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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732063/dopamine-acting-at-d1-like-d2-like-and-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-differentially-modulates-theta-and-gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-primary-motor-cortex
#1
Mazhar Özkan, Nicholas W Johnson, Umit S Sehirli, Gavin L Woodhall, Ian M Stanford
The loss of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's is accompanied by the emergence of exaggerated theta and beta frequency neuronal oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and basal ganglia. DA replacement therapy or deep brain stimulation reduces the power of these oscillations and this is coincident with an improvement in motor performance implying a causal relationship. Here we provide in vitro evidence for the differential modulation of theta and gamma activity in M1 by DA acting at receptors exhibiting conventional and non-conventional DA pharmacology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726799/the-insular-cortex-dynamically-maps-changes-in-cardiorespiratory-interoception
#2
Mahlega S Hassanpour, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Qingfei Luo, Rachel Lapidus, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus, Sahib S Khalsa
Palpitations and dyspnea are fundamental to the human experience of panic anxiety, but it remains unclear how the brain dynamically represents changes in these interoceptive sensations. We used isoproterenol, a rapidly acting peripheral beta-adrenergic agonist similar to adrenaline, to induce sensations of palpitation and dyspnea in healthy individuals (n=23) during arterial spin labeling (ASL) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that the right mid-insular cortex, a central recipient of viscerosensory input, would preferentially respond during the peak period of cardiorespiratory stimulation...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#3
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
July 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719370/simple-preparation-of-timolol-0-5-gel-from-eye-drop-solution-for-superficial-infantile-hemangiomas
#4
Winnie Choo
The discovery of beta-adrenergic blocker effects on infantile hemangiomas has affected the choice of treatment in recent years. Oral propranolol is effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, but the risk of systemic side effects remains a concern. Data from literature review reported positive clinical outcomes with no major adverse effects observed in children using topical beta-blocker such as timolol maleate. Topical application of timolol eye drop has been mentioned in few studies, most of which reported that the solution cannot stay on the site of application due to its fluidity...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710067/a-comparison-of-passive-hind-limb-cycling-and-active-upper-limb-exercise-provides-new-insights-into-systolic-dysfunction-following-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Jordan W Squair, Andrei V Krassioukov, David Magnuson, Christopher R West
BACKGROUND: Active upper-limb and passive lower-limb exercise are two interventions used in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. While the global cardiac responses have been previously studied, it is unclear how either exercise influences contractile cardiac function. Here, the cardiac contractile and volumetric responses to upper-limb (swim) and passive lower-limb exercise are investigated in rodents with a severe high-thoracic SCI. METHODS: Animals were divided into a control (CON), SCI no exercise (NO-EX), SCI passive hind-limb cycling (PHLC) or SCI swim (SWIM) group...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704259/systemic-blood-pressure-at-exercise-in-hypoxia-in-hypertensive-and-normotensive-patients
#6
Laurent Winkler, François J Lhuissier, Jean-Paul Richalet
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether acute hypoxia exposure in laboratory conditions associated with exercise induces an increase in systemic blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and hypertensive patients, and whether hypertensive patients are more prone to develop severe acute mountain sickness (sAMS). Finally, to determine if BP changes at exercise in acute hypoxia in hypertensive patients are predictive factors for sAMS. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 852 normotensive and 106 hypertensive patients went through an acute hypoxia exercise test before a sojourn at high altitude...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699713/-potential-role-of-norepinephrine-in-the-immune-dysfunction-associated-with-sepsis
#7
Anna Bauer-Dörries, Sarah De Cupis, Lucas Liaudet
Septic shock may be complicated by a state of immune suppression, with ominous prognosis significance. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, it is possible that norepinephrine, used to treat circulatory failure during septic shock, plays a significant contributing role. Indeed, besides its hemodynamic effects, norepinephrine exerts multiple immunosuppressive actions, which are primarily mediated by beta-2 adrenergic receptors expressed by immune cells. Furthermore, norepinephrine has the ability to promote the growth of numerous bacteria, and could thereby foster the development of nosocomial infections...
July 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689048/the-impact-of-hypothermia-on-serum-potassium-concentration-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Buse, Marc Blancher, Damien Viglino, Mathieu Pasquier, Maxime Maignan, Pierre Bouzat, Thorsten Annecke, Guillaume Debaty
BACKGROUND: Blood potassium is the main prognostic biomarker used for triage in hypothermic cardiac arrest. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of hypothermia on blood potassium levels and compare the underlying pathophysiological theories. METHODS: The Medline electronic database was searched via PubMed for articles published from January 1970 to December 2016. The search strategy included studies related to hypothermia and potassium levels. The relevant literature on clinical studies and experimental studies was reviewed by the authors...
