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Mitochondrial diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225202/epigenetic-modifications-an-important-mechanism-in-diabetic-disturbances
#1
Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Adriana Kubis, Agnieszka Piwowar
In the search for explanations of diabetes pathomechanisms, especially the development of its vascular complications (micro- and macrovascular ), although current, good metabolic control of diabetes, attention was drawn to the role of epigenetic inheritance associated with epigenetic modifications of histone proteins and DNA in hyperglycemia conditions. This study showed the significant role of DNA methylation and histone epigenetic modifications (a different nature and a different degree) in the transmission of information that is not connected with gene inheritance but concerns the persistent changes induced by hyperglycemia...
November 29, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225119/d-chiro-inositol-enriched-fagopyrum-tataricum-l-gaench-extract-alleviates-mitochondrial-malfunction-and-inhibits-er-stress-jnk-associated-inflammation-in-the-endothelium
#2
Bobo Zhang, Caifeng Gao, Yunlong Li, Min Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tartary buckwheat is a food medicine dual-use crop with healing effects on cardiovascular diseases and type2 diabetes. It has been proposed that endothelial dysfunction is the initial lesion in these diseases and it's associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is a bioactive compound of Tartary buckwheat and is always deficit in type2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether DCI-enriched Tartary buckwheat extract can ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and inflammation in the endothelium...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218453/energy-depletion-and-not-ros-formation-is-a-crucial-step-of-glucolipotoxicity-gltx-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#3
Morgana Barroso Oquendo, Nikolas Layer, Rebecca Wagner, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Gisela Drews
We have shown previously that genetic or pharmacological deletion of KATP channels protect against beta cell dysfunction induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since it is assumed that glucolipotoxicity (GLTx) causes ROS production, we aimed to evaluate whether suppression of KATP channel activity can also prevent beta cell damage evoked by GLTx. We used an in vitro model of GLTx and measured distinct parameters of stimulus-secretion coupling. GLTx gradually induced disturbances of Ca2+ oscillations over 3 days...
December 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216352/identification-of-estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-agonists-in-the-tox21-compound-library
#4
Caitlin Lynch, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Noriko Kanaya, Lauren Bernal, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt, B Alex Merrick, Shiuan Chen, Christina T Teng, Menghang Xia
The estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor (NR) that plays a role in energy homeostasis and controls mitochondrial oxidative respiration. Increased expression of ERRα in certain ovarian, breast, and colon cancers has a negative prognosis, indicating an important role for ERRα in cancer progression. An interaction between ERRα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) has also recently been shown to regulate an enzyme in the β-oxidation of free fatty acids, thereby suggesting that ERRα plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210999/adverse-intrauterine-environment-and-cardiac-mirna-expression
#5
REVIEW
Mitchell C Lock, Kimberley J Botting, Ross L Tellam, Doug Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208909/mitochondrial-dna-mutations-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-chinese-uyghur-population
#6
Wenxi Jiang, Ronghui Li, Yongbiao Zhang, Panpan Wang, Tingting Wu, Jinming Lin, Jun Yu, Mingliang Gu
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate potential association between mitochondrial DNA and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese Uyghur population. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 210 Uyghur individuals including 88 T2DM patients and 122 controls. Using haplogroup classification and association test, we found that haplogroup H (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.64; P = 0.0005138) and D4 (odds ratio = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22-1.77; P = 0...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207597/inhibition-of-miro1-disturbs-mitophagy-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-interfering-insulin-release-via-irs-akt-foxo1-in-diabetes
#7
Lingling Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jianfeng Gao, Zhiwen Xie, Lawrence W C Chan, Damien J Keating, Yibin Yang, Jiazhong Sun, Fuling Zhou, Yongchang Wei, Xiuli Men, Sijun Yang
Mitochondrial function is essential to meet metabolic demand of pancreatic beta cells respond to high nutrient stress. Mitophagy is an essential component to normal pancreatic β-cell function and has been associated with β-cell failure in Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our previous studies have indicated that mitochondrial Rho (Miro) GTPase-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction under high nutrient stress leads to NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-dependent proinflammatory responses and subsequent insulin resistance. However, the in vivo mechanism by which Miro1 underlies mitophagy has not been identified...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207476/protective-effects-of-hesperidin-citrus-flavonone-on-high-glucose-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-a-cellular-model-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Wayne Young Liu, Shorong-Shii Liou, Tang-Yao Hong, I-Min Liu
