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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644500/in-situ-nanomechanical-characterization-of-multi-layer-mos2-membranes-from-intraplanar-to-interplanar-fracture
#1
Peifeng Li, Chenchen Jiang, Shang Xu, Yu Zhuang, Libo Gao, Alice Hu, Hongtao Wang, Yang Lu
Layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits rich electronic and optical properties and possesses vastly differing characteristic dimensions. A multi-layer MoS2 membrane represents the critical hierarchical structure which bridges the length-scale of monolayer and bulk material architectures. In this study, the in-plane mechanical properties of MoS2 membranes were investigated by in situ SEM tensile testing. Under the uniaxial tensile loading, brittle fracture caused failure in a highly localized region of the MoS2 membranes and their mechanical properties showed a thickness effect: the strengths of the relatively thicker MoS2 membranes (thickness around hundreds of nanometers) distribute from ∼100 to ∼250 MPa, while the corresponding values of the MoS2 nanosheets (thickness around tens of nanometers) increase significantly to more than 1 GPa...
June 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641248/method-for-simulating-dose-reduction-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#2
Lucas R Borges, Igor Guerrero, Predrag R Bakic, Alessandro Foi, Andrew D A Maidment, Marcelo A C Vieira
This work proposes a new method of simulating dose reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard radiation dose. It considers both signal-dependent quantum and signal-independent electronic noise. Furthermore, the method accounts for pixel crosstalk, which causes the noise to be frequency-dependent, thus increasing the simulation accuracy. For an objective assessment, simulated and real images were compared in terms of noise standard deviation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641011/exploiting-one-dimensional-exciton-phonon-coupling-for-tunable-and-efficient-single-photon-generation-with-a-carbon-nanotube
#3
Adrien Jeantet, Yannick Chassagneux, Théo Claude, Philippe Roussignol, Jean-Sébastien Lauret, Jakob Reichel, Christophe Voisin
Condensed-matter emitters offer enriched cavity quantum electrodynamical effects due to the coupling to external degrees of freedom. In the case of carbon nanotubes a very peculiar coupling between localized excitons and the one-dimensional acoustic phonon modes can be achieved, which gives rise to pronounced phonon wings in the luminescence spectrum. By coupling an individual nanotube to a tunable optical micro-cavity, we show that this peculiar exciton-phonon coupling is a valuable resource to enlarge the tuning range of the single-photon source while keeping an excellent exciton-photon coupling efficiency and spectral purity...
June 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634790/cellulose-acetate-butyrate-ammonio-methacrylate-copolymer-blends-as-a-novel-coating-in-osmotic-tablets
#4
R Ali, M Walther, R Bodmeier
The objective of this work was the preparation of osmotic tablets using polymer blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) or ethylcellulose with ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit® RL). The advantage of these coatings in comparison to the traditionally used cellulose acetate is their solubility in safer organic solvents like ethanol. Polymer films were characterized with respect to their water uptake, dry mass loss, and mechanical properties. The effect of the polymer blend ratio on drug release and on the rupture force of the coating was investigated...
June 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632290/a-single-incision-technique-for-distal-biceps-repair-using-a-flexible-reamer
#5
Todd P Pierce, Casey M Pierce, Kimona Issa, Vincent K McInerney, Anthony Festa, Anthony J Scillia
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are rare injuries that usually occur in middle-aged men. Most of these injuries are repaired acutely to restore preinjury function and strength. There is concern regarding the higher prevalence of certain complications with the double-incision technique. As such, the single-incision technique has also been studied to determine if it may produce superior safety and efficacy. In addition, the point of fixation may be created with either a rigid or a flexible reamer. The authors describe a technique that uses a single-incision cortical fixation achieved with a flexible reamer...
June 20, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630140/three-dimensional-structure-of-the-3-x-tail-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-in-monomeric-and-dimeric-states
#6
Angel Cantero-Camacho, Lixin Fan, Yun-Xing Wang, José Gallego
The 3'X domain is a 98-nucleotide region located at the 3' end of hepatitis C virus genomic RNA that plays essential functions in the viral life cycle. It contains an absolutely conserved, 16-base palindromic sequence that promotes viral RNA dimerization, overlapped with a 7-nucleotide tract implicated in a distal contact with a nearby functional sequence. Using small angle X-ray scattering measurements combined with model building guided by NMR spectroscopy, we have studied the stoichiometry, structure and flexibility of domain 3'X and two smaller subdomain sequences as a function of ionic strength, and obtained a three-dimensional view of the full-length domain in its monomeric and dimeric states...