July 5, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685702/a-focus-on-pharmacological-management-of-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#9
Claudio Barbanti, Alice Maltret, Daniel Sidi
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a channelopathy characterized by adrenergic mediated ventricular arrhythmia. Untreated CPVT is a malignant syndrome with more than 50% of arrhythmic event and up to 25% of fatal or near-fatal cardiac event at 8 years follow-up. Prevention of sudden cardiac death starts with exclusion of competitive sports. Beta blockers (BB) are the cornerstone pharmacological therapy for prevention of cardiac event in CPVT patients. Dose of BB should be the highest tolerable, preferably nadolol...
July 7, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670631/cardiac-directed-expression-of-adenylyl-cyclase-catalytic-domain-reverses-cardiac-dysfunction-caused-by-sustained-beta-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation
#10
Mei Hua Gao, N Chin Lai, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, Young Chul Kim, Zhen Tan, Tracy Guo, Wolfgang H Dillmann, Jorge Suarez, H Kirk Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cardiac-directed expression of the cytoplasmic domains of adenylyl cyclase-6 (AC6) would have beneficial effects on the heart. BACKGROUND: Eliminating the two transmembrane domains of AC6 yields a protein with an intact catalytic domain that is disengaged from membrane-associated β-adrenergic receptor stimulation, but with enhanced propensity for intracellular interactions. METHODS: We constructed a peptide of the C1 and C2 segments of AC6 (C1C2), expressed C1C2 in an adenovirus vector and generated transgenic lines with cardiac-directed C1C2 expression, which underwent sustained isoproterenol (Iso) infusion...
December 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668303/ca-2-activated-cl-current-is-antiarrhythmic-by-reducing-both-spatial-and-temporal-heterogeneity-of-cardiac-repolarization
#11
Bence Hegyi, Balázs Horváth, Krisztina Váczi, Mónika Gönczi, Kornél Kistamás, Ferenc Ruzsnavszky, Roland Veress, Leighton T Izu, Ye Chen-Izu, Tamás Bányász, János Magyar, László Csernoch, Péter P Nánási, Norbert Szentandrássy
The role of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (ICl(Ca)) in cardiac arrhythmias is still controversial. It can generate delayed afterdepolarizations in Ca(2+)-overloaded cells while in other studies incidence of early afterdepolarization (EAD) was reduced by ICl(Ca). Therefore our goal was to examine the role of ICl(Ca) in spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cardiac repolarization and EAD formation. Experiments were performed on isolated canine cardiomyocytes originating from various regions of the left ventricle; subepicardial, midmyocardial and subendocardial cells, as well as apical and basal cells of the midmyocardium...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666669/medical-treatment-of-nocturia-in-men-with-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-systematic-review-by-the-european-association-of-urology-guidelines-panel-for-male-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#12
REVIEW
Vasileios I Sakalis, Markos Karavitakis, Dina Bedretdinova, Thorsten Bach, J L H Ruud Bosch, Mauro Gacci, Christian Gratzke, Thomas R Herrmann, Stephan Madersbacher, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Kari A O Tikkinen, Stavros Gravas, Marcus J Drake
CONTEXT: The treatment of nocturia is a key challenge due to the multi-factorial pathophysiology of the symptom and the disparate outcome measures used in research. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare available therapy options for nocturia, in terms of symptom severity and quality of life. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medical databases (Embase, Medline, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central) were searched with no date restriction. Comparative studies were included which studied adult men with nocturia as the primary presentation and lower urinary tract symptoms including nocturia or nocturnal polyuria...
June 27, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664928/co-activation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-3-and-beta-adrenergic-receptors-modulates-cyclic-amp-long-term-potentiation-and-disrupts-memory-reconsolidation
#13
Adam G Walker, Douglas J Sheffler, Andrew S Lewis, Jonathan W Dickerson, Daniel J Foster, Rebecca K Senter, Mark S Moehle, Xiaohui Lv, Branden J Stansley, Zixiu Xiang, Jerri M Rook, Kyle A Emmitte, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn
Activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) enhances both the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. Interestingly, previous studies reveal that coincident activation of group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors with βARs in the hippocampal astrocytes induces a large increase in cyclic-AMP (cAMP) accumulation and release of adenosine. Adenosine then acts on A1 adenosine receptors at neighboring excitatory Schaffer collateral terminals, which could counteract effects of activation of neuronal βARs on excitatory transmission...
June 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642099/developmental-cardiovascular-physiology-of-the-olive-ridley-sea-turtle-lepidochelys-olivacea
#14
Dane Alan Crossley, Janna Lee Crossley, Camilla Smith, Martha Harfush, Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez, Mónica Vanessa Garduño-Paz, José Fernando Méndez-Sánchez
Our understanding of reptilian cardiovascular development and regulation has increased substantially for two species the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) during the past two decades. However, what we know about cardiovascular maturation in many other species remains poorly understood or unknown. Embryonic sea turtles have been studied to understand the maturation of metabolic function, but these studies have not addressed the cardiovascular system...
