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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108951/physiological-links-of-circadian-clock-and-biological-clock-of-aging
#1
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Hung-Chun Chang
Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107375/narcolepsy-type-1-is-associated-with-a-systemic-increase-and-activation-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-with-a-systemic-activation-of-global-t-cells
#2
Michel Lecendreux, Guillaume Churlaud, Fabien Pitoiset, Armelle Regnault, Tu Anh Tran, Roland Liblau, David Klatzmann, Michelle Rosenzwajg
Narcolepsy is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been shown to result from a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-secreting neurons with patients typically showing low CSF-hypocretin levels (<110 pg/ml). This specific loss of hypocretin and the strong association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele led to the hypothesis that NT1 could be an immune-mediated pathology. Moreover, susceptibility to NT1 has recently been associated with several pathogens, particularly with influenza A H1N1 virus either through infection or vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106557/blunted-respiratory-responses-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-rat-model
#3
Dalton L Ebel, Christopher G Torkilsen, Tim D Ostrowski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known for the progressive decline of cognition and memory. In addition to these disease-defining symptoms, impairment of respiratory function is frequently observed and often expressed by sleep-disordered breathing or reduced ability to adjust respiration when oxygen demand is elevated. The mechanisms for this are widely unknown. Postmortem analysis from the brainstem of AD patients reveals pathological alterations, including in nuclei responsible for respiratory control. In this study, we analyzed respiratory responses and morphological changes in brainstem nuclei following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of streptozotocin (STZ), a rat model commonly used to mimic sporadic AD...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096295/does-selection-for-short-sleep-duration-explain-human-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Randolph M Nesse, Caleb E Finch, Charles L Nunn
Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD...
January 16, 2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089250/pathology-of-behavior-in-pd-what-is-known-and-what-is-not
#5
REVIEW
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Simon J G Lewis
Abnormal behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) stems from a complex orchestration of impaired neural networks that result from PD-related neurodegeneration across multiple levels. Typically, cellular and tissue abnormalities generate neurochemical changes and disrupt specific regions of the brain, in turn creating impaired neural circuits and dysfunctional global networks. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the array of pathological changes that have been linked to different behavioral symptoms of PD such as depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, impulse control disorders, psychosis, sleep disorders and dementia...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061506/role-of-rem-sleep-melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-orexin-hypocretin-systems-in-the-sleep-deprivation-pre-ischemia
#6
Marta Pace, Antoine Adamantidis, Laura Facchin, Claudio Bassetti
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD) before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OX) systems. This study aims to 1) assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2) test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057302/unraveling-the-neurobiology-of-sleep-and-sleep-disorders-using-drosophila
#7
L Chakravarti, E H Moscato, M S Kayser
Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057021/treatment-of-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-phosphorylated-tau-in-the-hippocampus-via-biological-processes-common-to-aging
#8
Sosuke Yagishita, Seiya Suzuki, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Keiko Iida, Ayako Hirata, Masahiko Suzuki, Akihiko Takashima, Kei Maruyama, Akira Hirasawa, Takeo Awaji
Sleep-disordered breathing produces cognitive impairments, and is possibly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Intermittent hypoxia treatment (IHT), an experimental model for sleep-disordered breathing, results in cognitive impairments in animals via unknown mechanisms. Here, we exposed mice to IHT protocols, and performed biochemical analyses and microarray analyses regarding their hippocampal samples. In particular, we performed gene ontology (GO)-based microarray analysis to elucidate effects of IHT on hippocampal functioning, which were compared with the effects of various previously-reported experimental conditions on that (ref...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052444/cortical-thickness-and-functional-connectivity-abnormality-in-chronic-headache-and-low-back-pain-patients
#9
Qing Yang, Zewei Wang, Lixia Yang, Yonghua Xu, Li Min Chen
This study aims to characterize the psychological wellbeing of chronic headache (CH) patients, to identify cortical structural abnormalities and any associations of those abnormalities with resting state functional connectivity (rsFC), and to determine whether such rsFC abnormality is specific to CH patients. Compared with healthy controls (CONCH ), CH patients suffered from mild depression, sleep disturbances, and relatively poor quality of life. CH patients also exhibited widespread cortical thickness (CT) abnormalities in left premotor (BA6), right primary somatosensory (S1) and right prefrontal (BA10) cortices, as well as in regions of default mode and executive control networks...
January 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043770/sleep-related-modifications-of-eeg-connectivity-in-the-sensory-motor-networks-in-huntington-disease-an-eloreta-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Carla Piano, Claudio Imperatori, Anna Losurdo, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Pietro Cortelli, Giacomo Della Marca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate EEG functional connectivity in the sensory-motor network, during wake and sleep, in patients with Huntington Disease (HD). METHODS: 23 patients with HD and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. EEG connectivity analysis was performed by means of exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography (eLORETA). RESULTS: In wake, HD patients showed an increase of delta lagged phase synchronization (T=3.60; p<0.05) among Broadman's Areas (BA) 6-8 bilaterally; right BA 6-8 and right BA 1-2-3; left BA 1-2-3 and left BA 4...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041911/disinhibition-of-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-in-the-wag-rij-rat-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#11
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus is a retinorecipient structure implicated in orchestrating circadian rhythmicity. The IGL network is highly GABAergic and consists mainly of neuropeptide Y-synthesising and enkephalinergic neurons. A high density of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes has been observed in the IGL, with a probable function in guarding neuronal inhibition. Interestingly, putatively enkephalinergic IGL neurons generate action potentials with an infra-slow oscillatory (ISO) pattern in vivo in urethane anesthetised Wistar rats, under light-on conditions only...
