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Mitochondrial diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230778/caffeic-acid-expands-anti-tumor-effect-of-metformin-in-human-metastatic-cervical-carcinoma-htb-34-cells-implications-of-ampk-activation-and-impairment-of-fatty-acids-de-novo-biosynthesis
#1
Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Pawel Konieczny, Marcin Majka
The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met) and a natural compound caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) alone and in combination to treat an aggressive metastatic human cervical HTB-34 (ATCC CRL-1550) cancer cell line...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225005/autophagy-protects-against-palmitic-acid-induced-apoptosis-in-podocytes-in-vitro
#2
Xu-Shun Jiang, Xue-Mei Chen, Jiang-Min Wan, Hai-Bo Gui, Xiong-Zhong Ruan, Xiao-Gang Du
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224704/advanced-glycation-end-products-regulate-anabolic-and-catabolic-activities-via-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#3
Yu Song, Yan Wang, Yukun Zhang, Wen Geng, Wei Liu, Yong Gao, Shuai Li, Kun Wang, Xinghuo Wu, Liang Kang, Cao Yang
Intervertebral disc degeneration is widely recognized as a cause of lower back pain, neurological dysfunction and other musculoskeletal disorders. The major inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration; however, the molecular mechanisms that drive IL-1β production in the intervertebral disc, especially in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, are unknown. In some tissues, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in NP tissues and promote its degeneration, increase oxidative stress and IL-1β secretion, resulting in disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ageing...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223503/mitochondrial-energy-deficiency-leads-to-hyperproliferation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-and-enhanced-insulin-sensitivity
#4
Ryan M Morrow, Martin Picard, Olga Derbeneva, Jeremy Leipzig, Meagan J McManus, Gilles Gouspillou, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Carlos Dos Santos, Russell T Hepple, Deborah G Murdock, Douglas C Wallace
Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222147/the-desert-gerbil-psammomys-obesus-as-a-model-for-metformin-sensitive-nutritional-type-2-diabetes-to-protect-hepatocellular-metabolic-damage-impact-of-mitochondrial-redox-state
#5
Inès Gouaref, Dominique Detaille, Nicolas Wiernsperger, Naim Akhtar Khan, Xavier Leverve, Elhadj-Ahmed Koceir
INTRODUCTION: While metformin (MET) is the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug worldwide, its beneficial effects in Psammomys obesus (P. obesus), a rodent model that mimics most of the metabolic features of human diabetes, have not been explored thoroughly. Here, we sought to investigate whether MET might improve insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profile as well as cellular redox and energy balance in P. obesus maintained on a high energy diet (HED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214972/avocado-oil-induces-long-term-alleviation-of-oxidative-damage-in-kidney-mitochondria-from-type-2-diabetic-rats-by-improving-glutathione-status
#6
Omar Ortiz-Avila, María Del Consuelo Figueroa-García, Claudia Isabel García-Berumen, Elizabeth Calderón-Cortés, Jorge A Mejía-Barajas, Alain R Rodriguez-Orozco, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Christian Cortés-Rojo
Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214842/inhibition-of-methylglyoxal-induced-ages-rage-expression-contributes-to-dermal-protection-by-n-acetyl-l-cysteine
#7
Chun-Tao Yang, Fu-Hui Meng, Li Chen, Xiang Li, Lai-Jian Cen, Yu-Hua Wen, Cai-Chen Li, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major cause of diabetes mellitus (DM) skin complications. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is a crucial intermediate of AGEs generation. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an active ingredient of some medicines, can induce endogenous GSH and hydrogen sulfide generation, and set off a condensation reaction with MGO. However, there is rare evidence to show NAC can alleviate DM-induced skin injury through inhibition of AGEs generation or toxicity...
13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214337/palmitate-induces-mitochondrial-superoxide-generation-and-activates-ampk-in-podocytes
#8
Eugene Lee, Jin Choi, Hyun Soon Lee
Studies have shown that high levels of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes. Palmitic acid (PA) is the predominant circulating saturated FFA, yet its role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not clear. Recently, one study suggested that mitochondrial superoxide production is related to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in diabetic mice kidneys. To elucidate the link between PA and oxidative stress and AMPK activity in DN, we compared the cultured murine podocytes exposed to PA and oleic acid (OA)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214275/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-by-nested-pcr-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#9
Cristina Rodrigues Santos, Ângela M de Assis, Edson A Luz, Luzia Lyra, Ivan F Toro, José Claudio C Seabra, Dira H Daldin, Tathiane U Marcalto, Marcos T Galasso, Ronaldo F Macedo, Angélica Z Schreiber, Francisco H Aoki
BACKGROUND: Nested PCR can be used to determine the status of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in other lung diseases. AIMS: This study sought to detect a target DNA fragment (mitochondrial large subunit rRNA or mtL SUrRNA) of P. jirovecii in patients with lung disease who underwent bronchoscopy with collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS: The results from toluidine blue staining were compared with those obtained using molecular methods that included an "in house" DNA extraction procedure, PCR and nested PCR...
