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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626858/antibiotics-for-acute-bronchitis
#1
REVIEW
Susan M Smith, Tom Fahey, John Smucny, Lorne A Becker
BACKGROUND: The benefits and risks of antibiotics for acute bronchitis remain unclear despite it being one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in improving outcomes and to assess adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for people with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11 (accessed 13 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 1, 2017), Embase (1974 to 13 January 2017), and LILACS (1982 to 13 January 2017)...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#2
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
June 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621029/urinary-tract-infection-in-patients-with-hip-fracture-an-underestimated-event
#3
Christopher Bliemel, Benjamin Buecking, Juliana Hack, Rene Aigner, Daphne-Asimenia Eschbach, Steffen Ruchholtz, Ludwig Oberkircher
AIM: Urinary tract infections (UTI) represent a common perioperative complication among elderly patients with hip fracture. To determine the impact of UTI on the perioperative course of elderly patients with hip fractures, a prospective study was carried out. METHODS: A total of 402 surgically-treated geriatric hip fracture patients were consecutively enrolled at a level 1 trauma center. On admission, all patients received an indwelling urinary catheter. Clinically symptomatic patients were screened more closely for UTI...
June 16, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617807/treatment-with-macrolides-and-glucocorticosteroids-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-post-hoc-exploratory-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Adrian Ceccato, Catia Cilloniz, Otavio T Ranzani, Rosario Menendez, Carles Agusti, Albert Gabarrus, Miquel Ferrer, Oriol Sibila, Michael S Niederman, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects, whereas macrolides also have immunomodulatory activity in addition to their primary antimicrobial actions. We aimed to evaluate the potential interaction effect between corticosteroids and macrolides on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia to determine if combining these two immunomodulating agents was harmful, or possibly beneficial. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606606/potential-risks-of-using-cement-augmented-screws-for-spinal-fusion-in-patients-with-low-bone-quality
#5
M Martín-Fernández, A López-Herrradón, A R Piñera, F Tomé-Bermejo, J M Duart, M D Vlad, M G Rodríguez-Arguisjuela, L Álvarez-Galovich
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Dramatic increases in the average life expectancy have led to increases in the variety of degenerative changes and deformities observed in the aging spine. The elderly population can present challenges for spine surgeons, not only because of increased comorbidities, but also because of the quality of their bones. Pedicle screws are the implants used most commonly in spinal surgery for fixation, but their efficacy depends directly on bone quality. While PMMA-augmented screws represent an alternative for patients with osteoporotic vertebrae, their use has raised some concerns due to the possible association between cement leakages (CLs) and other morbidities...
June 9, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605563/the-contribution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-factors-and-host-factors-in-the-establishment-of-urinary-tract-infections
#6
J W Newman, R V Floyd, J L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602108/pharmacotherapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#7
Diego Viasus, José A Núñez-Ramos, Samir A Viloria, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an increasing problem in the elderly that is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Given the expected increased life expectancy, this problem is only likely to worsen, so it has been considered that treatment effects must be examined separately in elderly adults with CAP. Areas covered: In this narrative review, we give an update of the available data of antibiotics for elderly patients with CAP. Clinical features, drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, adverse effects, and outcomes differ in CAP depending on patient age...
June 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600113/non-typhi-salmonella-enterica-urinary-tract-infections
#8
G Mellon, C Delanoe, A L Roux, B Heym, O Dubourg, P Hardy, B Chevallier, C Perronne, E Rouveix, J Salomon
OBJECTIVE: Non-typhi Salmonella enterica urinary tract infections (UTIs) are not frequent and rarely reported in the literature. We aimed to characterize clinical presentations and risk factors for the infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of non-typhi Salmonella enterica strains isolated from urine cytobacteriological examinations (UCBE) collected between January 1, 1996 and October 30, 2014 and analyzed by the microbiology laboratories of the university hospitals of the western part of Île-de-France and of Paris, France...
June 6, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598693/managing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-elderly-the-next-generation-of-pharmacotherapy-on-the-horizon
#9
B Amalakuhan, K L Echevarria, M I Restrepo
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly. Antibiotic treatment for CAP in the elderly is particularly challenging for many reasons, including compliance issues, immunosuppression, polypharmacy and antimicrobial resistance. There are few available antibiotics that are able to address these concerns. Areas covered: After a systematic review of the current literature, we describe seven novel antibiotics that are currently in advanced stages of development (phase 3 and beyond) and show promise for the treatment of CAP in those over the age of 65...
June 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591027/necrotizing-fasciitis-a-catastrophic-complication-following-routine-tibia-fracture-surgery-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Shuai Shang, Ruipeng Zhang, Zhiyong Hou
RATIONALE: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is defined as a rare, life-threatening, rapidly spreading soft tissue infection resulting from a polymicrobial origin, with a predominance of anaerobic organisms that presents with necrosis of the muscle, fascia, and surrounding soft tissue. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 64-year-old male who sustained tibia fracture caused by falling from a height underwent a tibia surgery with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique in another institution...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589466/antibacterial-prophylaxis-for-surgical-site-infection-in-the-elderly-practical-application
#11
Maria Adriana Cataldo, Guido Granata, Nicola Petrosillo
Surgical site infections are among the most common healthcare-associated infections and are linked with increased length of hospitalization, re-admission, mortality and significant financial burden. Risk factors for the occurrence of surgical site infections include variables related to the surgical procedure as well as host factors. Increasing age is associated with the occurrence of surgical site infections. The aim of this review is to give an update on the antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical site infection in elderly people...
