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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676536/core-networks-and-their-reconfiguration-patterns-across-cognitive-loads
#1
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Different cognitively demanding tasks recruit globally distributed but functionally specific networks. However, the configuration of core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads remain unclear, as does whether these patterns are indicators for the performance of cognitive tasks. In this study, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data of a large cohort of 448 subjects, acquired with the brain at resting state and executing N-back working memory (WM) tasks. We discriminated core networks by functional interaction strength and connection flexibility...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670495/impact-of-pilates-exercise-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Whitney R D Duff, Justin W Andrushko, Doug W Renshaw, Philip D Chilibeck, Jonathan P Farthing, Jana Danielson, Charity D Evans
Background: Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. Methods: 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score <7) were randomized to receive Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group)...
March 2018: International Journal of MS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667632/-the-peculiar-biochemical-properties-of-the-support-structures-in-the-human-tissues
#3
S G Kuzin, S G Sukhanov, Ya V Kazakov, A V Pyatlin
This article is focused on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the elastic and mechanical strength characteristics of the tissues that form the flexible fibrous and osseous human skeleton. The samples of dura mater and spongy bone (ribs) were subjected to the quantitative analysis for the determination of their bioelemental composition. The study has demonstrated that the force needed to brake dura mater or a rib correlates with the content of biological elements in these tissue, as well as with the age and sex of the human subjects serving as teir sources...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665286/a-strategy-for-rapid-construction-of-blood-vessel-like-structures-with-complex-cell-alignments
#4
Nuoxin Wang, Yunhu Peng, Wenfu Zheng, Lixue Tang, Shiyu Cheng, Junchuan Yang, Shaoqin Liu, Wei Zhang, Xingyu Jiang
A method is developed that can rapidly produce blood vessel-like structures by bonding cell-laden electrospinning (ES) films layer by layer using fibrin glue within 90 min. This strategy allows control of cell type, cell orientation, and material composition in separate layers. Furthermore, ES films with thicker fibers (polylactic-co-glycolic acid, fiber diameter: ≈3.7 µm) are used as cell-seeding layers to facilitate the cell in-growth; those with thinner fibers (polylactic acid, fiber diameter: ≈1.8 µm) are used as outer reinforcing layers to improve the mechanical strength and reduce the liquid leakage of the scaffold...
April 17, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664493/ni-oh-2-cnts-hierarchical-spheres-for-a-foldable-all-solid-state-supercapacitor-with-high-specific-energy
#5
Qingqing Qin, Jiaqin Liu, Wenping Mao, Chenxi Xu, Binbin Lan, Yan Wang, Yong Zhang, Jian Yan, Yucheng Wu
Energy density and mechanical strength are crucial for practical usage of flexible supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a flexible supercapacitor using Ni(OH)2/CNTs hierarchical spheres with high specific capacity (854 C g-1) and tough PBI-KOH solid polymer electrolyte. The integrated device shows high specific energy (50.6 W h kg-1) and good flexibility under folding tests.
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663898/electrospun-fibers-for-cartilage-tissue-regeneration
#6
Guo Li, Sirong Shi, Shiyu Lin, Tengfei Zhou, Xiaoru Shao, Qiao Huang, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
BACKGROUND: Due to its poor self-repair ability, the cartilage injury has been a great challenge in clinical work. OBJECTIVE: The conventional therapies for cartilage injury mostly form fibrocartilage with weaker strength and flexibility compared to natural cartilage. The development of tissue engineering technology provides a new approach for cartilage repair and regeneration. RESULTS: An appropriate scaffold is one of key factors in cartilage tissue engineering...
April 17, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660182/toward-a-general-mixed-quantum-classical-method-for-the-calculation-of-the-vibronic-ecd-of-a-flexible-dye-molecule-with-different-stable-conformers-revisiting-the-case-of-2-2-2-trifluoro-anthrylethanol
#7
Javier Cerezo, Daniel Aranda, Francisco J Avila Ferrer, Giacomo Prampolini, Giuseppe Mazzeo, Giovanna Longhi, Sergio Abbate, Fabrizio Santoro
We extend a recently proposed mixed quantum/classical method for computing the vibronic electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum of molecules with different conformers, to cases where more than one hindered rotation is present. The method generalizes the standard procedure, based on the simple Boltzmann average of the vibronic spectra of the stable conformers, and includes the contribution of structures that sample all the accessible conformational space. It is applied to the simulation of the ECD spectrum of (S)-2,2,2-trifluoroanthrylethanol, a molecule with easily interconvertible conformers, whose spectrum exhibits a pattern of alternating positive and negative vibronic peaks...