February 14, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209797/roles-of-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Ulrich Förstermann, Ning Xia, Huige Li
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. Animal studies have provided compelling evidence demonstrating the roles of vascular oxidative stress and NO in atherosclerosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208582/nutrients-in-energy-and-one-carbon-metabolism-learning-from-metformin-users
#11
REVIEW
Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemi Cabre, Jordi Camps, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, which include obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Most of the health problems we face today come from excessive intake of nutrients and drugs mimicking dietary effects and dietary restriction are the most successful manipulations targeting age-related pathways. Phenotypic heterogeneity and individual response to metabolic stressors are closely related food intake. Understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary provision and metabolic consequences in the long term might provide clinical strategies to improve healthspan...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208054/high-glucose-induced-hypomethylation-promotes-binding-of-sp-1-to-myo-inositol-oxygenase-implication-in-the-pathobiology-of-diabetic-tubulopathy
#12
Isha Sharma, Rajesh K Dutta, Neel K Singh, Yashpal S Kanwar
The catabolic enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is expressed in proximal tubules and up-regulated in the diabetic state. Previously, we reported its transcriptional and translation regulation by high glucose (HG), osmolytes, and fatty acids. However, its epigenetic regulation is unknown. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that both human and mouse MIOX promoters, enriched with CpG sites, are hypomethylated and unmethylated under HG ambience and hyperglycemic states associated with increased MIOX expression. Eletrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased binding of unmethylated oligos with nucleoproteins of cells maintained under HG...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207937/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-involved-in-the-aggravation-of-periodontitis-by-diabetes
#13
Xiaoyu Sun, Yixin Mao, Panpan Dai, Xumin Li, Weiyan Gu, Huining Wang, Gang Wu, Jianfeng Ma, Shengbin Huang
AIM: To elucidate whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to aggravated periodontitis in diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control, periodontitis, diabetes, and diabetic periodontitis. Two weeks after induction of diabetes, periodontitis was induced by silk ligation for 2 weeks and thereafter evaluated by assessing alveolar bone loss and apoptosis of periodontium cells. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was detected by MitoSOX staining...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204552/insulin-resistance-in-youth-without-diabetes-is-not-related-to-muscle-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#14
M Cree-Green, N Cai, L Pyle, M S Brown, B R Newcomer, B Ringham, K J Nadeau, D Dabelea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203478/potential-biochemical-mechanisms-of-lung-injury-in-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Hong Zheng, Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Liang-Jun Yan
Accumulating evidence has shown that the lung is one of the target organs for microangiopathy in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes is associated with physiological and structural abnormalities in the diabetic lung concurrent with attenuated lung function. Despite intensive investigations in recent years, the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic lung injury remain largely elusive. In this review, we summarize currently postulated mechanisms of diabetic lung injury. We mainly focus on the pathogenesis of diabetic lung injury that implicates key pathways, including oxidative stress, non-enzymatic protein glycosylation, polyol pathway, NF-κB pathway, and protein kinase c pathway...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202005/impact-of-gut-hormone-fgf-19-on-type-2-diabetes-and-mitochondrial-recovery-in-a-prospective-study-of-obese-diabetic-women-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#16
Lucia Martinez de la Escalera, Ioannis Kyrou, Jana Vrbikova, Voitech Hainer, Petra Sramkova, Martin Fried, Milan K Piya, Sudhesh Kumar, Gyanendra Tripathi, Philip G McTernan
BACKGROUND: The ileal-derived hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), may promote weight loss and facilitate type-2 diabetes mellitus remission in bariatric surgical patients. We investigated the effect of different bariatric procedures on circulating FGF-19 levels and the resulting impact on mitochondrial health in white adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: Obese and type-2 diabetic women (n = 39, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing either biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) participated in this ethics approved study...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199194/regulation-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression-the-epigenetic-enigma
#17
Archibold Mposhi, Monique Gp Van der Wijst, Klaas Nico Faber, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetics provides an important layer of information on top of the DNA sequence and is essential for establishing gene expression profiles. Extensive studies have shown that nuclear DNA methylation and histone modifications influence nuclear gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) undergoes similar epigenetic changes to regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Recently, it has been shown that mtDNA is differentially methylated in various diseases such as diabetes and colorectal cancer...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#18
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193789/enriching-islet-phospholipids-with-eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-prostaglandin-e2-signaling-and-enhances-diabetic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#19
Joshua C Neuman, Michael D Schaid, Allison L Brill, Rachel J Fenske, Carly R Kibbe, Danielle A Fontaine, Sophia M Sdao, Harpreet K Brar, Kelsey M Connors, Haley N Wienkes, Kevin W Eliceiri, Matthew J Merrins, Dawn B Davis, Michelle E Kimple
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is derived from arachidonic acid, while PGE3 is derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using the same downstream metabolic enzymes. Little is known about the impact of EPA and PGE3 on β-cell function, particularly in the diabetic state. In this work, we determined PGE3 elicits a 10-fold weaker reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through the EP3 receptor as compared to PGE2 We tested the hypothesis that enriching pancreatic islet cell membranes with EPA, thereby reducing arachidonic acid abundance, would positively impact β-cell function in the diabetic state...
February 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193782/mitochondrial-mass-and-activity-as-a-function-of-body-composition-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Laura C O'Brien, Rodney C Wade, Liron Segal, Qun Chen, Jeannie Savas, Edward J Lesnefsky, Ashraf S Gorgey
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by deterioration in body composition and severe muscle atrophy. These changes put individuals at risk for insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine the relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass, activity, and body composition, 22 men with motor complete SCI were studied. Body composition assessment was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle to measure citrate synthase (CS) and complex III (CIII) activity...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
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