June 6, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585886/clinical-indications-for-antibiotic-use-in-danish-general-practice-results-from-a-nationwide-electronic-prescription-database
#12
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Volkert Siersma, Lars Bjerrum
OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability and applicability of clinical indications from electronic prescriptions on antibiotic use in Danish general practice. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort register-based study including the Danish National Prescription Register. SETTING: Population-based study of routine electronic antibiotic prescriptions from Danish general practice. SUBJECTS: All 975,626 patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription at outpatient pharmacies during the 1-year study period (July 2012 to June 2013)...
June 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585797/outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-for-infective-endocarditis-in-patients-over-80-years
#13
X Kortajarena, M A Goenaga, M Ibarguren, H Azkune, M J Bustinduy, A Fuertes, O Ibarguren, M Goyeneche, M Garcia
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of infective endocarditis is progressively increasing, especially in elderly patients. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is being an excellent alternative for treatment, but advanced age is one of the relative contraindications. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and prognosis of patients less or more than 80 years, treated with OPAT. METHODS: One hundred and ninety four patients were included between 1996 and 2015, 31 of them older than 80 years...
June 6, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575013/adverse-drug-events-analysis-of-a-decade-a-portuguese-case-study-from-2004-to-2013-using-hospital-database
#14
Gianina Scripcaru, Ceu Mateus, Carla Nunes
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to characterise adverse drug events (ADE), including both adverse drug reaction (ADR) and accidental poisoning by drugs (AP), considering age, gender, length of stay (LOS), number of deaths and year, during the period 2004-2013. Additionally distributions of the ten's most frequent ADR and AP were characterized, considering age-group and gender. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive nationwide study was conducted, based on the hospital discharges database in Portugal from 2004 to 2013, using ICD-9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571186/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-type-2-diabetics-aged-over-60-years
#15
Sadhna Sharma, Biju Govind, Sujeet Kumar Naidu, Srinivas Kinjarapu, Mohammed Rasool
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections are frequently encountered among diabetic patients and the incidence rate increases with age. There have been growing research to identify the clinical profile of urinary tract infections in diabetic patients. However, such studies on elderly patients are rare. AIM: To determine the risk factors, clinical/laboratory profiles, causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities in type 2 diabetics aged over 60 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective single centre study was conducted at NRI Medical College and General Hospital, Guntur, India, between November 2012 and November 2014...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561794/antibiotic-resistance-and-virulence-phenotypes-of-recent-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections-in-elderly-patients-with-prostatic-disease
#16
Cristina Delcaru, Paulina Podgoreanu, Ionela Alexandru, Nela Popescu, Luminiţa Măruţescu, Coralia Bleotu, George Dan Mogoşanu, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Marinela Gluck, Veronica Lazăr
Acute bacterial prostatitis is one of the frequent complications of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the approximately 10% of men having prostatitis, 7% experience a bacterial prostatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of uropathogens associated with UTIs in older patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and to assess their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antibiotics as well as the relationships between microbial virulence and resistance features. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli was found to be the most frequent bacterial strain isolated from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, followed by Enterococcus spp...
May 31, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542707/-urinary-tract-infection-requiem-for-a-heavyweight
#17
Thomas E Finucane
"Urinary tract infection" ("UTI") is an ambiguous, expansive, overused diagnosis that can lead to marked, harmful antibiotic overtreatment. "Significant bacteriuria," central to most definitions of "UTI," has little significance in identifying individuals who will benefit from treatment. "Urinary symptoms" are similarly uninformative. Neither criterion is well defined. Bacteriuria and symptoms remit and recur spontaneously. Treatment is standard for acute uncomplicated cystitis and common for asymptomatic bacteriuria, but definite benefits are few...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528615/chronic-tender-ulcers-on-the-calf-and-both-forearms
#18
Michael C Cameron, Mitsuya Katayama, Nishit S Patel, Philip D Shenefelt, Charurut Somboonwit
An elderly woman presented with a 3-month history of nonhealing, tender ulcers involving the right calf and both forearms. She denied any history of similar lesions or trauma. Two trials of oral antibiotics had led to no improvement. Her medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisone. A review of clinical manifestations was otherwise negative for disease. Physical examination of the patient's right calf revealed two punched-out ulcers with central necrotic black eschars, underlying retiform purpuric pattern, and mild fibrinopurulent drainage (Figure 1)...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526836/characterisation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-danish-general-practice-a-retrospective-registry-based-cohort-study
#19
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526569/total-joint-replacement-for-neglected-posterior-knee-dislocation-following-septic-arthritis-after-arthroscopy
#20
Yusuf Öztürkmen, Yunus Emre Akman, Ethem Ayhan Ünkar, Erhan Şükür
This report presents the first case of a knee dislocation following septic arthritis after arthroscopy. A 65-year-old woman had an arthroscopy with irrigation and debridement (I&D) of the joint and microfracture for the chondral lesions. She had complaints of postarthroscopic infection but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and local ice compression was recommended. She revisited her physician twice and at the last visit she had a large purulent effusion in her knee. The gram stain of the joint fluid aspirate demonstrated gram-positive cocci and the cultures grew methicilline-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus...
May 16, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
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