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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#1
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128144/the-antipsychotic-drug-brexpiprazole-reverses-phencyclidine-induced-disruptions-of-thalamocortical-networks
#2
Hanna E van den Munkhof, Jørn Arnt, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Brexpiprazole (BREX), a recently approved antipsychotic drug in the US and Canada, improves cognitive dysfunction in animal models, by still largely unknown mechanisms. BREX is a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and D2 receptors and antagonist at α1B- and α2C-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors all with a similar potency. The NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP), used as pharmacological model of schizophrenia, activates thalamocortical networks and decreases low frequency oscillations (LFO; <4 Hz). These effects are reversed by antipsychotics...
November 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125416/gamma-oscillations-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-a-patient-with-a-phantom-limb-case-report
#3
Diellor Basha, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison
The amputation of an extremity is commonly followed by phantom sensations that are perceived to originate from the missing limb. The mechanism underlying the generation of these sensations is still not clear although the development of abnormal oscillatory bursting in thalamic neurons may be involved. The theory of thalamocortical dysrhythmia implicates gamma oscillations in phantom pathophysiology although this rhythm has not been previously observed in the phantom limb thalamus. In this study, the authors report the novel observation of widespread 38-Hz gamma oscillatory activity in spike and local field potential recordings obtained from the ventral caudal somatosensory nucleus of the thalamus (Vc) of a phantom limb patient undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122591/spiking-and-excitatory-inhibitory-input-dynamics-of-barrel-cells-in-response-to-whisker-deflections-of-varying-velocity-and-angular-direction
#4
Mainak Patel
The spiking of barrel regular-spiking (RS) cells is tuned for both whisker deflection direction and velocity. Velocity tuning arises due to thalamocortical (TC) synchrony (but not spike quantity) varying with deflection velocity, coupled with feedforward inhibition, while direction selectivity is not fully understood, though may be due partly to direction tuning of TC spiking. Data show that as deflection direction deviates from the preferred direction of an RS cell, excitatory input to the RS cell diminishes minimally, but temporally shifts to coincide with the time-lagged inhibitory input...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121298/human-neural-correlates-of-sevoflurane-induced-unconsciousness
#5
B J A Palanca, M S Avidan, G A Mashour
Sevoflurane, a volatile anaesthetic agent well-tolerated for inhalation induction, provides a useful opportunity to elucidate the processes whereby halogenated ethers disrupt consciousness and cognition. Multiple molecular targets of sevoflurane have been identified, complementing imaging and electrophysiologic markers for the mechanistically obscure progression from wakefulness to unconsciousness. Recent investigations have more precisely detailed scalp EEG activity during this transition, with practical clinical implications...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114043/subplate-neurons-are-the-first-cortical-neurons-to-respond-to-sensory-stimuli
#6
Jessica M Wess, Amal Isaiah, Paul V Watkins, Patrick O Kanold
In utero experience, such as maternal speech in humans, can shape later perception, although the underlying cortical substrate is unknown. In adult mammals, ascending thalamocortical projections target layer 4, and the onset of sensory responses in the cortex is thought to be dependent on the onset of thalamocortical transmission to layer 4 as well as the ear and eye opening. In developing animals, thalamic fibers do not target layer 4 but instead target subplate neurons deep in the developing white matter...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113642/prefrontal-thalamic-anatomical-connectivity-and-executive-cognitive-function-in-schizophrenia
#7
Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter P Rogers, Stephen M Damon, Bennett A Landman, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108430/exploration-of-the-pathophysiology-of-chronic-pain-using-quantitative-eeg-source-localization
#8
Leslie S Prichep, Jaini Shah, Henry Merkin, Emile M Hiesiger
Chronic pain affects more than 35% of the US adult population representing a major public health imperative. Currently, there are no objective means for identifying the presence of pain, nor for quantifying pain severity. Through a better understanding of the pathophysiology of pain, objective indicators of pain might be forthcoming. Brain mechanisms mediating the painful state were imaged in this study, using source localization of the EEG. In a population of 77 chronic pain patients, significant overactivation of the "Pain Matrix" or pain network, was found in brain regions including, the anterior cingulate, anterior and posterior insula, parietal lobule, thalamus, S1, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), consistent with those reported with conventional functional imaging, and extended to include the mid and posterior cingulate, suggesting that the increased temporal resolution of electrophysiological measures may allow a more precise identification of the pain network...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106983/gabab-receptor-subtypes-differentially-regulate-thalamic-spindle-oscillations
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Ulrich, Txomin Lalanne, Martin Gassmann, Bernhard Bettler
Following the discovery of GABAB receptors by Norman Bowery and colleagues, cloning and biochemical efforts revealed that GABAB receptors assemble multi-subunit complexes composed of principal and auxiliary subunits. The principal receptor subunits GABAB1a, GABAB1b and GABAB2 form two heterodimeric GABAB(1a,2) and GABAB(1b,2) receptors that can associate with tetramers of auxiliary KCTD (K(+) channel tetramerization domain) subunits. Experiments with subunit knock-out mice revealed that GABAB(1b,2) receptors activate slow inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) while GABAB(1a,2) receptors function as heteroreceptors and inhibit glutamate release...