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of hesperidin, a plant based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, under the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). RGC-5 cells were pretreated with hesperidin (12.5, 25, or 50 μmol/L) for 6 h followed by exposure to high (33.3 mmol/L) d-glucose for 48 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was adopted to evaluate cell viability...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206239/type-1-diabetes-alters-lipid-handling-and-metabolism-in-human-fibroblasts-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#9
Albert R Jones Iv, Emily L Coleman, Nicholas R Husni, Jude T Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S Nikolajczyk, Barbara E Corkey
Triggers of the autoimmune response that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain poorly understood. A possibility is that parallel changes in both T cells and target cells provoke autoimmune attack. We previously documented greater Ca2+ transients in fibroblasts from T1D subjects than non-T1D after exposure to fatty acids (FA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). These data indicate that metabolic and signal transduction defects present in T1D can be elicited ex vivo in isolated cells. Changes that precede T1D, including inflammation, may activate atypical responses in people that are genetically predisposed to T1D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206172/melatonin-efficacy-in-obese-leptin-deficient-mice-heart
#10
Alessandra Stacchiotti, Gaia Favero, Lorena Giugno, Igor Golic, Aleksandra Korac, Rita Rezzani
Cardiomyocytes are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage due to the link between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for calcium flux and contraction. Melatonin, important indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland during darkness, also has important cardioprotective properties. We designed the present study to define morphological and ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes and mainly in mitochondria of an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice), when treated orally or not with melatonin at 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (from 5 up to 13 week of life)...
December 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205089/altered-bioenergetics-profile-in-umbilical-cord-and-amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-newborns-of-obese-women
#11
Laura Iaffaldano, Carmela Nardelli, Francesca D'Alessio, Valeria D'Argenio, Marcella Nunziato, Lucia Mauriello, Claudio Procaccini, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Pasquale Martinelli, Giuseppe Matarese, Lucio Pastore, Luigi Del Vecchio, Giuseppe Labruna, Lucia Sacchetti
Nutritional imbalance and metabolic alterations associated with maternal obesity during pregnancy predispose offspring to obesity and/or to type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are still obscure. In this context, we evaluated whether the two main energy-producing pathways (glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) are impaired in obesity during pregnancy thus contributing to metabolic intrauterine alterations. Specifically, we studied metabolic abnormalities in the intrauterine life of newborns using stem cells isolated from amnion and umbilical cord (hA- and hUC-MSCs)...
December 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204450/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-in-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#12
REVIEW
Sonia Sifuentes-Franco, Fermín Paul Pacheco-Moisés, Adolfo Daniel Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is the most frequent and prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The state of persistent hyperglycemia leads to an increase in the production of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and favors deregulation of the antioxidant defenses that are capable of activating diverse metabolic pathways which trigger the presence of nitro-oxidative stress (NOS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hyperglycemia provokes the appearance of micro- and macrovascular complications and favors oxidative damage to the macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins) with an increase in products that damage the DNA...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204251/roles-and-mechanisms-of-herbal-medicine-for-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-current-status-and-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Jinfan Tian, Yingke Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Yue Liu, Keji Chen, Shuzheng Lyu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the major complications among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is featured by left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and damaged left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. The pathophysiological mechanisms include metabolic-altered substrate metabolism, dysfunction of microvascular, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, oxidative stress, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired Ca2+ handling...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204172/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-and-l-carnitine-against-statin-induced-pancreatic-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-rats
#14
Melina Sadighara, Jalal Pourahamad Joktaji, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Mohsen Minaiyan
Statins are widely used in patients with hyperlipidemia and whom with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, statins also exert some adverse effects on the liver and pancreas and enhance the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) and L-carnitine (LC) on statins induced toxicity on pancreatic mitochondria in vivo. Seven groups of male Wistar rats received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), atorvastatin + Co-Q10 (10 mg/kg, i...
