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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229308/eeg-signatures-of-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-states
#1
E A Allen, E Damaraju, T Eichele, L Wu, V D Calhoun
The human brain operates by dynamically modulating different neural populations to enable goal directed behavior. The synchrony or lack thereof between different brain regions is thought to correspond to observed functional connectivity dynamics in resting state brain imaging data. In a large sample of healthy human adult subjects and utilizing a sliding windowed correlation method on functional imaging data, earlier we demonstrated the presence of seven distinct functional connectivity states/patterns between different brain networks that reliably occur across time and subjects...
February 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-non-human-primates
#2
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of non-human primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the MPTP model of parkinsonism...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226275/short-term-cerebral-activity-alterations-after-surgery-in-patients-with-unilateral-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#3
Yingying Tang, Wei Xia, Xiaofeng Yu, Bo Zhou, Chunyan Luo, Xiaoqi Huang, Qin Chen, Qiyong Gong, Dong Zhou
PURPOSE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), as a brain network disorder, has given increased importance to resective surgery. We aimed to examine the short-term postoperative functional network reorganization in patients with unilateral MTLE-HS using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data with a longitudinal design. METHOD: Seventeen (10 right-side and 7 left-side) patients with unilateral MTLE-HS were recruited...
January 3, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223033/children-with-asd-show-links-between-aberrant-sound-processing-social-symptoms-and-atypical-auditory-interhemispheric-and-thalamocortical-functional-connectivity
#4
Annika C Linke, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Ellyn B Pueschel, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communicative deficits, as well as repetitive behaviors and atypical sensitivity to sensory stimulation. Alterations in network connectivity are widely recognized, but their interplay with social and sensory symptoms remains largely unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostic and behavioral assessments were used in a cohort of children and adolescents with ASD (n=40) and matched typically developing (TD, n=38) controls to examine the relation between auditory processing, interhemispheric and thalamocortical network connectivity, and social-behavioral symptom severity...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220891/nmda-receptor-expression-in-the-thalamus-of-the-stargazer-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#5
Z Barad, D R Grattan, B Leitch
In the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy, altered corticothalamic excitation of reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) neurons has been suggested to contribute to abnormal synchronicity in the corticothalamic-thalamocortical circuit, leading to spike-wave discharges, the hallmark of absence seizures. AMPA receptor expression and function are decreased in stargazer RTN, due to a mutation of AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin. It is unresolved and debated, however, if decreased excitation of RTN is compatible with epileptogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#6
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217089/differential-modulation-of-rhythmic-brain-activity-in-healthy-adults-by-a-t-type-calcium-channel-blocker-an-meg-study
#7
Kerry D Walton, Emeline L Maillet, John Garcia, Timothy Cardozo, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Rodolfo R Llinás
1-octanol is a therapeutic candidate for disorders involving the abnormal activation of the T-type calcium current since it blocks this current specifically. Such disorders include essential tremor and a group of neurological and psychiatric disorders resulting from thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). For example, clinically, the observable phenotype in essential tremor is the tremor itself. The differential diagnostic of TCD is not based only on clinical signs and symptoms. Rather, TCD incorporates an electromagnetic biomarker, the presence of abnormal thalamocortical low frequency brain oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197105/investigating-the-role-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-modulation-of-transthalamic-activity-a-combined-fmri-fmrs-study
#8
Nathalie Just, Sarah Sonnay
The Excitatory-Inhibitory balance (EIB) between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons is known to regulate the function of thalamocortical neurocircuits. The thalamus is known as an important relay for glutamatergic and GABAergic signals ascending/descending to/from the somatosensory cortex in rodents. However, new investigations attribute a larger role to thalamic nuclei as modulators of information processing within the cortex. In this study, functional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (fMRS) was used to measure glutamate (Glu) and GABA associations with BOLD responses during activation of the thalamus to barrel cortex (S1BF) pathway at 9...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195311/reduced-local-input-to-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-gabaa-%C3%AE-2-r43q-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#9
Stephen P Currie, Liliana L Luz, Sam A Booker, David J A Wyllie, Peter C Kind, Michael I Daw
OBJECTIVE: Absence seizures in childhood absence epilepsy are initiated in the thalamocortical (TC) system. We investigated if these seizures result from altered development of the TC system before the appearance of seizures in mice containing a point mutation in γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptor γ2 subunits linked to childhood absence epilepsy (R43Q). Findings from conditional mutant mice indicate that expression of normal γ2 subunits during preseizure ages protect from later seizures...
