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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047083/altered-redox-balance-in-the-development-of-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#1
Nikki L Jernigan, Thomas C Resta, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc
Normally, the pulmonary circulation is maintained in a low-pressure, low-resistance state with little resting tone. Pulmonary arteries are thin-walled and rely heavily on pulmonary arterial distension and recruitment for reducing pulmonary vascular resistance when cardiac output is elevated. Under pathophysiological conditions, however, active vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling lead to enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary hypertension (PH). Chronic hypoxia is a critical pathological factor associated with the development of PH resulting from airway obstruction (COPD, sleep apnea), diffusion impairment (interstitial lung disease), developmental lung abnormalities, or high altitude exposure (World Health Organization [WHO]; Group III)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038946/cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-ii-behavioral-disorders
#2
Luigi Trojano, Costanza Papagno
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience several behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movements, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, and REM sleep behavioral disorders. Psychoses and hallucinations, depression and anxiety disorders, and difficulties in recognizing and experiencing emotions also impair behavior and can cause severe psychosocial problems in patients with PD. Symptoms can be present since early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the appearance of classical motor symptoms, likely in relation to dopamine depletion in basal ganglia and/or to dysfunctions of other neurotrasmitter systems, and others can develop later, in some cases in relation to dopaminergic treatment...
October 16, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035088/the-last-25-years-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-epidemiology-and-the-next-25
#3
Paul E Peppard, Erika W Hagen
Considerable new knowledge regarding the epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults arose from large-scale population-based epidemiologic investigations that initiated in the late 1980s to 1990s; these investigations have continued to produce relevant findings in recent years. In this Perspective, we briefly comment on the past 25 years of adult population-based OSA epidemiology and discuss selected ways in which the field can further progress over the coming decades. Population-based studies have shown that OSA is common in both men and women, and that prevalence is increasing...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031763/correlation-between-the-epworth-sleepiness-scale-and-the-maintenance-of-wakefulness-test-in-patients-with-narcolepsy-participating-in-two-clinical-trials-of-sodium-oxybate
#4
Milton Erman, Helene Emsellem, Jed Black, Fannie Mori, Geert Mayer
BACKGROUND: In evaluating pathologic sleepiness, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) assesses subjective sleep propensity; the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) is an objective measure of the ability to stay awake. This analysis evaluated the strength of the correlation between ESS and MWT with regard to absolute values in scores. METHODS: Data were analyzed separately from the intent-to-treat populations of two eight-week clinical trials of sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy, SXB-15 and SXB-22...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028759/which-domains-of-the-odi-best-predict-change-in-physical-function-in-patients-after-surgery-for-degenerative-lumbar-spondylolisthesis
#5
Hamadi A Murphy, Eugene Warnick, Richard McGintee, Kristen Nicholson, Douglas A Hollern, Christie Stawicki, Daniel Tarazona, Gregory D Schroeder, Barrett I Woods, Mark F Kurd, Jeffrey A Rihn, Greg D Anderson, Christopher K Kepler, Alan S Hilibrand, Alexander R Vaccaro, Kris E Radcliff
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective Review OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this study is to determine the differential improvement of the various individual items of the ODI and to determine their relationship to other measures of HRQOL. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The oswestry disability index (ODI) is an easily scored, common, ten-item questionnaire about symptoms relevant to lumbar spine pathology. It is not clear if all of the items can be reliably applied to spine surgery...