December 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203714/exercise-heat-shock-proteins-and-insulin-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Ashley E Archer, Alex T Von Schulze, Paige C Geiger
Best known as chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have roles in cell signalling and regulation of metabolism. Rodent studies demonstrate that heat treatment, transgenic overexpression and pharmacological induction of HSP72 prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Overexpression of skeletal muscle HSP72 in mice has been shown to increase endurance running capacity nearly twofold and increase mitochondrial content by 50%. A positive correlation between HSP72 mRNA expression and mitochondrial enzyme activity has been observed in human skeletal muscle, and HSP72 expression is markedly decreased in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic patients...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203613/nfe2l1-silenced-insulinoma-cells-acquire-aggressiveness-and-chemo-resistance
#16
Jingqi Fu, Hongzhi Zheng, Qi Cui, Chengjie Chen, Simeng Bao, Jing Sun, Lu Li, Bei Yang, Huihui Wang, Yongyong Hou, Yuanyuan Xu, Yuanhong Xu, Qiang Zhang, Jingbo Pi
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1 or NRF1) is involved in various critical cell processes such as maintenance of ubiquitin-proteasome system and regulation of the cellular antioxidant response. We previously determined that pancreatic β-cell-specific Nfe2l1-knockout mice had hyperinsulinemia, and that silencing of Nfe2l1 in mouse islets or MIN6 insulinoma β-cells induced elevated basal insulin release and altered glucose metabolism. Hypoglycemia is a major issue with aggressive insulinomas, although a role of NFE2L1 in this pathology is not defined...
December 4, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203148/diabetic-retinopathy-pathogenesis-and-the-ameliorating-effects-of-melatonin-involvement-of-autophagy-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#17
REVIEW
Ehsan Dehdashtian, Saeed Mehrzadi, Bahman Yousefi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Majid Safa, Habib Ghaznavi, Masood Naseripour
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), remains as one of the major causes of vision loss worldwide. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the adhesion of leukocytes to retinal capillaries are initial events in DR development. Inflammation, ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy are major causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of DR. Diabetes associated hyperglycemia leads to mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction culminating in a rise in ROS generation...
December 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200899/effects-of-exercise-on-obesity-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
REVIEW
Jun-Won Heo, Mi-Hyun No, Dong-Ho Park, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Yun Seo, Jin Han, P Darrell Neufer, Hyo-Bum Kwak
Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200876/effects-of-insulin-analogs-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-proliferation-and-cellular-energy-metabolism-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#19
Liang He, Siliang Zhang, Xiaowen Zhang, Rui Liu, Haixia Guan, Hao Zhang
Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the expressions of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in normal thyroid tissue, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) tissues, and PTC cells, and to examine the possible role of insulin analogs and GLP-1R agonists in cell proliferation and energy metabolism in PTC cells. Methods: The expressions of IR, IGF-1R, and GLP-1R in PTC tissues and PTC cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197070/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#20
REVIEW
Federica Lupoli, Tommaso Vannocci, Giovanni Longo, Neri Niccolai, Annalisa Pastore
Oxidative stress and increase in the levels of free radicals are important markers associated with several pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, cancer and diabetes. Friedreich's ataxia is an excellent paradigmatic example of a disease in which oxidative stress plays an important, albeit not completely understood, role. Friedreich's ataxia is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disease which involves partial silencing of frataxin, a small mitochondrial protein completely ignored before being linked to Friedreich's ataxia...
December 2, 2017: FEBS Letters
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