February 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186667/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-combining-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Zhiliang Long, Qiang Xu, Huan-Huan Miao, Yang Yu, Mei-Ping Ding, Huafu Chen, Zhi-Rong Liu, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is associated with macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities in the thalamus. OBJECTIVES: To examine functional and structural connectivity of thalamocortical networks in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and to further investigate the effect of mutation of the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 on thalamocortical networks. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (n = 20), subdivided into proline-rich transmembrane protein 2-mutated (n = 8) and nonmutated patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 20) underwent resting-state functional MRI and diffusion imaging scan...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185224/white-matter-microstructure-and-subcortical-gray-matter-structure-volumes-in-aspartylglucosaminuria-a-5-year-follow-up-brain-mri-study-of-an-adolescent-with-aspartylglucosaminuria-and-his-healthy-twin-brother
#11
Anna Tokola, Nina Brandstack, Antti Hakkarainen, Eero Salli, Laura Åberg, Taina Autti
OBJECTIVE: Aspartylglucosaminuria is an inherited, lysosomal storage disease causing progressive decline in cognitive and motor functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate volumes of subcortical gray matter structures and white matter microstructure in aspartylglucosaminuria in adolescence in a longitudinal study for the first time. METHODS: A boy with aspartylglucosaminuria and his healthy twin brother were imaged twice with a 3.0 T MRI scanner at the ages of 10 and 15 years...
February 10, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178342/alterations-in-the-properties-of-neonatal-thalamocortical-synapses-with-time-in-in-vitro-slices
#12
Liliana L Luz, Stephen P Currie, Michael I Daw
New synapses are constantly being generated and lost in the living brain with only a subset of these being stabilized to form an enduring component of neuronal circuitry. The properties of synaptic transmission have primarily been established in a variety of in vitro neuronal preparations. It is not clear, however, if newly-formed and persistent synapses contribute to the results of these studies consistently throughout the lifespan of these preparations. In neonatal somatosensory, barrel, cortex we have previously hypothesized that a population of thalamocortical synapses displaying unusually slow kinetics represent newly-formed, default-transient synapses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167837/neural-mechanisms-of-mismatch-negativity-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#13
M Lee, P Sehatpour, M J Hoptman, P Lakatos, E C Dias, J T Kantrowitz, A M Martinez, D C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits that reflect impaired cortical information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) indexes pre-attentive information processing dysfunction at the level of primary auditory cortex. This study investigates mechanisms underlying MMN impairments in schizophrenia using event-related potential, event-related spectral decomposition (ERSP) and resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) approaches. For this study, MMN data to frequency, intensity and duration-deviants were analyzed from 69 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147267/abnormal-development-of-the-earliest-cortical-circuits-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Daniel A Nagode, Xiangying Meng, Daniel E Winkowski, Ed Smith, Hamza Khan-Tareen, Vishnupriya Kareddy, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick O Kanold
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves deficits in speech and sound processing. Cortical circuit changes during early development likely contribute to such deficits. Subplate neurons (SPNs) form the earliest cortical microcircuits and are required for normal development of thalamocortical and intracortical circuits. Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) increases ASD risk, especially when present during a critical time window coinciding with SPN genesis. Using optical circuit mapping in mouse auditory cortex, we find that VPA exposure on E12 altered the functional excitatory and inhibitory connectivity of SPNs...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139019/from-single-cells-single-columns-to-cortical-networks-dendritic-excitability-coincidence-detection-and-synaptic-transmission-in-brain-slices-and-brains
#15
Bert Sakmann
