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myasthenia gravis cognition

Antonia Kaltsatou, Dimitris Fotiou, Dimitris Tsiptsios, Anastasios Orologas
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate with neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods such as pupillometry, cognitive test and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) the hypothesis of Central Nervous System (CNS) cholinergic involvement in patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG). METHODS: Thirty-two patients (32) with MG and a mean age of 51.1 ± 17.2 volunteered to participate in this investigation, while thirty-three (33) healthy subjects with a mean age of 50...
June 2015: BBA Clinical
Suresh Kumar
OBJECTIVES: The brain of mammals contains two major form of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The dual inhibition of these enzymes is considered as a promising strategy for the treatment of neurological disorder such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), senile dementia, ataxia, and myasthenia gravis. The present study was undertaken to explore the anticholinesterase inhibition property of allicin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An assessment of cholinesterase inhibition was carried out by Ellman's assay...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Lien-Ying Lin, Ming-Hong Chang, Wei-Ju Lee
PURPOSE: Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare, immune-mediated entity. We present an unusual case of a patient who has double cancers and two different paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old gentleman has histories of adenocarcinoma of lung and malignant thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis, which underwent surgery and chemotherapy 3 years ago. This time, he presented to our ward with rapidly progressive memory decline and myoclonic jerks in his limbs for two weeks...
September 2014: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Zhifeng Mao, Junjie Yin, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu
The course of myasthenia gravis (MG) is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS) damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain...
April 2015: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Wenli Chen, Xiansi Zeng, Fucheng Luo, Tao Lv, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Jie Bai
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptor (AchR) at the neuromuscular junction. There is the cognitive and memory impairment in patients with MG. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the alteration of central nervous system in MG remain unknown. In the present study, we found that the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased in the brain of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Furthermore, the expression of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were significantly decreased in frontal lobe and hippocampus of mice with EAMG...
August 2014: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Philippe Couratier, Benoît Marin, Géraldine Lautrette, Marie Nicol, Pierre-Marie Preux
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease in adults. Its incidence in France is estimated at 2.5 per 100,000 population and its prevalence between 5 and 8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Good prognostic factors are age of early onset, a longer time to diagnosis, initial damage to the spinal onset, early management of undernutrition and restrictive respiratory failure. The diagnosis of ALS is primarily clinical and is based on the evidence of involvement of the central motor neuron and peripheral neuron (NMP) in different territories or spinal or bulbar...
May 2014: La Presse Médicale
Daniel B Park, Joseph V Dobson, Joseph D Losek
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to highlight the intimate role that cognitive biases play in clinical decision making in the pediatric emergency department and to recommend strategies to limit their negative impact on patient care outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of 3 cases of presumed asthma exacerbation evolving into alternate diagnoses. RESULTS: The role cognitive biases played in either delay to diagnosis or missed diagnosis contributing to patient morbidity are illustrated in each case...
February 2014: Pediatric Emergency Care
Filipa Teixeira, Isabel Moreira, Ana Martins Silva, Carlos Vasconcelos, Fátima Farinha, Ernestina Santos
OBJECTIVES: To perform an observational retrospective cross-sectional case-control study to evaluate prevalence, clinical patterns and outcomes of neurological involvement in a cohort of Primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS) patients followed up in a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a total of 93 pSS patients, diagnosed according to the 2002 criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group, we reviewed the clinical data of those with neurological complaints that were referred to observation by Neuroimmunology doctors...
January 2013: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Shi Hui Wong, Jennifer C Nitz, Katrina Williams, Sandra G Brauer
INTRODUCTION: Studies of exercise in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) are sparse. Balance strategy training (BST) multimodal exercise has proven efficacy in adults for enhancing balance and functional mobility. This prospective study aims to determine if BST improves functional ability and balance in people with MG. METHODS: Seven individuals with MG participated in a 16-session workstation intervention. Repeated measures (pre/post-intervention and 4-week follow-up) consisting of quantitative myasthenia gravis score (QMG), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), timed up and go (TUG) with dual task (TUG(manual) and TUG(cognitive)), and standing stability on foam with eyes closed (foamEC) were assessed...
May 2014: Muscle & Nerve
Rakez Kayed, George R Jackson, D Mark Estes, Alan D T Barrett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti Aβ peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated...