June 19, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629090/low-temperature-direct-heterogeneous-bonding-of-polyether-ether-ketone-and-platinum
#7
Weixin Fu, Akitsu Shigetou, Shuichi Shoji, Jun Mizuno
Direct heterogeneous bonding between polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and Pt was realized at the temperatures lower than 150°C. In order to create sufficient bondability to diverse materials, the surface was modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation, which formed hydrate bridges. For comparison, direct bonding between surfaces atomically cleaned via Ar fast atom bombardment (FAB) was conducted in a vacuum. The VUV irradiation was found to be effective for creating an ultrathin hydrate bridge layer from the residual water molecules in the chamber...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629037/regenerated-egg-white-silk-fibroin-composite-films-for-biomedical-applications
#8
Renchuan You, Jie Zhang, Shaojin Gu, Yingshan Zhou, Xiufang Li, Dezhan Ye, Weilin Xu
Protein-based composites have always been desirable biomaterials as they can be fabricated into a wide range of biomaterials with tunable properties, including modulation of mechanical properties and control of cell responses. Both egg white protein (EW) and silk fibroin (SF) are biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic and naturally abundant biopolymers. In order to obtain biocompatible composite films with tunable performance, EW and SF were blended at various ratios. Raising the SF ratio in the composite films significantly increased breaking strength, but impaired flexibility...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627371/structure-activity-relationship-study-of-tetrapeptide-inhibitors-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-binding-to-neuropilin-1
#9
Dagmara Tymecka, Piotr F J Lipiński, Bartłomiej Fedorczyk, Anna Puszko, Beata Wileńska, Gerard Y Perret, Aleksandra Misicka
Neuropilin-1 is considered as one of the key receptors responsible for signaling pathways involved in pathological angiogenesis necessary for tumor progression, therefore targeting of VEGF165 binding to NRP-1 could be a relevant strategy for antiangiogenic treatment. It was shown before that the VEGF165/NRP-1 interaction can be inhibited by short tetrapeptides with K/RXXR sequence. Here, we present a structure-activity relationship study of the systematic optimization of amino acid residues in positions 1-3 in the above tetrapeptides...
June 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626927/carbon-nanotube-multilayered-graphene-edge-plane-core-shell-hybrid-foams-for-ultrahigh-performance-electromagnetic-interference-shielding
#10
Qiang Song, Fang Ye, Xiaowei Yin, Wei Li, Hejun Li, Yongsheng Liu, Kezhi Li, Keyu Xie, Xuanhua Li, Qiangang Fu, Laifeng Cheng, Litong Zhang, Bingqing Wei
Materials with an ultralow density and ultrahigh electromagnetic-interference (EMI)-shielding performance are highly desirable in fields of aerospace, portable electronics, and so on. Theoretical work predicts that 3D carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene hybrids are one of the most promising lightweight EMI shielding materials, owing to their unique nanostructures and extraordinary electronic properties. Herein, for the first time, a lightweight, flexible, and conductive CNT-multilayered graphene edge plane (MLGEP) core-shell hybrid foam is fabricated using chemical vapor deposition...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624435/revisiting-the-flip-side-long-term-depression-of-synaptic-efficacy-in-the-hippocampus
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Pinar, Christine J Fontaine, Juan Triviño-Paredes, Carina P Lottenberg, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Synaptic plasticity is widely regarded as a putative biological substrate for learning and memory processes. While both decreases and increases in synaptic strength are seen as playing a role in learning and memory, long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy has received far less attention than its counterpart long-term potentiation (LTP). Never-the-less, LTD at synapses can play an important role in increasing computational flexibility in neural networks. In addition, like learning and memory processes, the magnitude of LTD can be modulated by factors that include stress and sex hormones, neurotrophic support, learning environments, and age...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622408/creation-of-the-quebrada-arriba-community-and-academic-partnership-an-effective-coalition-for-addressing-health-disparities-in-older-puerto-ricans
#12
Elsa M Orellano-Colón, Yolanda González-Laboy, Amarelis De Jesús-Rosario
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this project was to develop a community-academic coalition partnership to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address health disparities in older adults with chronic conditions living in the Quebrada Arriba community. METHODS: We used the 'Developing and Sustaining CPPR Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum', to create the Quebrada Arriba Community-Academic Partnership (QACAP). We assessed the meetings effectiveness and the CBPR experiences of the coalition members in the community-academic partnership...
