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flexibility and strength

A Ceja-Espinosa, J A Franco-Jiménez, A Sosa-Nájera, G A Gutiérrez-Aceves, M I Ruiz-Flores
BACKGROUND: Endoscopy has gained a crucial role in high specialty neurosurgery during the last decades. At present, there are well-defined flexible neuroendoscopic procedures to treat ventricular and subarachnoid space pathologies. Neurocysticercosis is recognized as a common cause of neurologic disease in developing countries and the United States. Surgical intervention, especially cerebrospinal fluid diversion, is the key for management of hydrocephalus. In 2002, a consensus suggested that ventricular forms should be treated with endoscopy as the first option...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
Richard J van Arkel, Shaaz Ghouse, Piers E Milner, Jonathan R T Jeffers
Additive manufacturing offers exciting new possibilities for improving long-term metallic implant fixation in bone through enabling open porous structures for bony ingrowth. The aim of this research was to investigate how the technology could also improve initial fixation, a precursor to successful long-term fixation. A new barbed fixation mechanism, relying on flexible struts was proposed and manufactured as a push-fit peg. The technology was optimised using a synthetic bone model and compared with conventional press-fit peg controls tested over a range of interference fits...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Dávid Szatmári, Beáta Bugyi, Zoltán Ujfalusi, László Grama, Réka Dudás, Miklós Nyitrai
Leiomodin proteins are vertebrate homologues of tropomodulin, having a role in the assembly and maintenance of muscle thin filaments. Leiomodin2 contains an N-terminal tropomodulin homolog fragment including tropomyosin-, and actin-binding sites, and a C-terminal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome homology 2 actin-binding domain. The cardiac leiomodin2 isoform associates to the pointed end of actin filaments, where it supports the lengthening of thin filaments and competes with tropomodulin. It was recently found that cardiac leiomodin2 can localise also along the length of sarcomeric actin filaments...
2017: PloS One
Paul J Read, Pablo Jimenez, Jon L Oliver, Rhodri S Lloyd
Forty-one practitioners inclusive of physiotherapists, sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches from the academies of elite soccer clubs in the United Kingdom completed an on-line questionnaire which examined their: (1) background information; (2) perceptions of injury occurrence and risk factors; (3) screening and return to play; and (4) approach to designing and delivering injury prevention programmes with a response rate of 55% (41/75). Contact injuries were the most common mechanism reported and players between 13-16 years of age were perceived to be at the greatest risk...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Summer B Cook, Dain P LaRoche, Michelle R Villa, Hannah Barile, Todd M Manini
High-load resistance training (HL) may be contraindicated in older adults due to pre-existing health conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis). Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance training offers an alternative to HL with potentially similar strength improvement. PURPOSE: To compare muscle strength, cross-sectional area (CSA), physical function, and quality of life (QOL) following 12-weeks of HL or BFR training in older adults at risk of mobility limitations. METHODS: Thirty-six males and females (mean: 75...
October 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Julian Mehl, Theresa Diermeier, Elmar Herbst, Andreas B Imhoff, Thomas Stoffels, Thore Zantop, Wolf Petersen, Andrea Achtnich
INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries and especially anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are frequent in athletes. Therefore, primary and secondary prevention of sports-related lower limb injuries is an ongoing topic of interest. The aim of present study was to establish guidelines for the prevention of knee and ACL injuries on the basis of evidence-based concepts represented in current literature. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review regarding prevention programs for knee and ACL injuries was conducted...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Stephanie W Y Yu, Caterina Hill, Mariesa L Ricks, Jennifer Bennet, Nancy E Oriol
As the U.S. healthcare system transforms its care delivery model to increase healthcare accessibility and improve health outcomes, it is undergoing changes in the context of ever-increasing chronic disease burdens and healthcare costs. Many illnesses disproportionately affect certain populations, due to disparities in healthcare access and social determinants of health. These disparities represent a key area to target in order to better our nation's overall health and decrease healthcare expenditures. It is thus imperative for policymakers and health professionals to develop innovative interventions that sustainably manage chronic diseases, promote preventative health, and improve outcomes among communities disenfranchised from traditional healthcare as well as among the general population...
