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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341331/the-relationship-between-thalamic-gaba-content-and-resting-cortical-rhythm-in-neuropathic-pain
#1
Flavia Di Pietro, Paul M Macey, Caroline D Rae, Zeynab Alshelh, Vaughan G Macefield, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Recurrent thalamocortical connections are integral to the generation of brain rhythms and it is thought that the inhibitory action of the thalamic reticular nucleus is critical in setting these rhythms. Our work and others' has suggested that chronic pain that develops following nerve injury, that is, neuropathic pain, results from altered thalamocortical rhythm, although whether this dysrhythmia is associated with thalamic inhibitory function remains unknown. In this investigation, we used electroencephalography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate cortical power and thalamic GABAergic concentration in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 20 pain-free controls...
January 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335072/rebound-excitability-mediates-motor-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Jeongjin Kim, Daesoo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327340/shank3-deficient-thalamocortical-neurons-show-hcn-channelopathy-and-alterations-in-intrinsic-electrical-properties
#3
Mengye Zhu, VinayKumar Idikuda, Jianbing Wang, Fusheng Wei, Virang Kumar, Nikhil Shah, Christopher B Waite, Qinglian Liu, Lei Zhou
Shank3 is a scaffolding protein that is highly enriched in excitatory synapses. Mutations in Shank3 gene have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders especially the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Shank3 deficiency is known to cause impairments in synaptic transmission, but its effects on basic neuronal electrical properties that are more localized to the soma and proximal dendrites remain unclear. Here we confirmed that in heterologous expression systems two different Shank3 isoforms, Shank3A and Shank3C, significant increase the surface expression of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325855/gating-of-long-term-potentiation-ltp-in-the-thalamocortical-auditory-system-of-rats-by-serotonergic-5-ht-receptors
#4
Karen K Y Lee, Chloe N Soutar, Hans C Dringenberg
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in controlling the induction threshold and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the visual cortex and hippocampus of rodents. Serotonergic fibers also innervate the rodent primary auditory cortex (A1), but the regulation of A1 plasticity by 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) is largely uncharted. Thus, we examined the role of several, predominant 5-HT receptor classes (5-HT1ARs, 5-HT2Rs, and 5-HT3Rs) in gating in vivo LTP induction at A1 synapses of adult, urethane-anesthetized rats...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325092/intravenous-administration-of-scaav9-hexb-normalizes-lifespan-and-prevents-pathology-in-sandhoff-disease-mice
#5
Natalia Niemir, Laura Rouvière, Aurore Besse, Marie T Vanier, Jasmin Dmytrus, Thibaut Marais, Stéphanie Astord, Jean-Philippe Puech, Ganna Panasyuk, Jonathan D Cooper, Martine Barkats, Catherine Caillaud
Sandhoff disease (SD) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of β-hexosaminidase activity which is fatal because no effective treatment is available. A mouse model of Hexb deficiency reproduces the key pathognomonic features of SD patients with severe ubiquitous lysosomal dysfunction, GM2 accumulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, culminating in death at 4 months. Here, we show that a single intravenous neonatal administration of a self-complementary adeno-associated virus 9 vector (scAAV9) expressing the Hexb cDNA in SD mice is safe and sufficient to prevent disease development...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300903/multicontact-co-operativity-in-spike-timing-dependent-structural-plasticity-stabilizes-networks
#6
Moritz Deger, Alexander Seeholzer, Wulfram Gerstner
Excitatory synaptic connections in the adult neocortex consist of multiple synaptic contacts, almost exclusively formed on dendritic spines. Changes of spine volume, a correlate of synaptic strength, can be tracked in vivo for weeks. Here, we present a combined model of structural and spike-timing-dependent plasticity that explains the multicontact configuration of synapses in adult neocortical networks under steady-state and lesion-induced conditions. Our plasticity rule with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian terms stabilizes both the postsynaptic firing rate and correlations between the pre- and postsynaptic activity at an active synaptic contact...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298415/patchwork-type-spontaneous-activity-in-neonatal-barrel-cortex-layer-4-transmitted-via-thalamocortical-projections
#7
Hidenobu Mizuno, Koji Ikezoe, Shingo Nakazawa, Takuya Sato, Kazuo Kitamura, Takuji Iwasato
Establishment of precise neuronal connectivity in the neocortex relies on activity-dependent circuit reorganization during postnatal development; however, the nature of cortical activity during this period remains largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging of the barrel cortex in vivo during the first postnatal week, we reveal that layer 4 (L4) neurons within the same barrel fire synchronously in the absence of peripheral stimulation, creating a "patchwork" pattern of spontaneous activity corresponding to the barrel map...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280209/sleep-spindles-and-slow-waves-in-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders-main-findings-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#8
Anna Castelnovo, Bianca Graziano, Fabio Ferrarelli, Armando D'Agostino
Sleep abnormalities have recently gained renewed attention in patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Disrupted thalamocortical brain oscillations hold promise as putative biomarkers or endophenotypes of the disorder. Despite an increase of studies related to sleep spindle and slow wave activity, findings remain in part contradictory. Although sleep spindle deficits have been confirmed in several groups of patients with chronic, medicated Schizophrenia, data on the early stages of the disorder and in unmedicated subjects are still insufficient...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274440/cortical-frequency-specific-plasticity-is-independently-induced-by-intracortical-circuitry
#9
Lingzhi Kong, Shaohui Wang, Xiuping Liu, Liang Li, Michael Zeeman, Jun Yan
Auditory learning induces frequency-specific plasticity in the auditory cortex. Both the auditory cortex and thalamus are involved in the cortical plasticity; however, the precise role of the intracortical circuity remains unclear until the contributions of the thalamocortical inputs are controlled. Here, we induced cortical plasticity by local activation of the primary auditory cortex (AI) via intracortical electrical stimulation (ES) in C57 mice and found a similar pattern of cortical plasticity was induced by ESAI when the auditory thalamus was inactivated or remained active during the ESAI...
