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Elite athlete

David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Harry T Mai, Robert J Burgmeier, Sean M Mitchell, Andrew C Hecht, Joseph C Maroon, Gordon W Nuber, Wellington K Hsu
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To determine if the level of a cervical disc herniation (CDH) procedure will uniquely impact performance-based outcomes in elite athletes of the National Football League (NFL). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Comparative assessments of post-surgical outcomes in NFL athletes with CDH at different levels are unknown. Further, the surgical decision making for these types of injuries in professional football athletes remains controversial...
September 30, 2016: Spine
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
M Schapschröer, S Lemez, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills differ between elite athletes and non-athletes. However, the knowledge on how physical exercise interacts with perceptual-cognitive skill is limited. This systematic review aims to provide detailed information on how athletes' perceptual-cognitive performance is influenced by acute physical exercise load and whether these effects differ between elite athletes and lesser skilled groups...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Liz Gough, Lindy M Castell, Rosalba Gatti, Richard J Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature of venous sampling is poorly accepted. Thus, this study examines possible viable alternatives such as urine and saliva samples and the GH concentration...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Daniel J Owens, Jonathan C Y Tang, Warren J Bradley, S Andy Sparks, William D Fraser, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
PURPOSE: Supplementation with dietary forms of vitamin D is commonplace in clinical medicine, elite athletic cohorts and the general population, yet the response of all major vitamin D metabolites to high doses of vitamin D is poorly characterized. We aimed to identify the responses of all major vitamin D metabolites to moderate and high dose supplemental vitamin D3. METHODS: A repeated measures design was implemented in which 46 elite professional European athletes were block randomized based on their basal 25[OH]D concentration into two treatment groups...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Débora Villaño, Cristina Vilaplana, Sonia Medina, Francisco Algaba-Chueca, Roberto Cejuela-Anta, Jose Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Federico Ferreres, Angel Gil-Izquierdo
The effects of polyphenol-rich foods on the iron status of athletes, as well as the effect of physical training on the hormone hepcidin, implicated in iron metabolism, are not clear. We investigated the influence on iron metabolism of a long-term training intervention of 120 days, measuring the hepcidin concentration in the plasma of 16 elite triathletes, and the effect of the ingestion of 200 mL of either aronia-citrus juice or a placebo drink for 45 days, in a crossover design. The highest plasma hepcidin concentrations were observed at the beginning of the study (116 ± 63 nM) and levels steadily decreased until the end of the intervention (final value 10 ± 7...
October 8, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen, Martin Buchheit
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring autonomic nervous system status and training adaptation in athletes. It is believed that increases in HRV indicate effective training adaptation, but these are not always apparent in elite athletes. METHODS: Resting HRV was recorded in 4 elite rowers (Rower A, B, C and D) over the 7-week period prior to 2015 World Rowing Championship success. The natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD), Ln rMSSD:R-R ratio trends, and the Ln rMSSD to R-R interval relationship were assessed for each champion-winning rower...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stephanie A Kovalchik, Michael K Bane, Machar Reid
Official rankings are the most common measure of success in professional women's tennis. Despite their importance for earning potential and tournament seeding, little is known about ranking trajectories of female players and their influence on career success. Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive study of the career progression of elite female tennis talent. The study examined the ranking trajectories of the top 250 female professionals between 1990 and 2015. Using regression modelling of yearly peak rankings, we found a strong association between the shape of the ranking trajectory and the highest career ranking earned...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kari Bø, Raul Artal, Ruben Barakat, Wendy Brown, Michael Dooley, Kelly R Evenson, Lene A H Haakstad, Karin Larsen, Bengt Kayser, Tarja I Kinnunen, Michelle F Mottola, Ingrid Nygaard, Mireille van Poppel, Britt Stuge, Gregory A L Davies
This is Part 2 of 5 in the series of evidence statements from the IOC expert committee on exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes. Part 1 focused on the effects of training during pregnancy and on the management of common pregnancy-related symptoms experienced by athletes. In Part 2, we focus on maternal and fetal perinatal outcomes.
October 12, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Tomasz Mikulski, Hubert Krysztofiak, Marcel Mlynczak, Ewa Gaczynska, Andrzej Ziemba
Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation...
2016: PloS One
Lucy M Safi, Malissa J Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Araceli Boraita, Maria-Eugenia Heras, Francisco Morales, Manuel Marina-Breysse, Alicia Canda, Manuel Rabadan, Maria-Isabel Barriopedro, Amai Varela, Alejandro de la Rosa, José Tuñón
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m(2) and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Fließer
BACKGROUND: Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools...
October 10, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Richard C Thelwell, Christopher R D Wagstaff, Michael T Chapman, Göran Kenttä
This study extends recent coach stress research by evaluating how coaches perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes, and the broader coach-athlete relationship. A total of 12 coaches working across a range of team sports at the elite level took part in semi-structured interviews to investigate the 3 study aims: how they perceive athletes to detect signals of coach stress; how they perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes; and, how effective they perceive themselves to be when experiencing stress...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Michelle E Costanzo, John W VanMeter, Christopher M Janelle, Allen Braun, Matthew W Miller, Jessica Oldham, Bartlett A H Russell, Bradley D Hatfield
Skilled individuals demonstrate a spatially localized or relatively lower response in brain activity characterized as neural efficiency when performing within their domain of expertise. Elite athletes are experts in their chosen sport and thus must be not only adept in the motor domain but must be resilient to performing under the stress of high-level competition. Such stability of performance suggests this population processes emotion and mental stress in an adaptive and efficient manner. This study sought to determine if athletes with a history of successful performance under circumstances of mental stress demonstrate neural efficiency during affective challenges compared to age-matched controls...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Nicola Relph, Lee Herrington
BACKGROUND: Following an ACL injury, reconstruction (ACL-R) and rehabilitation, athletes may return to play with a proprioceptive deficit. However, literature is lacking to support this hypothesis in elite athletic groups who have returned to international levels of performance. It is possible the potentially heightened proprioceptive ability evidenced in athletes may negate a deficit following injury. The purpose of this study was to consider the effects of ACL injury, reconstruction and rehabilitation on knee joint position sense (JPS) on a group of elite athletes who had returned to international performance...
October 3, 2016: Knee
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