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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086861/managing-shades-of-grey-a-focus-group-study-exploring-community-dwellers-views-on-advance-care-planning-in-older-people
#1
Natasha Michael, Clare O'Callaghan, Emma Sayers
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081196/how-social-ties-influence-consumer-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#2
Jing Luan, Zhong Yao, Yan Bai
A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079400/dysphagia-therapy-post-stroke-an-exploration-of-the-practices-and-clinical-decision-making-of-speech-language-pathologists-in-australia
#4
Olivia Jones, Jade Cartwright, Anne Whitworth, Naomi Cocks
PURPOSE: A variety of dysphagia management options are available for the treatment of dysphagia following a stroke, however, it is unknown which of these approaches are most commonly utilised by Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and whether particular factors influence decision-making. METHOD: The aim of this study was to investigate, through an online survey, the treatment practices of SLPs in Australia for the treatment of dysphagia post-stroke and identify the factors influencing treatment decisions...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078571/analyzing-spatial-data-from-mouse-tracker-methodology-an-entropic-approach
#5
Antonio Calcagnì, Luigi Lombardi, Simone Sulpizio
Mouse tracker methodology has recently been advocated to explore the motor components of the cognitive dynamics involved in experimental tasks like categorization, decision-making, and language comprehension. This methodology relies on the analysis of computer-mouse trajectories, by evaluating whether they significantly differ in terms of direction, amplitude, and location when a given experimental factor is manipulated. In this kind of study, a descriptive geometric approach is usually adopted in the analysis of raw trajectories, where they are summarized with several measures, such as maximum-deviation and area under the curve...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077020/relationship-between-18-f-flutemetamol-uptake-and-rbans-performance-in-non-demented-community-dwelling-older-adults
#6
Dustin B Hammers, Taylor J Atkinson, Bonnie C A Dalley, Kayla R Suhrie, Britney E Beardmore, Lance D Burrell, Kevin P Horn, Kelli M Rasmussen, Norman L Foster, Kevin Duff, John M Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has been used extensively for clinical care and in research for patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, relatively few studies have evaluated the relationship between RBANS performance and AD imaging biomarkers. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the association between a relatively new amyloid positron emission tomography imaging biomarker and performance on the RBANS...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075425/management-of-fibromyalgia-practical-guides-from-recent-evidence-based-guidelines
#7
Winfried Häuser, Jacob Ablin, Serge Perrot, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and costly condition worldwide, affecting approximately 2% of the general population. Recent evidence- and consensus-based guidelines from Canada, Germany, Israel and the European League Against Rheumatism aim to support physicians in achieving a comprehensive diagnostic work-up of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and to assist patients and physicians in shared decision making on treament options. Every patient with CWP requires at the first medical evaluation a complete history, medical examination and some laboratory tests (complete blood count, C-reactive protein, serum calcium, creatine phosphokinase, thyroid stimulating hormone, 25-OH vitamin D) to screen for metabolic or inflammatory causes of CWP...
January 4, 2017: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074589/on-patient-well-being-and-professional-authority
#8
Mildred Z Solomon
Two papers in this issue address the limits of surrogates' authority when making life-and-death decisions for dying family members or friends. Using palliative sedation as an example, Jeffrey Berger offers a conceptual argument for bounding surrogate authority. Since freedom from pain is an essential interest, when imminently dying, cognitively incapacitated patients are in duress and their symptoms are not manageable in any other way, clinicians should be free to offer palliative sedation without surrogate consent, although assent should be sought and every effort made to work with surrogates as harmoniously as possible...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#9
Rosanna Palmeri, Lo Viviana Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Di Giuseppe Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073146/value-based-care-in-hepatology
#10
REVIEW
Mario Strazzabosco, John I Allen, Elizabeth O Teisberg
The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and re-design of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Since patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Since chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices ...
January 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069027/reliability-of-health-related-quality-of-life-assessments-made-by-older-adults-and-significant-others-for-health-states-of-increasing-cognitive-impairment
#11
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand
BACKGROUND: Older adults are encouraged by many organizations to engage in advance care planning in the event of decisional incapacity. Planning for future health care often involves anticipating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in states of reduced cognitive functioning. No study has yet examined whether anticipated HRQoL is stable over time. The accuracy with which significant others can predict how an older adult envisions HRQoL in a future state of cognitive impairment is also unknown...