December 30, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040430/association-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-episodic-memory-and-cerebral-microvascular-pathology-a-preliminary-study
#12
Nancy A Kerner, Steven P Roose, Gregory H Pelton, Adam Ciarleglio, Jennifer Scodes, Cody Lentz, Joel R Sneed, D P Devanand
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on neurocognitive function and brain morphology in older adults with depression and cognitive impairment. METHODS: We prospectively screened OSA with the STOP-Bang questionnaire in the last 25 patients enrolled into the Donepezil Treatment of Cognitive Impairment and Depression (DOTCODE) trial. High and low probability of OSA were defined as a STOP-Bang score of ≥5 (h-OSA) and of <5 (l-OSA), respectively...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032388/impaired-visual-processing-in-patients-with-insomnia-disorder-revealed-by-a-dissociation-in-visual-search
#13
Enrico Giora, Andrea Galbiati, Sara Marelli, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
Insomnia disorder is associated with both subjective and objective daytime impairments. In particular, cognitive impairments are frequently reported. However, little is known about the effects of this pathology on perceptual processes. In this study we aim at evaluating the effect of insomnia disorder on visual processing by employing a visual search paradigm. Twenty-three patients with insomnia disorder and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in the study. After a polysomnographic recording night patients performed a visual search task in which they had to respond to the presence/absence of a target (letter T) embedded into a set of distractors (letters Os, Xs or Ls)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028818/a-mechanism-for-sickness-sleep-lessons-from-invertebrates
#14
Kristen C Davis, David M Raizen
During health, animal sleep is regulated by an internal clock and by the duration of prior wakefulness. During sickness, sleep is regulated by cytokines released from either peripheral cells or from cells within the nervous system. These cytokines regulate central nervous system neurons to induce sleep. Recent research in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster has led to new insights into the mechanism of sleep during sickness. Sickness is triggered by exposure to environments such as infection, heat, or ultraviolet light irradiation, all of which cause cellular stress...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013568/evaluation-of-the-sedative-and-hypnotic-effects-of-astragalin-isolated-from-eucommia-ulmoides-leaves-in-mice
#15
Xin Li, Zichen Tang, Dongqing Fei, Yunhong Liu, Min Zhang, Shaoyang Liu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of astragalin on the central nervous system. Astragalin is a monomeric compound found in the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides using a system solvent method. In the experiments, astragalin showed significant effects on mice, including reduced spontaneous activity, increased sleep ratio, shortened sleep latency and lengthened sleep time with a subthreshold or superthreshold dose of pentobarbital sodium. In addition, astragalin effectively reduced the convulsion rate and prolonged convulsion latency...
December 26, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012425/circadian-disruption-of-icu-patients-a-review-of-pathways-expression-and-interventions
#16
REVIEW
Anna Korompeli, Olav Muurlink, Nadia Kavrochorianou, Theodoros Katsoulas, George Fildissis, George Baltopoulos
Intensive care unit patients typically exhibit pathologic wakefulness, poor quality of daytime sleep, nocturnal sleep fragmentation, and sleep patterns that feature the absence of slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement. This article offers a review of the existing literature examining circadian desynchronization in critically ill patients, highlighting contributing factors identified by scholars, and circadian abnormalities observed in these patients. It discusses potential implications for clinical practice and suggests avenues of future research...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012092/the-hypocretin-orexin-neuronal-networks-in-zebrafish
#17
Idan Elbaz, Talia Levitas-Djerbi, Lior Appelbaum
The hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin (Hcrt) neurons secrete two Hcrt neuropeptides. These neurons and peptides play a major role in the regulation of feeding, sleep wake cycle, reward-seeking, addiction, and stress. Loss of Hcrt neurons causes the sleep disorder narcolepsy. The zebrafish has become an attractive model to study the Hcrt neuronal network because it is a transparent vertebrate that enables simple genetic manipulation, imaging of the structure and function of neuronal circuits in live animals, and high-throughput monitoring of behavioral performance during both day and night...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012089/orexin-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Claudio Liguori
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related dementia. It prevalently causes cognitive decline, although it is frequently associated with secondary behavioral disturbances. AD neurodegeneration characteristically produces a remarkable destruction of the sleep-wake cycle, with diurnal napping, nighttime arousals, sleep fragmentation, and REM sleep impairment. It was recently hypothesized that the orexinergic system was involved in AD pathology. Accordingly, recent papers showed the association between orexinergic neurotransmission dysfunction, sleep impairment, and cognitive decline in AD...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007355/isolated-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-without-atonia-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Monica Puligheddu, Patrizia Congiu, Debora Aricò, Francesco Rundo, Giuseppe Borghero, Francesco Marrosu, Maria Livia Fantini, Raffaele Ferri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze, with the most recent and advanced tools, the presence of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and/or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA), in a group of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and to assess their eventual correlation with the clinical severity of the disease. METHODS: Twenty-nine ALS patients were enrolled (mean age 63.6 years) along with 28 age-matched "normal" controls (mean age 63...
October 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996309/the-association-between-artificial-light-at-night-and-prostate-cancer-in-gwangju-city-and-south-jeolla-province-of-south-korea
#20
Ka Young Kim, Eunil Lee, Yun Jeong Kim, Jinsun Kim
ABSRACT Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has been reported to be associated with various pathological changes including sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disruption, and melatonin suppression with increase in various cancers such as breast or prostate cancers. In this study, we sought to elucidate the association between ALAN and prostate cancer in 27 districts within Gwangju City and urban and rural areas from South Jeolla Province in South Korea. We analyzed the correlation between ALAN and the incidence of a range of cancers by Poisson regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, obesity, stress, air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter), urbanization (proportion of urbanized area), and the cancer screening rate...
December 20, 2016: Chronobiology International
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