December 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249282/spatial-information-in-a-non-retinotopic-visual-cortex
#10
Julien Fournier, Christian M Müller, Ingmar Schneider, Gilles Laurent
Turtle dorsal cortex (dCx), a three-layered cortical area of the reptilian telencephalon, receives inputs from the retina via the thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus and constitutes the first cortical stage of visual processing. The receptive fields of dCx neurons usually occupy the entire contralateral visual field. Electrophysiological recordings in awake and anesthetized animals reveal that dCx is sensitive to the spatial structure of natural images, that dCx receptive fields are not entirely uniform across space, and that adaptation to repeated stimulation is position specific...
December 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247482/commonalities-in-epileptogenic-processes-from-different-acute-brain-insults-do-they-translate
#11
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Raymond Dingledine, Eleonora Aronica, Christophe Bernard, Ingmar Blümcke, Detlev Boison, Martin J Brodie, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Jerome Engel, Patrick A Forcelli, Lawrence J Hirsch, Rafal M Kaminski, Henrik Klitgaard, Katja Kobow, Daniel H Lowenstein, Phillip L Pearl, Asla Pitkänen, Noora Puhakka, Michael A Rogawski, Dieter Schmidt, Matti Sillanpää, Robert S Sloviter, Christian Steinhäuser, Annamaria Vezzani, Matthew C Walker, Wolfgang Löscher
The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likely primary drivers of epileptogenesis, namely inflammation, neuron loss, plasticity, and circuit reorganization. This review suggests a path to identify neuronal and molecular targets for clinical testing of specific hypotheses about epileptogenesis and its prevention or modification...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236991/neurochemical-changes-in-the-medial-wall-of-the-brain-in-chronic-migraine
#12
David M Niddam, Kuan-Lin Lai, Shang-Yueh Tsai, Yi-Ru Lin, Wei-Ta Chen, Jong-Ling Fuh, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Migraine chronification is associated with a dysfunctional thalamocortical pathway. The present study addressed whether abnormal concentrations of neurochemicals exist in key brain regions of this pathway in chronic migraine. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the bilateral medial walls of the brain was used to measure choline, creatine, glutamate and glutamine, myo-inositol, and N-acetyl-aspartate in chronic migraine patients and in matched groups of episodic migraine patients and healthy controls...