April 16, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659274/quantitative-understanding-of-shape-mechanism-from-rna-structure-and-dynamics-analysis
#8
Travis Hurst, Xiaojun Xu, Peinan Zhao, Shi-Jie Chen
The selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) method probes RNA local structural and dynamic information at single nucleotide resolution. To gain quantitative insights into the relationship between nucleotide flexibility, RNA 3D structure, and SHAPE reactivity, we develop a 3D Structure-SHAPE Relationship model (3DSSR) to rebuild SHAPE profiles from 3D structures. The model starts from RNA structures and combines nucleotide interaction strength and conformational propensity, ligand (SHAPE reagent) accessibility, and base-pairing pattern through a composite function to quantify the correlation between SHAPE reactivity and nucleotide conformational stability...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656479/fiber-length-and-concentration-synergistic-effect-on-mechanical-and-cellular-response-in-wet-laid-poly-lactic-acid-fibrous-scaffolds
#9
Andrew T Wood, Dominique Everett, Sanjay Kumar, Manoj K Mishra, Vinoy Thomas
In the area of biomaterials, fibers not only offer increased mechanical response, but also serve as an extracellular matrix mimicking morphology to direct cellular attachment and proliferation. While biologically similar in morphology, soft, and flexible hydrogel materials have low mechanical properties. For applications in tissue engineering, the lack of directional cues and attachment regions within the biogels is undesired as cells require a guide for adequate attachment and organized proliferation. In this work, we have investigated the role of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber length and concentration as a reinforcement phase in a gelatin hydrogel matrix and the resultant mechanical and cellular responses...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653378/possible-origins-of-consciousness-in-simple-control-over-involuntary-neuroimmunological-action
#10
REVIEW
Kevin B Clark
The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644799/transparent-composites-made-from-tunicate-cellulose-membranes-and-environmentally-friendly-polyester
#11
Yadong Zhao, Carl Moser, Gunnar Henriksson
A series of optically transparent composites were made using tunicate cellulose membranes, in which the naturally organized cellulose microfibrillar network structure of tunics was preserved and used as the template and a solution of glycerol and citric acid at different molar ratios was used as the matrix. Polymerization via ester bond formation occurred at elevated temperatures without any catalyst, and water was released as the only byproduct. The obtained composites had a uniform and dense structure. Thus, the produced glycerol citrate polyester improved the transparency of the tunicate cellulose membrane, while the cellulose membrane provided rigidity and strength to the prepared composite...
April 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643208/network-integration-and-limits-to-social-inheritance-in-vervet-monkeys
#12
Jonathan D Jarrett, Tyler R Bonnell, Christopher Young, Louise Barrett, S Peter Henzi
Social networks can be adaptive for members and a recent model (Ilany and Akçay 2016 Nat. Comm. 7 , 12084 (doi:10.1038/ncomms12084)) has demonstrated that network structure can be maintained by a simple process of social inheritance. Here, we ask how juvenile vervet monkeys integrate into their adult grooming networks, using the model to test whether observed grooming patterns replicate network structure. Female juveniles, who are philopatric, increased their grooming effort towards adults more than males, although this was not reciprocated by the adults themselves...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626880/inhomogeneity-induced-and-appropriately-parameterized-semilocal-exchange-and-correlation-energy-functionals-in-two-dimensions
#13
Abhilash Patra, Subrata Jana, Prasanjit Samal
The construction of meta generalized gradient approximations based on the density matrix expansion (DME) is considered as one of the most accurate techniques to design semilocal exchange energy functionals in two-dimensional density functional formalism. The exchange holes modeled using DME possess unique features that make it a superior entity. Parameterized semilocal exchange energy functionals based on the DME are proposed. The use of different forms of the momentum and flexible parameters is to subsume the non-uniform effects of the density in the newly constructed semilocal functionals...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625622/effect-of-exercise-on-pain-and-functional-capacity-in-breast-cancer-patients
#14
Andréa Dias Reis, Paula Tamara Vieira Teixeira Pereira, Renata Rodrigues Diniz, Jurema Gonçalves Lopes de Castro Filha, Alcione Miranda Dos Santos, Bianca Trovello Ramallo, Florentino Assenço Alves Filho, Francisco Navarro, João Batista Santos Garcia
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of combined training on pain, fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), body mass index (BMI), flexibility, and strength in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: A controlled pilot study with 28 patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and clinical observation in a renowned cancer treatment center; the patients were aged from 30 to 59 years old and were not engaged in physical training for three months previously. The Study Group (SG) underwent 12 weeks of training, including three 60-min sessions of aerobic exercise and resistance training, and two sessions of flexibility training per week; each flexibility exercise lasted 20 s and was performed in sets of three repetitions...
