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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449121/sleep-disorders-and-parkinson-disease-lessons-from-genetics
#1
REVIEW
Ziv Gan-Or, Roy N Alcalay, Guy A Rouleau, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson disease is a common, age-related neurodegenerative disorder, projected to afflict millions of individuals in the near future. Understanding its etiology and identifying clinical, genetic or biological markers for Parkinson disease onset and progression is therefore of major importance. Various sleep-related disorders are the most common group of non-motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson disease, but they can also occur during its prodromal phase. However, with the exception of REM sleep behavior disorder, it is unclear whether they are part of the early pathological process of Parkinson disease, or if they develop as Parkinson disease advances because of treatments and neurodegeneration progression...
January 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442234/microstructural-changes-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease-and-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-depressive-symptoms-versus-non-depressed
#2
Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Farzaneh Rahmani, Sommayeh Mohammadi Jooyandeh, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Search for Parkinson's disease (PD) progression biomarkers has led to the identification of both motor and non-motor symptoms relevant of prodromal PD that could be eye-opening to the spreading underlying Lewy body pathogenesis. One most robust predictor of PD is the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and one most common early non-motor symptom of PD is depression. With RBD, frequently coexisting with clinical depression and both predicting dopamine transmission dysfunction, we aimed to survey structural associates of depressive symptoms in early PD patients with comorbid RBD...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436797/a-case-of-kleine-levin-syndrome-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#3
Marino Marčić, Ljiljana Marčić, Marina Titlić
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare sleep disorder mainly affecting teenage boys in which the main features are intermittent hypersomnolence, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, hyperphagia, and in some cases hyper sexuality. Etiology is unknown, and there is no specific clinical or imaging test for this syndrome even though the illness has well-defined clinical features. Also, there is no effective treatment for KLS. KLS is self-limited, so the prognosis for these patients is not so bad. This study presents our case report and comprehensive workout that led to diagnosis which is primarily clinical...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435088/measures-of-entropy-and-complexity-in-altered-states-of-consciousness
#4
D M Mateos, R Guevara Erra, R Wennberg, J L Perez Velazquez
Quantification of complexity in neurophysiological signals has been studied using different methods, especially those from information or dynamical system theory. These studies have revealed a dependence on different states of consciousness, and in particular that wakefulness is characterized by a greater complexity of brain signals, perhaps due to the necessity for the brain to handle varied sensorimotor information. Thus, these frameworks are very useful in attempts to quantify cognitive states. We set out to analyze different types of signals obtained from scalp electroencephalography (EEG), intracranial EEG and magnetoencephalography recording in subjects during different states of consciousness: resting wakefulness, different sleep stages and epileptic seizures...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433115/-new-diagnostic-criteria-for-parkinson-s-disease-mds-pd-criteria
#5
Hirohisa Watanabe, Kazuhiro Hara, Mizuki Ito, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society offered standard diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD) in 2015. These diagnostic criteria provided systematization of the diagnostic process and detailed explanations of parkinsonism, absolute exclusion criteria, red flags, and supportive criteria. The presence of parkinsonism was a core feature of the criteria. Clear instructions for defining the motor features were described. With regard to the novel aspects, non-motor manifestations (hyposmia, autonomic dysfunction, psychiatric dysfunction, and sleep dysfunction) and ancillary diagnostic tests (olfactory test, cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and presynaptic dopaminergic imaging) were incorporated...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431270/modelling-the-dopamine-and-noradrenergic-cell-loss-that-occurs-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-the-impact-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#6
Charlotte M Ermine, Jordan L Wright, Stefano Frausin, Jessica A Kauhausen, Clare L Parish, Davor Stanic, Lachlan H Thompson
Key pathological features of Parkinson's Disease (PD) include the progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and hindbrain noradrenergic (NA) neurons. The loss of dopaminergic neurons has been extensively studied and is the main cause of motor dysfunction. Importantly, however, there are a range of 'non-movement' related features of PD including cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances and mood disorders. The origins for these non-motor symptoms are less clear, but a possible substrate for cognitive decline may be reduced adult-hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reported to be impaired in PD...