December 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227992/thalamocortical-control-of-propofol-phase-amplitude-coupling
#13
Austin E Soplata, Michelle M McCarthy, Jason Sherfey, Shane Lee, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown, Nancy Kopell
The anesthetic propofol elicits many different spectral properties on the EEG, including alpha oscillations (8-12 Hz), Slow Wave Oscillations (SWO, 0.1-1.5 Hz), and dose-dependent phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between alpha and SWO. Propofol is known to increase GABAA inhibition and decrease H-current strength, but how it generates these rhythms and their interactions is still unknown. To investigate both generation of the alpha rhythm and its PAC to SWO, we simulate a Hodgkin-Huxley network model of a hyperpolarized thalamus and corticothalamic inputs...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222517/input-dependent-regulation-of-excitability-controls-dendritic-maturation-in-somatosensory-thalamocortical-neurons
#14
Laura Frangeul, Vassilis Kehayas, Jose V Sanchez-Mut, Sabine Fièvre, K Krishna-K, Gabrielle Pouchelon, Ludovic Telley, Camilla Bellone, Anthony Holtmaat, Johannes Gräff, Jeffrey D Macklis, Denis Jabaudon
Input from the sensory organs is required to pattern neurons into topographical maps during development. Dendritic complexity critically determines this patterning process; yet, how signals from the periphery act to control dendritic maturation is unclear. Here, using genetic and surgical manipulations of sensory input in mouse somatosensory thalamocortical neurons, we show that membrane excitability is a critical component of dendritic development. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we find that ablation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during postnatal development leads to epigenetic repression of Kv1...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201640/connectome-analysis-with-diffusion-mri-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-evaluation-using-multi-shell-multi-tissue-constrained-spherical-deconvolution
#15
Koji Kamagata, Andrew Zalesky, Taku Hatano, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Omar El Samad, Shinji Saiki, Keigo Shimoji, Kanako K Kumamaru, Kouhei Kamiya, Masaaki Hori, Nobutaka Hattori, Shigeki Aoki, Christos Pantelis
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects extensive regions of the central nervous system. In this work, we evaluated the structural connectome of patients with PD, as mapped by diffusion-weighted MRI tractography and a multi-shell, multi-tissue (MSMT) constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) method to increase the precision of tractography at tissue interfaces. The connectome was mapped with probabilistic MSMT-CSD in 21 patients with PD and in 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190334/the-ventral-posterior-lateral-thalamus-preferentially-encodes-externally-applied-versus-active-movement-implications-for-self-motion-perception
#16
Alexis Dale, Kathleen E Cullen
Successful interaction with our environment requires that voluntary behaviors be precisely coordinated with our perception of self-motion. The vestibular sensors in the inner ear detect self-motion and in turn send projections via the vestibular nuclei to multiple cortical areas through 2 principal thalamocortical pathways, 1 anterior and 1 posterior. While the anterior pathway has been extensively studied, the role of the posterior pathway is not well understood. Accordingly, here we recorded responses from individual neurons in the ventral posterior lateral thalamus of macaque monkeys during externally applied (passive) and actively generated self-motion...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190329/cortical-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-a-progressive-model-of-parkinsonism-in-nonhuman-primates
#17
Annaelle Devergnas, M Caiola, D Pittard, T Wichmann
Parkinson's disease is associated with abnormal oscillatory electrical activities of neurons and neuronal ensembles throughout the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network. It has recently been documented in patients with advanced parkinsonism that the amplitude of gamma-band oscillations (50-200 Hz) in electrocorticogram recordings from the primary motor cortex is abnormally coupled to the phase of beta band oscillations within the same signals. It is not known when in the course of the disease the abnormal phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) arises, and whether it is influenced by arousal or prior exposure to dopaminergic medications...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185180/subtype-specification-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons-in-their-immature-stages
#18
Koji Oishi, Kazunori Nakajima
The diversification of neuronal subtypes during corticogenesis is fundamental to the establishment of the complex cortical structure. Although subtype specification has been assumed to occur in neural progenitor cells, increasing evidence has begun to reveal the plasticity of subtype determination in immature neurons. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the regulation of subtype specification during later periods of neuronal differentiation, such as the post-mitotic and post-migratory stages. We also discuss thalamocortical axons as an extra-cortical cue that provides information on the subtype determination of immature cortical neurons...
November 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174693/impact-on-resting-state-dynamic-functional-connectivity-following-36-hours-of-total-sleep-deprivation
#19
Huaze Xu, Hui Shen, Lubin Wang, Qi Zhong, Yu Lei, Liu Yang, Ling-Li Zeng, Zongtan Zhou, Dewen Hu, Zheng Yang
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using static functional connectivity (FC) measures have shown that the brain function is severely disrupted after long-term sleep deprivation (SD). However, increasing evidence has suggested that resting-state FC is dynamic and exhibits spontaneous fluctuation on a smaller timescale. The process by which long-term SD can influence dynamic functional connectivity (dynFC) remains unclear. In this study, 37 healthy subjects participated in the SD experiment, and they were scanned both during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 hours of SD...
November 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168010/modulation-of-thalamocortical-oscillations-by-trip8b-an-auxiliary-subunit-for-hcn-channels
#20
Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Rahul Chaudhary, Maia Datunashvili, Robert J Heuermann, Annika Lüttjohann, Venu Narayanan, Sabine Balfanz, Patrick Meuth, Dane M Chetkovich, Hans-Christian Pape, Arnd Baumann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Thomas Budde
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels have important functions in controlling neuronal excitability and generating rhythmic oscillatory activity. The role of tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) in regulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I h, in the thalamocortical system and its functional relevance for the physiological thalamocortical oscillations were investigated. A significant decrease in I h current density, in both thalamocortical relay (TC) and cortical pyramidal neurons was found in TRIP8b-deficient mice (TRIP8b(-/-))...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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