January 7, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068616/residual-depressive-symptoms-sleep-disturbance-and-perceived-cognitive-impairment-as-determinants-of-functioning-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
Ludovic Samalin, Laurent Boyer, Andrea Murru, Isabella Pacchiarotti, María Reinares, Caterina Mar Bonnin, Carla Torrent, Norma Verdolini, Corinna Pancheri, Ingrid de Chazeron, Mohamed Boucekine, Pierre-Alexis Geoffroy, Frank Bellivier, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Eduard Vieta
BACKGROUND: Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience residual symptoms during their inter-episodic periods. The study aimed to analyse the relationship between residual depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances and self-reported cognitive impairment as determinants of psychosocial functioning in a large sample of euthymic BD patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 468 euthymic BD outpatients. We evaluated the residual depressive symptoms with the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the sleep disturbances with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the perceived cognitive performance using visual analogic scales and functioning with the Functioning Assessment Short Test...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#13
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065206/iowa-gambling-task-performance-prospectively-predicts-changes-in-glycemic-control-among-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
Yana Suchy, Tara L Queen, Bryce Huntbach, Deborah J Wiebe, Sara L Turner, Jonathan Butner, Caitlin S Kelly, Perrin C White, Mary Murray, Michael Swinyard, Cynthia A Berg
OBJECTIVES: Good glycemic control is an important goal of diabetes management. Late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for poor glycemic control as they move into young adulthood. For a subset of these patients, this dysregulation is extreme, placing them at risk for life-threatening health complications and permanent cognitive declines. The present study examined whether deficiency in emotional decision making (as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) among teens with T1D may represent a neurocognitive risk factor for subsequent glycemic dysregulation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061375/applying-new-evidence-standards-to-youth-cognitive-behavioral-therapies-a-review
#15
Leslie R Rith-Najarian, Alayna L Park, Tina Wang, Ana I Etchison, Denise A Chavira, Bruce F Chorpita
This review included 136 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of youth cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatments. We aimed to test the premise that evidence-based youth treatments can be better differentiated from each other by applying more nuanced standards of evidence. Accordingly, we applied three standards to this article sample to determine how many treatments produced significant results: (a) on multiple target symptom measures, (b) at follow-up, and/or (c) against an active comparison group...
December 23, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057710/-this-man-with-dementia-1-othering-the-person-with-dementia-in-the-court-of-protection
#16
Laura Pritchard-Jones
In recent years, dementia has been subjected to an increasing ethical, legal, and political gaze. This article analyses how the Court of Protection considers the perspective of the person with dementia when making best interests decisions on their behalf under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. The article draws upon feminist and disability literature to highlight how the Court has, on occasions, 'othered' the person with dementia during the process of making best interests decisions. This is despite law and policy increasingly emphasising that the views of the person who lacks capacity should be central to any best interests decision, as well as emphasising the importance of de-stigmatisation of cognitive impairments, such as dementia...
January 5, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056361/a-metacognitive-model-of-procrastination
#17
Bruce A Fernie, Zinnia Bharucha, Ana V Nikčević, Claudia Marino, Marcantonio M Spada
BACKGROUND: procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of task or decision-making initiation or completion and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that metacognitions play a role in procrastination and that unintentional procrastination (UP), as opposed to intentional procrastination (IP), may be the most problematic form of this behaviour. We aimed to test a metacognitive model of procrastination that was grounded in the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056045/further-development-of-the-assessment-of-military-multitasking-performance-iterative-reliability-testing
#18
Margaret M Weightman, Karen L McCulloch, Mary V Radomski, Marsha Finkelstein, Amy S Cecchini, Leslie F Davidson, Kristin J Heaton, Laurel B Smith, Matthew R Scherer
The Assessment of Military Multitasking Performance (AMMP) is a battery of functional dual-tasks and multitasks based on military activities that target known sensorimotor, cognitive, and exertional vulnerabilities after concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The AMMP was developed to help address known limitations in post concussive return to duty assessment and decision making. Once validated, the AMMP is intended for use in combination with other metrics to inform duty-readiness decisions in Active Duty Service Members following concussion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055228/preliminary-investigation-of-brain-network-activation-bna-and-its-clinical-utility-in-sport-related-concussion
#19
A Reches, J Kutcher, R J Elbin, H Or-Ly, B Sadeh, J Greer, D J McAllister, A Geva, A P Kontos
BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis and management of patients with sport-related concussion is largely dependent on subjectively reported symptoms, clinical examinations, cognitive, balance, vestibular and oculomotor testing. Consequently, there is an unmet need for objective assessment tools that can identify the injury from a physiological perspective and add an important layer of information to the clinician's decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the EEG-based tool named Brain Network Activation (BNA) as a longitudinal assessment method of brain function in the management of young athletes with concussion...
January 5, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054819/comparing-integral-and-incidental-emotions-testing-insights-from-emotions-as-social-information-theory-and-attribution-theory
#20
Annika Hillebrandt, Laurie J Barclay
Studies have indicated that observers can infer information about others' behavioral intentions from others' emotions and use this information in making their own decisions. Integrating emotions as social information (EASI) theory and attribution theory, we argue that the interpersonal effects of emotions are not only influenced by the type of discrete emotion (e.g., anger vs. happiness) but also by the target of the emotion (i.e., how the emotion relates to the situation). We compare the interpersonal effects of emotions that are integral (i...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
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