While patch pipettes were initially designed to record extracellularly elementary current events from muscle and neuron membrane, the whole-cell (eg Sakmann, 1992) and loose cell-attached recording configurations proved to be useful tools for examining signaling within and between nerve cells. In this Paton Lecture I will summarize first work on electrical signaling within single neurons, describing communication between its dendritic compartments, soma and nerve terminals via forward and backward propagating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137974/an-ultrastructural-study-of-the-thalamic-input-to-layer-4-of-primary-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-mouse
#16
Rita Bopp, Simone Holler-Rickauer, Kevan A C Martin, Gregor F P Schuhknecht
: The traditional classification of primary motor cortex (M1) as an agranular area has recently been challenged, when a functional layer 4 (L4) was reported in M1. L4 is the principal target for thalamic input in sensory areas, which raises the question how thalamocortical synapses formed in M1 in the mouse compare with those in neighboring sensory cortex (S1). We identified thalamic boutons by their immunoreactivity for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) and performed unbiased disector counts from electron micrographs...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133476/neuronal-activity-controls-the-development-of-interneurons-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#17
Rachel Babij, Natalia De Marco Garcia
BACKGROUND: Neuronal activity in cortical areas regulates neurodevelopment by interacting with defined genetic programs to shape the mature central nervous system. Electrical activity is conveyed to sensory cortical areas via intracortical and thalamocortical neurons, and includes oscillatory patterns that have been measured across cortical regions. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we review the most recent findings about how electrical activity shapes the developmental assembly of functional circuitry in the somatosensory cortex, with an emphasis on interneuron maturation and integration...
December 2016: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132829/studying-brain-circuit-function-with-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-optogenetic-fmri
#18
David Bernal-Casas, Hyun Joo Lee, Andrew J Weitz, Jin Hyung Lee
Defining the large-scale behavior of brain circuits with cell type specificity is a major goal of neuroscience. However, neuronal circuit diagrams typically draw upon anatomical and electrophysiological measurements acquired in isolation. Consequently, a dynamic and cell-type-specific connectivity map has never been constructed from simultaneous measurements across the brain. Here, we introduce dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for optogenetic fMRI experiments-which uniquely allow cell-type-specific, brain-wide functional measurements-to parameterize the causal relationships among regions of a distributed brain network with cell type specificity...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122326/functional-roles-of-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-with-an-emphasis-on-inhibition
#19
REVIEW
Haroon Anwar, Xinping Li, Dirk Bucher, Farzan Nadim
Almost all synapses show activity-dependent dynamic changes in efficacy. Numerous studies have explored the mechanisms underlying different forms of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), but the functional role of STP for circuit output and animal behavior is less understood. This is particularly true for inhibitory synapses that can play widely varied roles in circuit activity. We review recent findings on the role of synaptic STP in sensory, pattern generating, thalamocortical, and hippocampal networks, with a focus on synaptic inhibition...
January 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122236/lhx2-expression-in-postmitotic-cortical-neurons-initiates-assembly-of-the-thalamocortical-somatosensory-circuit
#20
Chia-Fang Wang, Hsiang-Wei Hsing, Zi-Hui Zhuang, Meng-Hsuan Wen, Wei-Jen Chang, Carlos G Briz, Marta Nieto, Bai Chuang Shyu, Shen-Ju Chou
Cortical neurons must be specified and make the correct connections during development. Here, we examine a mechanism initiating neuronal circuit formation in the barrel cortex, a circuit comprising thalamocortical axons (TCAs) and layer 4 (L4) neurons. When Lhx2 is selectively deleted in postmitotic cortical neurons using conditional knockout (cKO) mice, L4 neurons in the barrel cortex are initially specified but fail to form cellular barrels or develop polarized dendrites. In Lhx2 cKO mice, TCAs from the thalamic ventral posterior nucleus reach the barrel cortex but fail to further arborize to form barrels...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
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