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Cognitive decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921217/don-t-make-me-angry-you-wouldn-t-like-me-when-i-m-angry-volitional-choices-to-act-or-inhibit-are-modulated-by-subliminal-perception-of-emotional-faces
#1
Jim Parkinson, Sarah Garfinkel, Hugo Critchley, Zoltan Dienes, Anil K Seth
Volitional action and self-control-feelings of acting according to one's own intentions and in being control of one's own actions-are fundamental aspects of human conscious experience. However, it is unknown whether high-level cognitive control mechanisms are affected by socially salient but nonconscious emotional cues. In this study, we manipulated free choice decisions to act or withhold an action by subliminally presenting emotional faces: In a novel version of the Go/NoGo paradigm, participants made speeded button-press responses to Go targets, withheld responses to NoGo targets, and made spontaneous, free choices to execute or withhold the response for Choice targets...
December 5, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#2
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913539/prevention-of-central-nervous-system-sequelae-in-sickle-cell-disease-without-evidence-from-randomized-controlled-trials-the-case-for-a-team-based-learning-collaborative
#3
Michael R DeBaun, Allison A King
Since 1998, the National Institutes of Health has funded 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for primary and secondary prevention of strokes in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). In a systematic fashion, these trials have significantly advanced the care of children with SCA. In the absence of an RCT, clinicians are often compelled to make decisions at the bedside, based on experience, observational studies, and principles of hematology. We will provide an initial example that describes how a team-based, learning collaborative developed a multisite standard care protocol with a low budget (<$10 000 per year) to overcome the intrinsic limitations of advancing the care of neurologic complications in sickle cell disease (SCD)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913500/fitness-in-the-elderly-how-to-make-decisions-regarding-acute-myeloid-leukemia-induction
#4
Arati V Rao
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease of the elderly, but less than half of these patients are offered therapy despite the evidence of better survival with treatment in this patient population. Assessing fit, vulnerable, and frail older adults with AML remains a challenge for the treating oncologist. A majority of AML patients are elderly and often have significant comorbidities, lack of social support, and older caregivers. Performance status (PS), a subjective measure of how a patient will tolerate cancer chemotherapy, has been strongly correlated with mortality in older AML patients...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907171/correction-beyond-rational-decision-making-modelling-the-influence-of-cognitive-biases-on-the-dynamics-of-vaccination-coverage
#5
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142990.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905108/the-effects-of-cognitive-style-and-emotional-trade-off-difficulty-on-information-processing-in-decision-making
#6
Dawei Wang, Leilei Hao, Phil Maguire, Yixin Hu
This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904913/statistical-process-control-a-feasibility-study-of-the-application-of-time-series-measurement-in-early-neurorehabilitation-after-acquired-brain-injury
#7
Gabriela Markovic, Marie-Louise Schult, Aniko Bartfai, Mattias Elg
BACKGROUND: Progress in early cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury is uneven and unpredictable, and thus the evaluation of rehabilitation is complex. The use of time-series measurements is susceptible to statistical change due to process variation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of using a time-series method, statistical process control, in early cognitive rehabilitation. METHOD: Participants were 27 patients with acquired brain injury undergoing interdisciplinary rehabilitation of attention within 4 months post-injury...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#8
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903769/education-for-the-next-frontier-in-patient-safety-a-longitudinal-resident-curriculum-on-diagnostic-error
#9
Emily Ruedinger, Maren Olson, Justin Yee, Emily Borman-Shoap, Andrew P J Olson
Diagnostic error is a common, serious problem that has received increased attention recently for its impact on both patients and providers. Presently, most graduate medical education programs do not formally address this topic. The authors developed and evaluated a longitudinal, multimodule resident curriculum about diagnostic error and medical decision making. Key components of the curriculum include demystifying the medical decision-making process, building skills in critical thinking, and providing strategies for diagnostic error mitigation...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903717/deciphering-decision-making-variation-in-animal-models-of-effort-and-uncertainty-based-choice-reveals-distinct-neural-circuitries-underlying-core-cognitive-processes
#10
Catharine A Winstanley, Stan B Floresco
Maladaptive decision-making is increasingly recognized to play a significant role in numerous psychiatric disorders, such that therapeutics capable of ameliorating core impairments in judgment may be beneficial in a range of patient populations. The field of "decision neuroscience" is therefore in its ascendancy, with researchers from diverse fields bringing their expertise to bear on this complex and fascinating problem. In addition to the advances in neuroimaging and computational neuroscience that contribute enormously to this area, an increase in the complexity and sophistication of behavioral paradigms designed for nonhuman laboratory animals has also had a significant impact on researchers' ability to test the causal nature of hypotheses pertaining to the neural circuitry underlying the choice process...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903334/applying-an-evidence-based-assessment-model-to-identify-students-at-risk-for-perceived-academic-problems-following-concussion
#11
Danielle M Ransom, Alison R Burns, Eric A Youngstrom, Christopher G Vaughan, Maegan D Sady, Gerard A Gioia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of an evidence-based assessment (EBA) model to establish a multimodal set of tools for identifying students at risk for perceived post-injury academic problems. METHODS: Participants included 142 students diagnosed with concussion (age: M=14.95; SD=1.80; 59% male), evaluated within 4 weeks of injury (median=16 days). Demographics, pre-injury history, self- and parent-report measures assessing symptom severity and executive functions, and cognitive test performance were examined as predictors of self-reported post-injury academic problems...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902662/surveillance-a-nursing-intervention-for-improving-patient-safety-in-critical-care-environment