June 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621921/a-novel-polymer-aerogel-towards-high-dimensional-stability-mechanical-property-and-fire-safety
#13
Ke Shang, Jun-Chi Yang, Zhijie Cao, Wang Liao, Yu-Zhong Wang, David A Schiraldi
Inorganic silica-based aerogels, earliest and widely-used aerogels, have poorer mechanical properties than their organic substitutes, which are flammable. In this study, a novel polymeric aerogel with high strength, inherent flame retardancy and cost-effectiveness, which is based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) crosslinked with melamine-formaldehyde (MF), was prepared under aqueous condition with an eco-friendly freeze-drying and post-curing process. Combined with the additional rigid MF network and benifited from the resulting unique infrastructure of inter-crosslinked flexible PVA segments and rigid MF segments, PVA-based aerogels exibited a significantly decreased degradation rate, and sharply decreased peak heat release rate (PHRR) in cone calorimeter tests (by as much as 83%) compared with neat PVA...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620077/the-influence-of-recollection-and-familiarity-in-the-formation-and-updating-of-associative-representations
#14
Jason D Ozubko, Morris Moscovitch, Gordon Winocur
Prior representations affect future learning. Little is known, however, about the effects of recollective or familiarity-based representations on such learning. We investigate the ability to reuse or reassociate elements from recollection- and familiarity-based associations to form new associations. Past neuropsychological research suggests that hippocampal, and presumably recollective, representations are more flexible than extra-hippocampal, presumably familiarity-based, representations. We therefore hypothesize that the elements of recollective associations, as opposed to familiarity-based representations, may be more easily manipulated and decoupled from each other, and facilitate the formation of new associations...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612427/simulation-based-investigation-of-deleterious-nssnp-s-in-atxn2-gene-and-its-structural-consequence-towards-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#15
Siddharth Sinha, Sharad Verma, Aditi Singh, Pallavi Somvanshi, Abhinav Grover
Spinocerebellar degeneration, termed as ataxia is a neurological disorder of central nervous system, characterized by limb in-coordination and a progressive gait. The patient also demonstrates specific symptoms of muscle weakness, slurring of speech, and decreased vibration senses. Expansion of polyglutamine trinucleotide (CAG) within ATXN2 gene with 35 or more repeats, results in spinocerebellar ataxia type-2. Protein ataxin-2 coded by ATXN2 gene has been reported to have a crucial role in translation of the genetic information through sequestering the histone acetyl transferases (HAT) resulting in a state of hypo-acetylation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612356/assessing-the-influence-of-rater-and-subject-characteristics-on-measures-of-agreement-for-ordinal-ratings
#16
Kerrie P Nelson, Aya A Mitani, Don Edwards
Widespread inconsistencies are commonly observed between physicians' ordinal classifications in screening tests results such as mammography. These discrepancies have motivated large-scale agreement studies where many raters contribute ratings. The primary goal of these studies is to identify factors related to physicians and patients' test results, which may lead to stronger consistency between raters' classifications. While ordered categorical scales are frequently used to classify screening test results, very few statistical approaches exist to model agreement between multiple raters...
June 13, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611849/nonparametric-subgroup-identification-by-prim-and-cart-a-simulation-and-application-study
#17
Armin Ott, Alexander Hapfelmeier
Two nonparametric methods for the identification of subgroups with outstanding outcome values are described and compared to each other in a simulation study and an application to clinical data. The Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) searches for box-shaped areas in the given data which exceed a minimal size and average outcome. This is achieved via a combination of iterative peeling and pasting steps, where small fractions of the data are removed or added to the current box. As an alternative, Classification and Regression Trees (CART) prediction models perform sequential binary splits of the data to produce subsets which can be interpreted as subgroups of heterogeneous outcome...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609641/flexibility-training-and-the-repeated-bout-effect-priming-interventions-prior-to-eccentric-training-of-the-knee-flexors
#18
Andrew W Leslie, Joel L Lanovaz, Justin W Andrushko, Jonathan P Farthing
Both the repeated bout effect and increased flexibility have been linked to reduced muscle damage, fatigue and strength loss after intense eccentric exercise. Our purpose was to compare the eccentric training (ECC) response after first priming the muscles with either static flexibility training or a single intense bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-five participants were randomly assigned to flexibility training (F;n=8; 3x/week; 30 min/day), a single-bout of intense eccentric exercise (SB;n=9), or no intervention (control [C];n=8) during a 4-week priming phase, prior to completing a subsequent 4-week period of eccentric training of the knee flexors...
June 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606546/advanced-multi-targeted-composite-biomaterial-dressing-for-pain-and-infection-control-in-chronic-leg-ulcers
#19
Ovidio Catanzano, Rachael Docking, Patricia Schofield, Joshua Boateng
This study aimed to develop advanced biomaterial polysaccharide based dressings to manage pain associated with infected chronic leg ulcers in older adults. Composite carrageenan (CARR) and hyaluronic acid (HA) dressings loaded with lidocaine (LID) and AgNPs were formulated as freeze-dried wafers and functionally characterized for porous microstructure (morphology), mechanical strength, moisture handling properties, swelling, adhesion and LID release. Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was evaluated (turbidity assay) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus whilst cell viability studies (MTT) was performed on normal adult human primary epidermal keratinocyte cells...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602071/sub-1-nm-nanowires-based-superlattice-showing-high-strength-and-low-modulus
#20
Huiling Liu, Qihua Gong, Yonghai Yue, Lin Guo, Xun Wang
Polymers possess special dimension-dependent processing flexibility which is always absent in inorganic materials. Traditional inorganic nanowires own similar dimensions to polymers, but usually lack near-molecular diameters and the related properties. Here we report that inorganic nanowires with sub-1nm diameter and microscale length can be electrospinningly processed into superstructures including smooth fibers and large-area mat by tuning the viscosity and surface tension of the colloidal nanowires solution...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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