April 6, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625297/rationally-designed-core-shell-and-yolk-shell-magnetic-titanate-nanosheets-for-efficient-u-vi-adsorption-performance
#15
Ling Yin, Shuang Song, Xiangxue Wang, Fenglei Niu, Ran Ma, Shujun Yu, Tao Wen, Yuantao Chen, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Xiangke Wang
The hierarchical core-shell and yolk-shell magnetic titanate nanosheets (Fe3 O4 @TNS) were successfully synthesized by employing magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) as interior core and intercrossed titanate nanostructures (NSs) as exterior shell. The as-prepared magnetic Fe3 O4 @TNS nanosheets had high specific areas (114.9 m2  g-1 for core-shell Fe3 O4 @TNS and 130.1 m2  g-1 for yolk-shell Fe3 O4 @TNS). Taking advantage of the unique multilayer structure, the nanosheets were suitable for eliminating U(VI) from polluted water environment...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623272/designing-place-based-interventions-for-sustainability-and-replicability-the-case-of-go-austin-vamos-austin
#16
REVIEW
Aliya Hussaini, Carmen Llanes Pulido, Semonti Basu, Nalini Ranjit
Place-based health efforts account for the role of the community environment in shaping decisions and circumstances that affect population well-being. Such efforts, rooted as they are in the theory that health is socially determined, mobilize resources for health promotion that are not typically used, and offer a more informed and robust way of promoting health outcomes within a community. Common criticisms of place-based work include the difficulty of replication , since engagement is so specific to a place, and limited sustainability of the work, in the absence of continued institutional structures, both within the community and supporting structures outside the community, to keep these initiatives resilient...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621115/acute-effect-of-foam-rolling-and-dynamic-stretching-on-flexibility-and-jump-height
#17
Jason C Smith, Brooke Pridgeon, MacGregor C Hall
Smith, JC, Pridgeon, B, and Hall, MC. Acute effect of foam rolling and dynamic stretching on flexibility and jump height. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Dynamic stretching (DS) can acutely improve vertical jump (VJ) performance but its effect lasts no more than 5 minutes. Foam rolling (FR), a form of self-myofascial release, can acutely increase range of motion (ROM) with this effect lasting less than 10 minutes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of these effects, separately and combined, on VJ height and ROM...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620527/a-robust-and-tunable-mitotic-oscillator-in-artificial-cells
#18
Ye Guan, Zhengda Li, Shiyuan Wang, Patrick M Barnes, Xuwen Liu, Haotian Xu, Minjun Jin, Allen P Liu, Qiong Yang
Single-cell analysis is pivotal to deciphering complex phenomena like heterogeneity, bistability, and asynchronous oscillations, where a population ensemble cannot represent individual behaviors. Bulk cell-free systems, despite having unique advantages of manipulation and characterization of biochemical networks, lack the essential single-cell information to understand a class of out-of-steady-state dynamics including cell cycles. Here, by encapsulating Xenopus egg extracts in water-in-oil microemulsions, we developed artificial cells that are adjustable in sizes and periods, sustain mitotic oscillations for over 30 cycles, and function in forms from the simplest cytoplasmic-only to the more complicated ones involving nuclear dynamics, mimicking real cells...
April 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620018/conductivity-enhancement-of-silver-nanowire-networks-via-simple-electrolyte-solution-treatment-and-solvent-washing
#19
Jiahui Gu, Xuelin Wang, Hongtao Chen, Shihua Yang, Huanhuan Feng, Xing Ma, Hongjun Ji, Jun Wei, Mingyu Li
As a promising replacement material for indium tin oxide (ITO) in flexible electronics, silver nanowires (AgNWs) usually need complicated post-treatment to reduce the high contact resistance across the intersections when used as transparent conductive films. In this work, a widely applicable nano-joining method for improving the overall conductivity of AgNW networks with different kinds of electrolyte solutions is presented. By treatment with an electrolyte solution with appropriate ionic strengths, the insulating surfactant layer (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) on the AgNWs could be desorbed, and the AgNW network could be densified...
April 5, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616820/effect-of-oil-hydrophobicity-on-adsorption-and-rheology-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-at-oil-water-interfaces
#20
Jotam Bergfreund, Pascal Bertsch, Simon Kuster, Peter Fischer
The adsorption of protein layers at oil-water interfaces is critical to the formation and stability of various emulsions in e.g. technical applications as well as in biological lipid storage. Effects of ionic strength, pH, temperature, and pre-treatments of the proteins are well-known. However, the oil phase has been regarded as exchangeable and its role in protein adsorption has been widely ignored. Herein the influence of systematically selected oil interfaces of high purity on the formation and properties of β-lactoglobulin adsorption layers was evaluated...
April 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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