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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327897/peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease-and-perioperative-risk
#1
Peter Poredos, Pavel Poredos
Surgical procedures represent a risk for different complications which may appear during the perioperative period. Cardiac ischemic events and vascular complications are the most important causes of increased morbidity and mortality and they are much more frequent in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease. This is particularly seen in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD), which represents advanced atherosclerosis frequently accompanied by the presence of coronary artery disease. Therefore, patients with PAD need careful preoperative examination, including estimation of functional capacity and the presence of other co-existing atherosclerotic diseases...
January 11, 2018: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325034/ghrelin-preserves-ischemia-induced-vasodilation-of-male-rat-coronary-vessels-following-beta-adrenergic-receptor-blockade
#2
James T Pearson, Nicola Collie, Regis R Lamberts, Tadakatsu Inagaki, Misa Yoshimoto, Keiji Umetani, Philip Davis, Gerard Wilkins, Pete P Jones, Mikiyasu Shirai, Daryl O Schwenke
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an adverse increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). While β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-blockers are routinely used for the management of MI, they may also counter β-AR-mediated vasodilation of coronary vessels. We have reported that ghrelin prevents sympathetic activation following MI. Whether ghrelin modulates coronary vascular tone following MI, either through the modulation of SNA, or directly as a vasoactive mediator, has never been addressed.We utilized synchrotron microangiography to image coronary perfusion and vessel internal diameter (ID) in anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats before, and then again 30 mins after induction of an MI (left coronary artery ligation)...
January 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318704/use-of-antihypertensive-drugs-and-risk-of-keratinocyte-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#3
Huilin Tang, Shuangshuang Fu, Suodi Zhai, Yiqing Song, Maryam M Asgari, Jiali Han
PURPOSE: Current epidemiologic evidence on the association between antihypertensive drugs and keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) risk is inconsistent. We sought to quantify this association by meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: We systematically reviewed observational studies published through August 2016 and reported the KC risk (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) associated with antihypertensive drugs, including diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-adrenergic blocking agents (β-blockers), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs)...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288665/intact-calcium-signaling-in-adrenergic-deficient-embryonic-mouse-hearts
#4
Jessica N Peoples, David G Taylor, Alexander N Katchman, Steven N Ebert
Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh-/-) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10...
December 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258429/mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-alleviates-oxidative-stress-injury-induced-by-hydrogen-peroxide-via-regulating-mir143-and-its-target-protein-in-hepatocytes
#5
Xuejing Xu, Dong Li, Xue Li, Qing Shi, Xiuli Ju
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in this process. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative stress injury in the human normal liver cell line L02. MSC-CM was separately prepared. After treatment with MSC-CM, the protective effects of MSC-CM on oxidative stress injury were assessed by changes in apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and mitochondrial membrane potential...
December 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251711/beta-blockers-in-critically-ill-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-results-from-a-multi-center-prospective-observational-aast-study
#6
Eric J Ley, Samuel D Leonard, Galinos Barmparas, Navpreet K Dhillon, Kenji Inaba, Ali Salim, Karen R OʼBosky, Danielle Tatum, Hooman Azmi, Chad G Ball, Paul T Engels, Julie A Dunn, Matthew M Carrick, Jonathan P Meizoso, Sarah Lombardo, Bryan A Cotton, Thomas J Schroeppel, Sandro Rizoli, David S J Chang, Luis Alejandro de León, Joao Rezende-Neto, Tomas Jacome, Jimmy Xiao, Gina Mallory, Krishnamurti Rao, Lars Widdel, Samuel Godin, Angela Coates, Leo Andrew Benedict, Raminder Nirula, Sanjeev Kaul, Tong Li
BACKGROUND: Beta blockers, a class of medications that inhibit endogenous catecholamines interaction with beta adrenergic receptors, are often administered to patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested the hypothesis that beta blocker use after TBI is associated with lower mortality, and secondarily compared propranolol to other beta blockers. METHODS: The AAST Clinical Trial Group conducted a multi-institutional, prospective, observational trial in which adult TBI patients who required ICU admission were compared based on beta blocker administration...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233068/altered-functional-expression-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-in-rhesus-monkey-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#7
Nermeen Ahmed Mohamed Eldabah, Erastus Nembu Nembo, Judith Semmler, Marina Penner, Marek Molcanyi, Rania Swelem, Amina Hassab, Juergen Hescheler, Filomain Nguemo