October 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106499/autism-related-neuroligin-4-knockout-impairs-intracortical-processing-but-not-sensory-inputs-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#10
Petr Unichenko, Jenq-Wei Yang, Sergei Kirischuk, Sergei Kolbaev, Werner Kilb, Matthieu Hammer, Dilja Krueger-Burg, Nils Brose, Heiko J Luhmann
Neuroligin-4 (Nlgn4) is a cell adhesion protein that regulates synapse organization and function. Mutations in human NLGN4 are among the causes of autism spectrum disorders. In mouse, Nlgn4 knockout (KO) perturbs GABAergic synaptic transmission and oscillatory activity in hippocampus, and causes social interaction deficits. The complex profile of cellular and circuit changes that are caused by Nlgn4-KO is still only partly understood. Using Nlgn4-KO mice, we found that Nlgn4-KO increases the power in the alpha frequency band of spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex under urethane anesthesia in vivo...
July 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099309/the-autophagy-inducing-kinases-ulk1-and-ulk2-regulate-axon-guidance-in-the-developing-mouse-forebrain-via-a-noncanonical-pathway
#11
Bo Wang, Rekha Iyengar, Xiujie Li-Harms, Joung Hyuck Joo, Christopher Wright, Alfonso Lavado, Linda Horner, Mao Yang, Jun-Lin Guan, Sharon Frase, Douglas R Green, Xinwei Cao, Mondira Kundu
Mammalian ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1) and ULK2, Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-51, and Drosophila melanogaster Atg1 are serine/threonine kinases that regulate flux through the autophagy pathway in response to various types of cellular stress. C. elegans UNC-51 and D. melanogaster Atg1 also promote axonal growth and defasciculation; disruption of these genes results in defective axon guidance in invertebrates. Although disrupting ULK1/2 function impairs normal neurite outgrowth in vitro, the role of ULK1 and ULK2 in the developing brain remains poorly characterized...
November 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098688/thalamocortical-functional-connectivity-in-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-is-abnormally-enhanced-in-executive-control-and-default-mode-networks
#12
Aaron E L Warren, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson, John S Archer
OBJECTIVE: To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. METHODS: Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097598/fgf-fgfr-mediates-the-activity-dependent-dendritogenesis-of-layer-iv-neurons-during-barrel-formation
#13
Jui-Yen Huang, Marisha Lynn Miskus, Hui-Chen Lu
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) are known for their potent effects on cell proliferation/differentiation and cortical patterning in the developing brain. However, little is known regarding FGFs/FGFRs' roles in cortical circuit formation. Here we show that Fgfr1/2/3 and Fgf7/9/10/22 mRNAs are expressed in the developing primary somatosensory (S1) barrel cortex. Barrel cortex layer IV spiny stellate cells (bSCs) are the primary recipients of ascending sensory information via thalamocortical axons (TCAs)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096588/non-nmda-receptor-mediated-vibrotactile-responses-of-neurons-from-the-hindpaw-representation-in-the-rat-si-cortex
#14
Bige Vardar, Burak Güçlü
Non-NMDA receptor-mediated vibrotactile responses of neurons from the hindpaw representation were investigated in the rat SI cortex. We recorded single-unit spikes evoked by sinusoidal (duration: 500 ms; frequency: 5, 40, and 250 Hz; amplitude: 100 μm peak-to-peak) stimulation of the glabrous skin. The responses were obtained with microinjection of aCSF (sham), bicuculline, and AMPA near the isolated neurons in anaesthetized rats. Blocking most of the NMDA receptors by ketamine revealed local dynamics differentially modulated by each drug...
