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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438969/intracellular-in-vivo-dynamics-of-thalamocortical-synapses-in-visual-cortex
#1
Madineh Sedigh-Sarvestani, Leif Vigeland, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Morgan Taylor, Larry A Palmer, Diego Contreras
Seminal studies of the thalamocortical (TC) circuit in the visual system of the cat have been central to our understanding of sensory encoding. However, TC synaptic properties remain poorly understood. We used paired recordings, in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1), to provide the first in vivo characterization of sensory-driven TC potentials in V1. The amplitudes of EPSPs we characterized were smaller than those previously reported in vitro. Consistent with prior findings, connected LGN-V1 pairs were only found when their receptive fields (RFs) overlapped, and the probability of connection increased steeply with degree of RF overlap and response similarity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438183/semaphorin-plexin-signaling-influences-early-ventral-telencephalic-development-and-thalamocortical-axon-guidance
#2
Manuela D Mitsogiannis, Graham E Little, Kevin J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons and the internal capsule (IC) guidepost cells...
April 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432143/focal-local-field-potential-lfp-signature-of-the-single-axon-monosynaptic-thalamocortical-connection
#3
Espen Hagen, Janne C Fossum, Klas H Pettersen, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Harvey A Swadlow, Gaute T Einevolla
Recent years have seen a resurgence in use of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) to investigate neural network activity. To probe monosynaptic thalamic activation of cortical postsynaptic target cells, so called spike-trigger-averaged LFP (stLFP) signatures have been measured. In these experiments the cortical LFP is measured by means of multielectrodes covering several cortical lamina and averaged on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical (TC) cells. Using a well-established forward-modeling scheme, we investigate the biophysical origin of this stLFP signature with simultaneous synaptic activation of cortical layer 4 neurons, mimicking the effect of a single afferent spike from a single TC neuron...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425760/polar-phase-indices-of-perioral-muscle-reciprocity-during-syllable-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Shin Ying Chu, Steven M Barlow, Jaehoon Lee, Jingyan Wang
PURPOSE: This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHOD: Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416443/astrocytes-modulate-thalamic-sensory-processing-via-mglu2-receptor-activation
#5
C S Copeland, T M Wall, R E Sims, S A Neale, E Nisenbaum, H R Parri, T E Salt
Astrocytes possess many of the same signalling molecules as neurons. However, the role of astrocytes in information processing, if any, is unknown. Using electrophysiological and imaging methods, we report the first evidence that astrocytes modulate neuronal sensory inhibition in the rodent thalamus. We found that mGlu2 receptor activity reduces inhibitory transmission from the thalamic reticular nucleus to the somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus (VB): mIPSC frequencies in VB slices were reduced by the Group II mGlu receptor agonist LY354740, an effect potentiated by mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) LY487379 co-application (30 nM LY354740: 10...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414797/big1-is-required-for-the-survival-of-deep-layer-neurons-neuronal-polarity-and-the-formation-of-axonal-tracts-between-the-thalamus-and-neocortex-in-developing-brain
#6
Jia-Jie Teoh, Tomohiko Iwano, Masataka Kunii, Nur Atik, Erda Avriyanti, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Kenta Moriwaki, Akihiro Harada
BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo. The loss of BIG1 decreased the size of the neocortex and hippocampus. In BIG1-deficient mice, the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) and the interneurons were unaffected. However, Tbr1+ and Ctip2+ deep layer (DL) neurons showed spatial-temporal dependent apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412498/impact-of-thalamocortical-input-on-barrel-cortex-development
#7
Francisco J Martini, Verónica Moreno-Juan, Anton Filipchuk, Miguel Valdeolmillos, Guillermina López-Bendito
The development of cortical maps requires the balanced interaction between genetically determined programs and input/activity-dependent signals generated spontaneously or triggered from the environment. The somatosensory pathway of mice provides an excellent scenario to study cortical map development because of its highly organized cytoarchitecture, known as the barrel field. This precise organization makes evident even small alterations in the cortical map layout. In this review, we will specially focus on the thalamic factors that control barrel field development...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407555/thalamocortical-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Elliot C Brown, Darren L Clark, Stefanie Hassel, Glenda MacQueen, Rajamannar Ramasubbu
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and potentially devastating, with widespread aberrations in brain activity. Thalamocortical networks are a potential candidate marker for psychopathology in MDD, but have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here we examined functional connectivity between major cortical areas and thalamus. METHOD: Resting-state fMRI from 54 MDD patients and 40 healthy controls were collected. The cortex was segmented into six regions of interest (ROIs) consisting of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and pre-central and post-central gyri...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396883/intracortical-circuits-in-thalamorecipient-layers-of-auditory-cortex-refine-after-visual-deprivation
#9
Xiangying Meng, Joseph P Y Kao, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory cortices do not work in isolation. The functional responses of neurons in primary sensory cortices can be affected by activity from other modalities. For example, short-term visual deprivations, or dark exposure (DE), leads to enhanced neuronal responses and frequency selectivity to sounds in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1). Circuit changes within A1 likely underlie these changes. Prior studies revealed that DE enhanced thalamocortical transmission to L4 in A1. Because the frequency selectivity of L4 neurons is determined by both thalamocortical and intracortical inputs, changes in intralaminar circuits to L4 neurons might also contribute to improved sound responses...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386486/thalamocortical-connectivity-and-microstructural-changes-in-congenital-and-late-blindness
#10
N H Reislev, T B Dyrby, H R Siebner, H Lundell, M Ptito, R Kupers