Pluripotent stem cells have demonstrated the potential to generate large numbers of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from different cell sources. Besides Wnt signaling, additional pathways are involved in early cardiac development and function. To date however, no study exists showing the effects of perturbing the canonical Wnt pathway using non-human primate embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we investigated the effect of canonical Wnt inhibition during differentiation of non-human primate ES cell-derived CMs under defined, growth factors conditions...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217463/electrical-storm-in-the-early-phase-of-heartmate%C3%A2-ii-device-implantation-incidence-risk-factors-and-prognosis
#8
Jerome Corre, François Picard, Rodrigue Garcia, Adlane Zemmoura, Nicolas Derval, Arnaud Denis, Antoine Romen, Karine Nubret, Pierre Jais, Michel Haissaguerre, Pierre Dos Santos, Laurent Barandon, Frederic Sacher
BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmia is common after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, especially in the early postoperative phase (<30 days). AIM: To identify the incidence of and risk factors for electrical storm (ES) occurring within 30 days of HeartMate® II implantation. METHODS: We reviewed data from all consecutive patients undergoing HeartMate® II device implantation at our institution from January 2008 to December 2014...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216818/neuroprotective-effects-of-amiodarone-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#9
Masakazu Kotoda, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Kazuha Mitsui, Sohei Hishiyama, Takashi Matsukawa
BACKGROUND: Ion channels play a crucial role in the development of ischemic brain injury. Recent studies have reported that the blockade of various types of ion channels improves outcomes in experimental stroke models. Amiodarone, one of the most effective drugs for life-threatening arrhythmia, works as a multiple channel blocker and its characteristics cover all four Vaughan-Williams classes. Although it is known that amiodarone indirectly contributes to preventing ischemic stroke by maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation, the direct neuroprotective effect of amiodarone has not been clarified...
December 8, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213218/tiotropium-in-asthma-back-to-the-future-of-anticholinergic-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Matteo Bonini, Nicola Scichilone
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide; however, despite progresses in the understanding of the patho-physiological mechanisms and advances in the development of new therapeutic options and strategies, the disease remains uncontrolled in a not trivial proportion of subjects. Thus, the need of new molecules to treat the underlying biological and functional abnormalities and to control symptoms is strongly advocated by clinicians. In this scenario, the most recent GINA guidelines have included the use of tiotropium bromide in the most severe and uncontrolled forms of the disease, in addition to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid plus long acting beta adrenergic agents...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210030/pharmacologic-prevention-of-variceal-bleeding-and-rebleeding
#11
REVIEW
Anna Baiges, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaime Bosch
BACKGROUND: Variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension, which is associated with significant mortality. Moreover, patients surviving a variceal bleeding episode have very high risk of rebleeding, which is associated with mortality as high as that of the first bleed. Because of this, prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices has been one of the main therapeutic goals since the advent of the first effective therapies for portal hypertension. AIM: This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art pharmacological prevention of variceal bleeding in primary and secondary prophylaxis...
December 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206314/inhibition-of-spinal-p38-mapk-prevents-articular-neutrophil-infiltration-in-experimental-arthritis-via-sympathetic-activation
#12
Alexandre Kanashiro, Marcelo Franchin, Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Dênis Augusto Reis-Santana, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Gerson Jonathan Rodrigues
The central nervous system controls the innate immunity by modulating efferent neuronal networks. Recently, we have reported that central brain stimulation inhibits inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigate whether spinal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) affects joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. Firstly, we observed that intra-articular administration of zymosan in mice induces the phosphorylation of the spinal cord p38 MAPK. In addition, we demonstrated that spinal p38 MAPK inhibition with intrathecal injection of SB203580, a conventional and well-characterized inhibitor, prevents knee joint neutrophil recruitment, edema formation, experimental score and cytokine production...
December 5, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193283/diastolic-dysfunction-in-pulmonary-artery-hypertension-creatine-kinase-and-the-potential-therapeutic-benefit-of-beta-blockers
#13
Ewan D Fowler, Mark J Drinkhill, Rachel Stones, Ed White
Passive properties of the myocardium influence diastolic filling and cardiac output. In heart failure, changes in contributors to the passive properties of the ventricle, such as titin and collagen, and loss of the metabolic enzyme creatine kinase, increase resistance to filling resulting in diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) arises from interactions between the pulmonary vasculature and the right ventricle (RV) which ultimately leads to RV failure. Beta1-adrenergic receptor blockers (BB) act on the myocardium and are beneficial in left heart failure but are not used in PAH...