February 12, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429645/daytime-sleepiness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is-associated-with-neuronal-depletion-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#7
Koji Kasanuki, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Michael G Heckman, Otto Pedraza, Fadi S Hanna Al-Shaikh, Takayasu Mishima, Nancy N Diehl, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that can occur early in the disease. Cholinergic depletion is known to be severe in DLB, even when dementia severity is mild. The nucleus basalis of Meynert serves as a primary source of cortical acetylcholine, and has a role in facilitating cortical activation and arousal. We sought to determine whether daytime sleepiness at the initial evaluation of patients with DLB was associated with neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert...
February 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429411/gastro-oesophageal-reflux-a-mixed-methods-study-of-infants-admitted-to-hospital-in-the-first-12%C3%A2-months-following-birth-in-nsw-2000-2011
#8
Hannah Grace Dahlen, Jann P Foster, Kim Psaila, Kaye Spence, Nadia Badawi, Cathrine Fowler, Virginia Schmied, Charlene Thornton
BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants. When the condition causes pathological symptoms and/or complications it is considered gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It appears to be increasingly diagnosed and causes great distress in the first year of infancy. In New South Wales (NSW), residential parenting services support families with early parenting difficulties. These services report a large number of babies admitted with a label of GOR/GORD. The aim of this study was to explore the maternal and infant characteristics, obstetric interventions, and reasons for clinical reporting of GOR/GORD in NSW in the first 12 months following birth (2000-2011)...
February 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425574/sleep-in-ambulatory-patients-with-stable-cirrhosis-of-the-liver
#9
Khaled Saleh, Shahrokh Javaheri
BACKGROUND: Questionnaires indicate that patients with liver disease have disturbed sleep. However, polysomnographic studies to quantify sleep architecture and sleep disorders in this population are lacking. The current study compared polysomnographic findings of two groups of patients with clinically stable but severe end-stage pathology of the liver and heart. METHODS: This was a prospective study of consecutive patients with end-stage liver disease or severe heart failure (HF)...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424188/revolving-door-respiratory-patients-a-rehabilitative-perspective
#10
Massimiliano Polastri, Lara Pisani, Andrea Dell'Amore, Stefano Nava
Rehabilitation is an integral component of care for patients affected by either acute or chronic pulmonary diseases. The key elements of rehabilitation treatment for critical respiratory patients are as follows: weaning from mechanical ventilation, respiratory therapy, physical reconditioning, and occupational therapy. It should be noted that patients affected by pulmonary diseases are prone to hospital re-admission due to frequent exacerbations, especially in cases with more severe stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
September 22, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419804/alpha-difluoromethylornithine-an-irreversible-inhibitor-of-polyamine-biosynthesis-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-against-hyperproliferative-and-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Nicole LoGiudice, Linh Le, Irene Abuan, Yvette Leizorek, Sigrid C Roberts
The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl) is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing...
February 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409952/adenosine-has-two-faces-regionally-dichotomous-adenosine-tone-in-a-model-of-epilepsy-with-comorbid-sleep-disorders
#12
Ted J Warren, Timothy A Simeone, D David Smith, Ryan Grove, Jiri Adamec, Kaeli K Samson, Harrison M Roundtree, Deepak Madhavan, Kristina A Simeone
OBJECTIVE: Adenosine participates in maintaining the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neuronal circuits. Studies indicate that adenosine levels in the cortex and hippocampus increase and exert sleep pressure in sleep-deprived and control animals, whereas in epilepsy reduced adenosine tone promotes hyperexcitability. To date, the role of adenosine in pathological conditions that result in both seizures and sleep disorders is unknown. Here, we determined adenosine tone in sleep and seizure regulating brain regions of Kv1...
January 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409842/disturbed-sleep-and-diabetes-a-potential-nexus-of-dementia-risk
#13
Calliope Holingue, Alexandra Wennberg, Slava Berger, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Adam P Spira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and sleep disturbance (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) are prevalent conditions among older adults that are associated with cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Importantly, disturbed sleep is associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may increase the risk of T2D, and T2D-related complications (e.g., pain, nocturia) can negatively affect sleep. Despite these associations, little is known about how interactions between T2D and sleep disturbance might alter cognitive trajectories or the pathological changes that underlie dementia...