There is ample evidence that the occipital cortex of congenitally blind individuals processes nonvisual information. It remains a debate whether the cross-modal activation of the occipital cortex is mediated through the modulation of preexisting corticocortical projections or the reorganisation of thalamocortical connectivity. Current knowledge on this topic largely stems from anatomical studies in animal models. The aim of this study was to test whether purported changes in thalamocortical connectivity in blindness can be revealed by tractography based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382614/migraine-with-multiple-sensory-auras
#11
Nicodemus E Oey, Yew Long Lo
Migraine auras are typically visual in nature but can manifest as disturbances in somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory senses. Reports of multiple sensory auras are rare in the literature, but their existence may offer novel insights into the pathogenesis of this highly common yet complex neurological condition. Here we report a case of multiple sensory auras involving somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory disturbances in a patient with migraine without visual manifestations. A 45-year-old woman with a 20-year history of migrainous headaches presented with complaints of rightsided facial and hand numbness and paraesthesia...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379212/effects-of-epidural-compression-on-stellate-neurons-and-thalamocortical-afferent-fibers-in-the-rat-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#12
Tzu-Yin Yeh, Guo-Fang Tseng, Chi-Yu Tseng, Yung-Hsin Huang, Pei-Hsin Liu
A number of neurological disorders such as epidural hematoma can cause compression of cerebral cortex. We here tested the hypothesis that sustained compression of primary somatosensory cortex may affect stellate neurons and thalamocortical afferent (TCA) fibers. A rat model with barrel cortex subjected to bead epidural compression was used. Golgi-Cox staining analyses showed the shrinkage of dendritic arbors and the stripping of dendritic spines of stellate neurons for at least 3 months post-lesion. Anterograde tracing analyses exhibited a progressive decline of TCA fiber density in barrel field for 6 months post-lesion...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377159/reorganization-of-the-thalamocortical-network-in-musicians
#13
Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
The cortico-thalamocortical network is relevant to music performance in that the network can regulate sensitivity to afferent input or sound, mediate the integration of multimodal information required for the performance, and play a role in skilled performance control. We, therefore, predicted that this network would be reorganized via musical training-induced neuroplasticity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity of the thalamocortical network in musicians (n = 35) and nonmusicians (n = 35)...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359322/mutation-of-kinesin-6-kif20b-causes-defects-in-cortical-neuron-polarization-and-morphogenesis
#14
Katrina C McNeely, Timothy D Cupp, Jessica Neville Little, Kerstin M Janisch, Ayushma Shrestha, Noelle D Dwyer
BACKGROUND: How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most divergent member of the Kinesin-6 family of "mitotic" kinesins that also includes Kif23/MKLP1 and Kif20a/MKLP2. We previously isolated a loss-of-function mouse mutant of Kif20b and showed that it had a thalamocortical axon guidance defect and microcephaly...
March 31, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334604/the-potential-role-of-gap-junctional-plasticity-in-the-regulation-of-state
#15
REVIEW
Philippe Coulon, Carole E Landisman
Electrical synapses are the functional correlate of gap junctions and allow transmission of small molecules and electrical current between coupled neurons. Instead of static pores, electrical synapses are actually plastic, similar to chemical synapses. In the thalamocortical system, gap junctions couple inhibitory neurons that are similar in their biochemical profile, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. We postulate that electrical synaptic plasticity among inhibitory neurons directly interacts with the switching between different firing patterns in a state-dependent and type-dependent manner...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334353/suppression-of-v1-feedback-produces-a-shift-in-the-topographic-representation-of-receptive-fields-of-lgn-cells-by-unmasking-latent-retinal-drives
#16
Jordi Aguila, F Javier Cudeiro, Casto Rivadulla
In awake monkeys, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to focally inactivate visual cortex while measuring the responsiveness of parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. Effects were noted in 64/75 neurons, and could be divided into 2 main groups: (1) for 39 neurons, visual responsiveness decreased and visual latency increased without apparent shift in receptive field (RF) position and (2) a second group (n = 25, 33% of the recorded cells) whose excitability was not compromised, but whose RF position shifted an average of 4...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#17
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334242/reciprocal-connections-between-cortex-and-thalamus-contribute-to-retinal-axon-targeting-to-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#18
Yupu Diao, Liyuan Cui, Yuqing Chen, Timothy J Burbridge, Wenqi Han, Brunhilde Wirth, Nenad Sestan, Michael C Crair, Jiayi Zhang
The dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (dLGN) is the primary image-forming target of the retina and shares a reciprocal connection with primary visual cortex (V1). Previous studies showed that corticothalamic input is essential for the development of thalamocortical projections, but less is known about the potential role of this reciprocal connection in the development of retinal projections. Here, we show a deficit of retinal innervation in the dLGN around E18.5 in Tra2β conditional knockout (cKO) "cortexless" mice, an age when apoptosis occurs along the thalamocortical tract and in some dLGN neurons...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#19
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293178/reconsidering-tonotopic-maps-in-the-auditory-cortex-and-lemniscal-auditory-thalamus-in-mice
#20
REVIEW
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Shinpei Ohga, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yamato Kubota, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
The auditory thalamus and auditory cortex (AC) are pivotal structures in the central auditory system. However, the thalamocortical mechanisms of processing sounds are largely unknown. Investigation of this process benefits greatly from the use of mice because the mouse is a powerful animal model in which various experimental techniques, especially genetic tools, can be applied. However, the use of mice has been limited in auditory research, and thus even basic anatomical knowledge of the mouse central auditory system has not been sufficiently collected...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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