October 12, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027807/annals-express-biochemistry-of-the-menopause
#6
John W Honour
The life of a human female is characterised from teenage years by monthly menstruation which ceases (the menopause) typically between the age of 40 and 60 years. The potential for reproduction declines and ceases as the ovaries become depleted of follicles. A transition period in mid-life, for 2 to 10 years, when menstruation is less regular is called the peri-menopause. The menopause is associated with a significant decline in plasma concentrations of sex hormones, an increase in the concentrations of the gonadotrophins and changes in other hormones such as the inhibins...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993411/sleeping-beauty-insertional-mutagenesis-in-mice-identifies-drivers-of-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumor
#7
Barbara R Tschida, Nuri A Temiz, Timothy P Kuka, Lindsey A Lee, Jesse D Riordan, Carlos A Tierrablanca, Robert Hullsiek, Sandra Wagner, Wendy A Hudson, Michael A Linden, Khalid Amin, Pauline J Beckmann, Rachel A Heuer, Aaron L Sarver, Ju Dong Yang, Lewis R Roberts, Joseph H Nadeau, Adam J Dupuy, Vincent W Keng, David Largaespada
Hepatic steatosis is a strong risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), yet little is known about the molecular pathology associated with this factor. In this study, we performed a forward genetic screen using Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon insertional mutagenesis in mice treated to induce hepatic steatosis, and compared the results to human HCC data. In humans, we determined that steatosis increased the proportion of female HCC patients, a pattern also reflected in mice. Our genetic screen identified 203 candidate steatosis-associated HCC genes, many of which are altered in human HCC and are members of established HCC-driving signaling pathways...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991897/the-influence-of-different-diets-on-metabolism-and-atherosclerosis-processes-a-porcine-model-blood-serum-urine-and-tissues-1h-nmr-metabolomics-targeted-analysis
#8
Adam Zabek, Robert Paslawski, Urszula Paslawska, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Katarzyna Drozdz, Sergio Polakof, Marzena Podhorska, Piotr Dziegiel, Piotr Mlynarz, Andrzej Szuba
The global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused mainly by myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the major pathological process behind this epidemic. We designed a novel model of atherosclerosis in swine. Briefly, the first group (11 pigs) received normal pig feed (balanced diet group-BDG) for 12 months, the second group (9 pigs) was fed a Western high-calorie diet (unbalanced diet group-UDG) for 12 months, the third group (8 pigs) received a Western type high-calorie diet for 9 months later replaced by a normal diet for 3 months (regression group-RG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988101/computed-tomography-characterization-and-comparison-with-polysomnography-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-evaluation
#9
Khaisang Chousangsuntorn, Thongchai Bhongmakapat, Navarat Apirakkittikul, Witaya Sungkarat, Nucharin Supakul, Jiraporn Laothamatas
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that computed tomography (CT) combined with portable polysomnography (PSG) might better visualize anatomic data related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The present study evaluated the CT findings during OSA and assessed their associations with the PSG data and patient characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We designed a prospective cross-sectional study of patients with OSA. The patients underwent scanning during the awake state and apneic episodes...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986235/alpha-synuclein-epigenetics-mitochondria-metabolism-calcium-traffic-circadian-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-strategy-for-management
#10
REVIEW
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
October 3, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985629/dsm-5-alternative-model-of-personality-disorder-testing-the-trait-perspective-captured-in-criterion-b
#11
REVIEW
Joshua D Miller, Chelsea Sleep, Donald R Lynam
We review the trait model (i.e., Criterion B) included as a central piece of the alternative model of personality disorder (PD) included in DSM-5. The pathological traits are organized into five domains with 25 facets that overlap substantially with basic personality models (e.g., five-factor model). These PD traits can be reliably assessed using a variety of measures; however, questions of poor discriminant validity have been raised. Concerns were raised that this model would result in the loss of clinically meaningful constructs (e...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984601/failure-to-recover-from-proactive-semantic-interference-and-abnormal-limbic-connectivity-in-asymptomatic-middle-aged-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Stella M Sánchez, Carolina Abulafia, Barbara Duarte-Abritta, M Soledad Ladrón de Guevara, Mariana N Castro, Lucas Drucaroff, Gustavo Sevlever, Charles B Nemeroff, Daniel E Vigo, David A Loewenstein, Mirta F Villarreal, Salvador M Guinjoan
BACKGROUND: We have obtained previous evidence of limbic dysfunction in middle-aged, asymptomatic offspring of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients, and failure to recover from proactive semantic interference has been shown to be a sensitive cognitive test in other groups at risk for LOAD. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of specific proactive semantic interference deficits as they relate to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neocortical and limbic functional connectivity in middle aged offspring of individuals with LOAD (O-LOAD) and age-equivalent controls...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982335/reduced-serotonin-transporter-levels-and-inflammation-in-the-midbrain-raphe-of-12-month-old-appswe-psen1de9-mice
#13
Athanasios Metaxas, Ramanan Vaitheeswaran, Katrine T Jensen, Camilla Thygesen, Laura Ilkjaer, Sultan Darvesh, Bente Finsen
Background Although mood and sleep disturbances are nearly universal among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain structures involved in non-cognitive processing remain under characterized in terms of AD pathology. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate hallmarks of AD pathology in the brainstem of the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of familial AD. Methods Fresh-frozen sections from female, 12 month old, transgenic and control B6C3 mice (n=6/genotype) were examined for amyloid burden and neurofibrillary alterations, by using 6E10 immunohistochemistry and the Gallyas silver stain, respectively...