September 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095852/neuronal-correlates-of-ketamine-and-walking-induced-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#15
Katrina E Furth, Alex J McCoy, Caroline Dodge, Judith R Walters, Andres Buonanno, Claire Delaville
Alterations in the function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its major thalamic source of innervation, the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, have been hypothesized to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The NMDAR antagonist ketamine, used to model schizophrenia, elicits a brain state resembling early stage schizophrenia characterized by cognitive deficits and increases in cortical low gamma (40-70 Hz) power. Here we sought to determine how ketamine differentially affects spiking and gamma local field potential (LFP) activity in the rat mPFC and MD thalamus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094306/early-sensory-experience-influences-the-development-of-multisensory-thalamocortical-and-intracortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-cortices
#16
Julia U Henschke, Anja M Oelschlegel, Frank Angenstein, Frank W Ohl, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Patrick O Kanold, Eike Budinger
The nervous system integrates information from multiple senses. This multisensory integration already occurs in primary sensory cortices via direct thalamocortical and corticocortical connections across modalities. In humans, sensory loss from birth results in functional recruitment of the deprived cortical territory by the spared senses but the underlying circuit changes are not well known. Using tracer injections into primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex within the first postnatal month of life in a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil) we show that multisensory thalamocortical connections emerge before corticocortical connections but mostly disappear during development...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080379/probabilistic-tractography-based-thalamic-parcellation-in-healthy-newborns-and-newborns-with-congenital-heart-disease
#17
Camilo Jaimes, Henry H Cheng, Janet Soul, Silvina Ferradal, Yogesh Rathi, Borjan Gagoski, Jane W Newburger, P Ellen Grant, Lilla Zöllei
BACKGROUND: Given the central role of the thalamus in motor, sensory, and cognitive development, methods to study emerging thalamocortical connectivity in early infancy are of great interest. PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of performing probabilistic tractography-based thalamic parcellation (PTbTP) in typically developing (TD) neonates and to compare the results with a pilot sample of neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD). STUDY TYPE: Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved cross-sectional study...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073146/unified-thalamic-model-generates-multiple-distinct-oscillations-with-state-dependent-entrainment-by-stimulation
#18
Guoshi Li, Craig S Henriquez, Flavio Fröhlich
The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations) that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066558/orientation-tuning-of-correlated-activity-in-the-developing-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#19
Caitlin W Kiley, W Martin Usrey
Neural circuits and the cells that comprise them undergo developmental changes in the spatial organization of their connections and in their temporal response properties. Within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus, these changes have pronounced effects on the spatiotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) of neurons. An open and unresolved question is how STRF maturation affects stimulus-evoked correlated activity between pairs of LGN neurons during development. This is an important question to answer as stimulus-evoked correlated activity likely plays a role in establishing the specificity of thalamocortical connectivity and the receptive fields of postsynaptic cortical neurons...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066556/seizures-and-sleep-in-the-thalamus-focal-limbic-seizures-show-divergent-activity-patterns-in-different-thalamic-nuclei
#20
Li Feng, Joshua E Motelow, Chanthia Ma, William Biche, Cian McCafferty, Nicholas Smith, Mengran Liu, Qiong Zhan, Ruonan Jia, Bo Xiao, Alvaro Duque, Hal Blumenfeld
The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT) and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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