June 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641581/thyrotoxic-and-pheochromocytoma-multisystem-crisis-a-case-report
#15
Kodai Suzuki, Takahito Miyake, Hideshi Okada, Fuminori Yamaji, Yuichiro Kitagawa, Tetsuya Fukuta, Ryu Yasuda, Yoshihito Tanaka, Haruka Okamoto, Sho Nachi, Tomoaki Doi, Takahiro Yoshida, Keisuke Kumada, Shozo Yoshida, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Izumi Toyoda, Shinji Ogura
BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxic crisis and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis are rare, life-threatening, emergency endocrine diseases with various clinical manifestations. Here we report a case of a patient who simultaneously developed thyrotoxic crisis and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis and required intensive cardiovascular management. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old Asian man experienced nausea and vomiting, and subsequently developed dyspnea and cold sweats while farming...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622599/adrenergic-regulation-of-cytoplasmic-structures-related-to-secretory-processes-in-pig-pinealocytes-an-ultrastructural-quantitative-study
#16
Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz, Bogdan Lewczuk, Natalia Ziółkowska, Magdalena Prusik
Two structures, considered as secretory in nature, are present in the pinealocytes in of the domestic pig show the presence of two structures, which are considered as secretory in nature - the dense core vesicles (DCV) and the membrane bounded (dense) bodies (MBB). The latter are extremely numerous in pig pinealocytes (they occupy 6-20% of the cytoplasm), and the number of MBB changes under different physiological and experimental conditions. Norepinephrine is the main neurotransmitter that regulates the secretion of pineal melatonin...
June 9, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622331/in-silico-assessment-of-genetic-variation-in-kcna5-reveals-multiple-mechanisms-of-human-atrial-arrhythmogenesis
#17
Michael A Colman, Haibo Ni, Bo Liang, Nicole Schmitt, Henggui Zhang
A recent experimental study investigating patients with lone atrial fibrillation identified six novel mutations in the KCNA5 gene. The mutants exhibited both gain- and loss-of-function of the atrial specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current, IKur. The aim of this study is to elucidate and quantify the functional impact of these KCNA5 mutations on atrial electrical activity. A multi-scale model of the human atria was updated to incorporate detailed experimental data on IKur from both wild-type and mutants...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611676/autonomic-modulation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-increases-beat-to-beat-variability-of-ventricular-action-potential-duration
#18
Bradley Porter, Martin J Bishop, Simon Claridge, Jonathan Behar, Benjamin J Sieniewicz, Jessica Webb, Justin Gould, Mark O'Neill, Christopher A Rinaldi, Reza Razavi, Jaswinder S Gill, Peter Taggart
Background: Exaggerated beat-to-beat variability of ventricular action potential duration (APD) is linked to arrhythmogenesis. Sympathetic stimulation has been shown to increase QT interval variability, but its effect on ventricular APD in humans has not been determined. Methods and Results: Eleven heart failure patients with implanted bi-ventricular pacing devices had activation-recovery intervals (ARI, surrogate for APD) recorded from LV epicardial electrodes under constant RV pacing. Sympathetic activity was increased using a standard autonomic challenge (Valsalva) and baroreceptor indices were applied to determine changes in sympathetic stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599602/spinal-cord-injury-causes-systolic-dysfunction-and-cardiomyocyte-atrophy
#19
Jordan W Squair, Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod, Brian Hayes, Jie Liu, David S K Magnuson, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to exhibit systolic, and to a lesser extent, diastolic cardiac dysfunction. However, previous reports of cardiac dysfunction in this population are confounded by the changing loading conditions after SCI and as such, whether cardiac dysfunction per se is present is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to establish if load-independent cardiac dysfunction is present after SCI, to understand the functional cardiac response to SCI, and to explore the changes within the cellular milieu of the myocardium...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590038/effects-of-estrogen-and-cimicifuga-racemosa-on-the-cardiac-norepinephrine-pathway-of-ovariectomized-rats
#20
Yao Liu, Jing Zhang, Shuya Liu, Wenjuan Wang, Xing Chen, Hai Jiang, Junlei Li, Ke Wang, Wenpei Bai, Haicheng Zhang, Lihua Qin
This study aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the stellate ganglion, cardiac norepinephrine pathway, and Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with estrogen treatment (E2), and ovariectomized with Cimicifuga racemosa treatment (iCR). After 4 weeks of treatment, norepinephrine (NE) content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression was detected by immunohistochemistry...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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