October 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974926/the-neuroanatomy-of-the-reticular-nucleus-locus-coeruleus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Filippo S Giorgi, Larisa Ryskalin, Riccardo Ruffoli, Francesca Biagioni, Fiona Limanaqi, Michela Ferrucci, Carla L Busceti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Francesco Fornai
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) features the accumulation of β-amyloid and Tau aggregates, which deposit as extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), respectively. Neuronal Tau aggregates may appear early in life, in the absence of clinical symptoms. This occurs in the brainstem reticular formation and mostly within Locus Coeruleus (LC), which is consistently affected during AD. LC is the main source of forebrain norepinephrine (NE) and it modulates a variety of functions including sleep-waking cycle, alertness, synaptic plasticity, and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972814/examining-the-incremental-utility-of-dsm-5-section-iii-traits-and-impairment-in-relation-to-traditional-personality-disorder-scores-in-a-female-correctional-sample
#15
Chelsea E Sleep, Dustin B Wygant, Joshua D Miller
Personality disorders (PDs) are challenging to assess and are associated with great individual and societal costs. In response to the limitations of categorical models, the DSM-5 included an alternative model (i.e., Section III), which uses impairment (Criterion A) and pathological traits (Criterion B) to diagnose PDs. Although numerous studies have illustrated dimensional trait models' ability to capture personality psychopathology, less attention has been paid to personality impairment. The present investigation sought to examine Criterion A's ability to contribute incrementally to the prediction of antisocial (ASPD), borderline (BPD), and narcissistic personality disorders (NPD), and Interpersonal-Affective (F1) and Impulsive-Antisocial (F2) features of psychopathy...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969373/glymphatic-mri-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#16
Geir Ringstad, Svein Are Sirirud Vatnehol, Per Kristian Eide
The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962579/effects-of-surgery-and-propofol-remifentanil-total-intravenous-anesthesia-on-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-inflammation-alzheimer-s-disease-and-neuronal-injury-in-humans-a-cohort-study
#17
Andreas Pikwer, Markus Castegren, Sijal Namdar, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Niklas Mattsson
BACKGROUND: Surgery and anesthesia have been linked to postoperative cognitive disturbance and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. It is not clear by which mechanisms this increased risk for cognitive disease is mediated. Further, amyloid β production has been suggested to depend on the sleep-wake cycle and neuronal activity. The aim of the present study was to examine if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of a number of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease-related processes, including amyloid β, neuronal injury, and inflammation, changed over time during intravenous anesthesia in surgical patients...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962181/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-protects-the-liver-from-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-injury
#18
Yanpeng Hou, Huai'an Yang, Zeshi Cui, Xuhui Tai, Yanling Chu, Xing Guo
Obstructive sleep apnea that characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been reported to associate with chronic liver injury. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) exerts liver-protective effects in various liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that TUDCA could protect liver against CIH injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intermittent hypoxia for eight weeks and applied with TUDCA by intraperitoneal injection. The effect of TUDCA on liver histological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, hepatocyte apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960278/remission-of-encephalopathy-with-status-epilepticus-eses-during-sleep-renormalizes-regulation-of-slow-wave-sleep
#19
Bigna K Bölsterli, Elena Gardella, Elena Pavlidis, Flavia M Wehrle, Carlo A Tassinari, Reto Huber, Guido Rubboli
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES. Because overnight decrease of slow waves has been linked to brain recovery and cognition, we investigate whether cognitive outcome is related to overnight changes of slow waves. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal overnight electroencephalography (EEG) in 10 patients with idiopathic ESES...
September 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959482/sleep-apnoea-and-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Sameer Sharma, Antonio Culebras
Sleep disorders have been known to physicians for a long time. In his famous aphorisms, Hippocrates said "Sleep or watchfulness exceeding that which is customary, augurs unfavorably". Modern medicine has been able to disentangle some of the phenomena that disturb sleep. Among the most notable offenders is sleep apnoea that has gained prominence in the past few decades. It is being proposed as one of the potentially modifiable risk factors for vascular diseases including stroke. The pathological mechanisms linking sleep apnoea to vascular risk factors include hypoxia, cardiac arrhythmias, dysautonomia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and inflammation...
December 2016: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
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