn, Christopher K Daugherty
Purpose Patients with advanced cancer (ACPs) participating in phase I clinical trials inadequately understand many elements of informed consent (IC); however, the prevalence and impact of cognitive impairment has not been described. Patients and Methods ACPs enrolled onto phase I trials underwent neuropsychological assessment to evaluate cognitive functioning (CF) covering the following domains: memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test), executive functioning (Trail Making Test B), language (Boston Naming Test-Short Version and Controlled Oral Word Association Test), attention (Trail Making Test A and Wechsler Adult Intelligenence Scale-IV Digit Span), comprehension (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV), and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Tomer J Czaczkes, Alexandra Koch, Kerstin Fröber, Gesine Dreisbach
When faced with multiple competing goals, individuals must decide which goal to attend to. Voluntary task switching is an important paradigm for testing cognitive flexibility and spontaneous decision-making when competing tasks are present. Of particular importance is the study of how reward affects task switching, as reward is perhaps the most commonly used tool for shaping both human and animal behavior. Recently, Fröber and Dreisbach (2016) demonstrated that it is not reward level per se, but reward change, which most strongly affects switching behavior in humans: Task switching was lowest when reward remained high and highest when reward is changed (increase or decrease), while the repetition of low reward showed intermediate switching levels...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Abigail Millings, Katherine B Carnelley, Kate Cavanagh, Anna Wilderpsin, Hannah Wiseman, Angela C Rowe
We sought to understand how attachment orientation influenced attitudes towards different types of psychological therapies. In two studies, we (1) examined attachment orientation as a predictor of attitudes towards different therapies and (2) tested whether attachment security priming could improve attitudes. Study 1 (n = 339) found associations between attachment orientation and attitudes towards, and likelihood of using different therapies. Positive and negative attitudes about different therapies mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and likelihood of use...
July 8, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Fayez Ebrahim Alshamsi, Ahmed Chaaban, Mona Alrukhaimi, Bassam Bernieh, Omran Bakoush
Patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) with severely impaired cognitive function have no survival benefit from dialysis. We therefore undertook a survey to explore the renal physicians' practices of withholding and withdrawal of dialysis treatment in vegetative state patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross sectional survey of 29 nephrology practices in UAE exploring physicians' practices in making decisions of withholding and withdrawal of dialysis treatment during provision end-of-life care for patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS)...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
Gregory Kapinos, Eugen Trinka, Peter W Kaplan
We propose a comprehensive review of the subject of epileptiform and potentially harmful EEG patterns that lie on the interictal continuum (IIC) to help with therapeutic decision-making and target future research. This approach to "electro-physiological SE" encompasses five dimensions of the IIC: it characterizes a periodic or rhythmic pattern, not only regarding its ictal morphology and potential harm with secondary neuronal injury, but also addresses the "metabolic footprint," clinical repercussion, and epileptogenic potential...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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