November 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168546/glucocorticoids-and-beta-cell-function
#14
Marta Fichna, Piotr Fichna
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in carbohydrate metabolism. They counteract insulin by decreasing peripheral glucose uptake and stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, although they are best known for inducing insulin resistance (IR). Moreover, GCs may attenuate the incretin effect. Nevertheless, their direct impact on beta cells is not fully defined. This review aims to present the current understanding of this subject. Humans exposed to GC excess display IR, impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually develop diabetes...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164559/effects-of-carvedilol-on-vascular-reactivity-in-human-left-internal-mammary-artery
#15
M Guzeloglu, E Ertuna, M Z Arun, B Reel
OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment choice for coronary artery disease is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is frequently used as an arterial graft in CABG operations. Perioperative spasm of LIMA can result in increased morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological interventions are routinely used for prevention and treatment of LIMA spasm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carvedilol, an alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, on responses to endogenous vasoconstrictors which play a role in graft spasm and the possible interaction between carvedilol and diltiazem/papaverine which are vasodilators commonly used in CABG surgery...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155297/divergent-profile-between-hypothalamic-and-plasmatic-aminopeptidase-activities-in-wky-and-shr-influence-of-beta-adrenergic-blockade
#16
Isabel Prieto, Ana B Segarra, Marc de Gasparo, Magdalena Martínez-Cañamero, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
AIMS: Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) differ in their renin-angiotensin system function and sympathetic tone. The metabolism of angiotensins and vasopressin depends on the action of certain aminopeptidases whose activity may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system. Their regulation may differ between WKY and SHR in hypothalamus and plasma according to the sympathetic tone. We analyzed aminopeptidases responsible for the hydrolysis of certain angiotensins, vasopressin, cholecystokinin or enkephalins in hypothalamus and plasma of WKY and SHR in untreated controls rats and under beta-adrenoceptor blockade...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154132/dexmedetomidine-promotes-biomimetic-non-rapid-eye-movement-stage-3-sleep-in-humans-a-pilot-study
#17
Oluwaseun Akeju, Lauren E Hobbs, Lei Gao, Sara M Burns, Kara J Pavone, George S Plummer, Elisa C Walsh, Tim T Houle, Seong-Eun Kim, Matt T Bianchi, Jeffrey M Ellenbogen, Emery N Brown
OBJECTIVES: Sleep, which comprises of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM stages 1-3 (N1-N3), is a natural occurring state of decreased arousal that is crucial for normal cardiovascular, immune and cognitive function. The principal sedative drugs produce electroencephalogram beta oscillations, which have been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Pharmacological induction of altered arousal states that neurophysiologically approximate natural sleep, termed biomimetic sleep, may eliminate drug-induced neurocognitive dysfunction...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153411/how-do-we-critically-use-long-acting-muscarinic-receptor-antagonists-and-beta-adrenergic-receptor-agonists-monotherapy-or-these-combination-therapies-depending-on-the-situation-in-japanese-patients-with-copd
#18
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148080/genetic-risk-factors-for-perception-of-symptoms-in-gerd-an-observational-cohort-study
#19
A Patel, S Hasak, B D Nix, G S Sayuk, R D Newberry, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNβ3) and beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) are associated with pain and gut hypersensitivity, which can overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GNβ3 and ADRB2 systems, and reflux symptom burden, GERD phenotypes from ambulatory reflux monitoring, and quality of life. METHODS: Symptomatic adults undergoing ambulatory reflux testing were recruited and phenotyped based on acid burden and symptom reflux association; major oesophageal motor disorders and prior foregut surgery were exclusions...
November 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148059/theophylline%C3%A2-as-an-adjunct-to-control-malignant-ventricular-arrhythmia-associated-with-early-repolarization
#20
Tilman Perrin, Regis Guieu, Linda Koutbi, Frédéric Franceschi, Jérôme Hourdain, Michele Brignole, Jean-Claude Deharo
Early repolarization (ER) has been associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Interestingly, ventricular arrhythmias seem to be triggered by parasympathetic stimulation. In the present case report, we describe complete control of highly frequent malignant ventricular arrhythmias after adding theophylline to ineffective oral hydroquinidine and high-rate pacing in a patient suffering from malignant ER. We hypothesize that the theophylline-mediated enhanced beta-adrenergic stimulation could reduce the transmural myocardial voltage discrepancy by increasing the inward ICa,L current...
November 16, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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