2011: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
Elliot D Freeman, Alberta Ipser, Austra Palmbaha, Diana Paunoiu, Peter Brown, Christian Lambert, Alex Leff, Jon Driver
The sight and sound of a person speaking or a ball bouncing may seem simultaneous, but their corresponding neural signals are spread out over time as they arrive at different multisensory brain sites. How subjective timing relates to such neural timing remains a fundamental neuroscientific and philosophical puzzle. A dominant assumption is that temporal coherence is achieved by sensory resynchronisation or recalibration across asynchronous brain events. This assumption is easily confirmed by estimating subjective audiovisual timing for groups of subjects, which is on average similar across different measures and stimuli, and approximately veridical...
November 2013: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Fidias E Leon-Sarmiento, Edgardo A Bayona, Jaime Bayona-Prieto, Allen Osman, Richard L Doty
In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds...
2012: PloS One
S Lanfranconi, S Corti, P Baron, G Conti, L Borellini, N Bresolin, A Bersano
Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase- (MuSK-) antibodies-positive Myasthenia Gravis accounts for about one third of Seronegative Myasthenia Gravis and is clinically characterized by early onset of prominent bulbar, neck, shoulder girdle, and respiratory weakness. The response to medical therapy is generally poor. Here we report a case of late-onset MuSK-antibodies-positive Myasthenia Gravis presenting with signs of cognitive impairment and parkinsonism in addition to bulbar involvement and external ophthalmoplegia...
2011: Neurology Research International
P K Mukherjee, N Satheeshkumar, P Venkatesh, M Venkatesh
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are considered as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), senile dementia, ataxia and myasthenia gravis. There are only few synthetic medicines with adverse effects, available for treatment of cognitive dysfunction and memory loss associated with these diseases. A variety of plants has been reported to possess AChE inhibitory activity and so may be relevant to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD...
March 2011: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Anna Sadnicka, Mary M Reilly, Cath Mummery, Sebastian Brandner, Nicholas Hirsch, Michael P T Lunn
A 76-year-old man with a pre-existing diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was admitted to an intensive care unit with pneumonia and type II respiratory failure. In addition, muscle weakness, widespread myokymia, neuropsychiatric disturbance and autonomic disturbance were present. Antivoltage gated potassium channel antibodies, antistriated muscle antibodies and antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies were positive. Nerve-conduction studies demonstrated findings consistent with patchy demyelination. Electromyography confirmed widespread myokymia, and there was evidence of diffuse encephalopathy on electroencephalography...
February 2011: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Michelle H Cameron, Eve L Klein
UNLABELLED: NARRATIVE REVIEW: In general, nervous system disorders present with changes in sensation, strength, and cognitive function that must be recognized early for the timely referral often needed for optimal outcome. This article summarizes screening for nervous system disorders in patients who present to the hand therapist and the typical findings associated with common neurologic disorders. Recommendations for referral by the hand therapist of patients with a screening examination consistent with a nervous system disorder are also presented...
April 2010: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Douglas P Larsen, Andrew C Butler, Henry L Roediger
CONTEXT: Laboratory studies in cognitive psychology with relatively brief final recall intervals suggest that repeated retrieval in the form of tests may result in better retention of information compared with repeated study. OBJECTIVES: Our study evaluates if repeated testing of material taught in a real-life educational setting (a didactic conference for paediatric and emergency medicine residents) replicates these findings when measured at a more educationally relevant final recall interval of 6 months...
December 2009: Medical Education
Khaled Hammoud, Geetha Kandimala, Worthy Warnack, Steven Vernino
OBJECTIVES: To report a case of multifocal cortical encephalitis associated with thymoma and to establish an association of this thymoma-related paraneoplastic syndrome with voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT: A 43-year-old woman with a history of seropositive myasthenia gravis and successfully treated invasive thymoma. Four years after thymectomy, she presented with seizure and rapidly progressive confusion and aphasia...
November 2009: Archives of Neurology
R A C Hughes, M C Dalakas, D R Cornblath, N Latov, M E Weksler, N Relkin
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used increasingly in the management of patients with neurological conditions. The efficacy and safety of IVIg treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been established clearly in randomized controlled trials and summarized in Cochrane systematic reviews. However, questions remain regarding the dose, timing and duration of IVIg treatment in both disorders. Reports about successful IVIg treatment in other neurological conditions exist, but its use remains investigational...
December 2009: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Camillo Marra, Francesca Marsili, Davide Quaranta, Amelia Evoli
The relationship between myasthenia gravis (MG) and cognitive dysfunction has been a matter of debate because of the possible association between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) cholinergic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive function in a series of elderly MG patients in comparison to matched controls. In all, 100 consecutive MG patients aged over 60 years and 31 matched control subjects underwent an extensive neuropsychological test battery to explore multiple cognitive domains...
December 2009: Muscle & Nerve
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