#12
Dale M Pfrimmer, Maren R Johnson, Martha L Guthmiller, Joanna L Lehman, Vickie K Ernste, Lori M Rhudy
BACKGROUND: Nursing surveillance has been identified as a key intervention in early recognition and prevention of errors/adverse events. Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) defines surveillance as "the purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making." Because nurses are the main staffing constant in the critical care environment, the importance of surveillance as an intervention is fundamental. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how surveillance is expressed by critical care nurses...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#13
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
November 30, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898305/view-aligned-hypergraph-learning-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-with-incomplete-multi-modality-data
#14
Mingxia Liu, Jun Zhang, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Effectively utilizing incomplete multi-modality data for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodrome (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, MCI) remains an active area of research. Several multi-view learning methods have been recently developed for AD/MCI diagnosis by using incomplete multi-modality data, with each view corresponding to a specific modality or a combination of several modalities. However, existing methods usually ignore the underlying coherence among views, which may lead to sub-optimal learning performance...
November 16, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897213/decision-making-processes-based-on-social-conventional-rules-in-early-adolescents-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Hidetsugu Komeda, Hidekazu Osanai, Kaichi Yanaoka, Yuko Okamoto, Toru Fujioka, Sumiyoshi Arai, Keisuke Inohara, Masuo Koyasu, Takashi Kusumi, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Masao Kawatani, Hirokazu Kumazaki, Michio Hiratani, Akemi Tomoda, Hirotaka Kosaka
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by problems with reciprocal social interaction, repetitive behaviours/narrow interests, and impairments in the social cognition and emotional processing necessary for intention-based moral judgements. The aim of this study was to examine the information used by early adolescents with and without ASD when they judge story protagonists as good or bad. We predicted that adolescents with ASD would use protagonists' behaviour, while typically developing (TD) adolescents would use protagonists' characteristics when making the judgements...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896310/preservation-of-essential-odor-guided-behaviors-and-odor-based-reversal-learning-after-targeting-adult-brain-serotonin-synthesis
#16
Kaitlin S Carlson, Meredith S Whitney, Marie A Gadziola, Evan S Deneris, Daniel W Wesson
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895571/neural-mechanisms-of-positive-mood-induced-modulation-of-reality-monitoring
#17
Karuna Subramaniam, Jeevit Gill, Patrick Slattery, Aditi Shastri, Daniel H Mathalon, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
This study investigates the neural mechanisms of mood induced modulation of cognition, specifically, on reality monitoring abilities. Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented contextual information. When participants were in a positive mood, compared to a neutral mood, they significantly improved their source memory identification abilities, particularly for self-generated information. However, being in a negative mood had no effect on reality monitoring abilities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894028/exploring-the-clinical-decision-making-used-by-experienced-cardiorespiratory-physiotherapists-a-mixed-method-qualitative-design-of-simulation-video-recording-and-think-aloud-techniques
#18
Debbie Thackray, Lisa Roberts
BACKGROUND: The ability of physiotherapists to make clinical decisions is a vital component of being an autonomous practitioner, yet this complex phenomenon has been under-researched in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical decision-making (CDM) by experienced physiotherapists in a scenario of a simulated patient experiencing acute deterioration of their respiratory function. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this observational study was to identify the actions, thoughts, and behaviours used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists in their clinical decision-making processes...
November 14, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891023/capacity-issues-and-decision-making-in-dementia
#19
REVIEW
Soumya Hegde, Ratnavalli Ellajosyula
Capacity to make one's own decisions is fundamental to the autonomy of the individual. Capacity is a functional assessment made by a clinician to determine if a patient is capable of making a specific decision. Competency is a global assessment and legal determination made by a judge in court. Capacity evaluation for a patient with dementia is used to determine whether the patient is capable of giving informed consent, participate in research, manage their finances, live independently, make a will, and have ability to drive...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888527/electrophysiological-correlates-of-decision-making-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Elisa Azcárraga-Guirola, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Julia Velázquez-Cardoso, Yamel Rito-García, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco
Although previous studies have shown that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may exhibit impaired decision making (DM), the specific neuro-cognitive processes that underlie this deficiency remain unknown. Inefficient DM may occur due to poor option assessment or a deficit in the evaluation of choice outcomes. This study uses, for the first time, the event-related potential (ERP) technique to analyze these DM subprocesses in patients with MS. Sixteen MS patients and nineteen control subjects performed a DM task based on the Iowa Gambling Task while a digital EEG was recorded...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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