January 31, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406938/metabolic-syndrome-systems-thinking-in-heart-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ron Dommermuth, Kristine Ewing
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. MetS is associated with approximately 4-fold increase in the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a 2-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease complications. MetS is a progressive, proinflammatory, prothrombotic condition that manifests itself along a broad spectrum of disease. It is associated with hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, fatty liver disease, gout, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Intervening in and reversing the pathologic process become more difficult as the disease progresses, highlighting the needs for increased individual and community surveillance and primary prevention...
March 2018: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402071/sleep-disturbances-as-a-risk-factor-for-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Dae Lim Koo, Hyunwoo Nam, Robert J Thomas, Chang-Ho Yun
Sleep, a vital process of human being, is carefully orchestrated by the brain and consists of cyclic transitions between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Autonomic tranquility during NREM sleep is characterized by vagal dominance and stable breathing, providing an opportunity for the cardiovascular-neural axis to restore homeostasis, in response to use, distress or fatigue inflicted during wakefulness. Abrupt irregular swings in sympathovagal balance during REM sleep act as phasic loads on the resting cardiovascular system...
January 2018: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395244/the-effects-of-ghrelin-on-sleep-appetite-and-memory-and-its-possible-role-in-depression-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
V Morin, F Hozer, J-F Costemale-Lacoste
OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin is an orexigenic digestive hormone that plays a role in sleep and memory. Our work aims is to synthesize the effects of ghrelin on appetite, sleep and memory, and also to evidence its role in depressive disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out on PubMed with no time boundaries. The following MeSH terms were used: ghrelin AND (appetite regulation OR obesity), (sleep wake disorders OR sleep) (memory OR cognition disorders) (depression OR depressive disorder OR mood disorder)...
January 26, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394960/increased-eeg-theta-spectral-power-in-sleep-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#17
Joseph Cheung, Chad Ruoff, Hyatt Moore, Katharine A Hagerman, Jennifer Perez, Sarada Sakamuri, Simon C Warby, Emmanuel Mignot, John Day, Jacinda Sampson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder that involves the central nervous system (CNS). Individuals with DM1 commonly present with sleep dysregulation, including excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing. We aim to characterize electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra from nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) in patients with DM1 compared to matched controls to better understand the potential CNS sleep dysfunction in DM1. METHODS: A retrospective, case-control (1:2) chart review of patients with DM1 (n = 18) and matched controls (n = 36) referred for clinical PSG at the Stanford Sleep Center was performed...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394413/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-epilepsy-epidemiology-mechanisms-and-treatment
#18
Shobi Sivathamboo, Piero Perucca, Dennis Velakoulis, Nigel C Jones, Jeremy Goldin, Patrick Kwan, Terence J O'Brien
Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggest that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter, and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function...
January 31, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390364/silent-aspiration-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome-identified-by-videofluoroscopic-swallow-study
#19
Parisa Salehi, Holly J Stafford, Robin P Glass, Anne Leavitt, Anita E Beck, Amber McAfee, Lusine Ambartsumyan, Maida Chen
Feeding intolerance in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) infants is well-recognized, but their swallow physiology is not well understood. Swallow dysfunction increases risks of respiratory compromise and choking, which have a high incidence in PWS. To investigate swallow pathology in PWS infants we undertook a retrospective review of videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) in infants with PWS seen at our institution. We hypothesize that VFSS will characterize swallow pathology suspected by clinical observation during a feeding evaluation and may help determine feeding safety in these infants...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389945/intermittent-hypoxia-causes-histological-kidney-damage-and-increases-growth-factor-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#20
Bisher Abuyassin, Mohammad Badran, Najib T Ayas, Ismail Laher
Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and accelerated loss of kidney function. It is unclear whether the decline in function is due to OSA per se or to other confounding factors such as obesity. In addition, the structural kidney abnormalities associated with OSA are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH), a key pathological feature of OSA, induces renal histopathological damage using a mouse model. Ten 8-week old wild-type male CB57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either IH or intermittent air (IA) for 60 days...
2018: PloS One
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