October 5, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Nicoletta Rinaldo, Elisabetta Bacchi, Giuseppe Coratella, Francesca Vitali, Chiara Milanese, Andrea Rossi, Federico Schena, Massimo Lanza
We compared the effects of a new physical activity education program approach (EDU), based on a periodically supervised protocol of different exercise modalities vs traditionally supervised combined strength-endurance training (CT) on health-related factors in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-eight COPD patients without comorbidities were randomly assigned to receive either EDU or CT. CT was continuously supervised to combine strength-endurance training; EDU was taught to progressively increase the rate of autonomous physical activity, through different training modalities such as Nordic walking, group classes and circuit training...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Vickie Plourde, Marianne Hrabok, Elisabeth M S Sherman, Brian L Brooks
Objective: Little is known about the validity of computerized cognitive batteries, such as CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS), in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to examine convergent and divergent validity of the CNSVS in a clinical pediatric sample with neurological diagnoses. Method: Participants included 123 pediatric patients assessed in a tertiary care setting as part of clinical care. CNSVS (Memory, Psychomotor Speed, Reaction Time, Complex Attention, and Cognitive Flexibility domains, and a Neurocognition Index) and paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures assessing learning, memory, processing speed, reaction time, attention, and executive functioning were administered...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Shyamprasad N Raja, David Osenberg, Kyoungjun Choi, Hyung Gyu Park, Dimos Poulikakos
The thermal transport properties of graphene are strongly influenced by its contact environment and the strength of such interactions can be used to tailor these properties. Here we find that annealing suppresses the basal plane thermal conductivity (κ) of graphene supported on silicon dioxide, due to the increased conformity of graphene to the nanoscale asperities of the substrate after annealing. Intriguingly, increasing the polycrystallinity of graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper, increases the severity of this suppression after annealing, revealing the role of grain boundaries and associated defects in aiding phonon scattering by the substrate...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
Marjaana Rantala, Mikko Tikkanen, Eva-Mari Aro
Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy in plant chloroplasts concomitantly modifies the thylakoid architecture and hierarchical interactions between pigment-protein complexes. Here, the thylakoids were isolated from light acclimated Arabidopsis leaves and investigated with respect to the composition of the thylakoid protein complexes and their association into higher molecular mass complexes, the largest one comprising both photosystems (PS II and PSI) and light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding complexes (LHCII)...
October 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Olivia Spiegler, Birgit Leyendecker
The acculturation complexity model suggests that immersion into dissonant cultures promotes cognitive skills in biculturals (Tadmor and Tetlock, 2006). In the present study, we examined links between identity acculturation and executive functioning (EF). Turkish-German immigrant origin children (N = 225; M = 11 years, SD = 1.6 years, 99 males) were given questions about their identification with Turks and Germans to capture bicultural involvement and a Dot Task (using Hearts and Flowers) to measure EF. Results showed that Turkish-German bicultural children who endorse both cultures with equal strength did not have a cognitive advantage in working memory and inhibition compared to their peers who more clearly preferred one culture over the other...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael Strüber, Jonas-Frederic Sauer, Peter Jonas, Marlene Bartos
Gamma oscillations (30-150 Hz) in neuronal networks are associated with the processing and recall of information. We measured local field potentials in the dentate gyrus of freely moving mice and found that gamma activity occurs in bursts, which are highly heterogeneous in their spatial extensions, ranging from focal to global coherent events. Synaptic communication among perisomatic-inhibitory interneurons (PIIs) is thought to play an important role in the generation of hippocampal gamma patterns. However, how neuronal circuits can generate synchronous oscillations at different spatial scales is unknown...
October 2, 2017: Nature Communications
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune, Tony Laughlin, Dave Fortenbaugh, Becky Bolt, Wendy Lucas, Kevin D Moore, Jeffrey R Dugas
BACKGROUND: Pitching biomechanics are associated with performance and risk of injury in baseball. Previous studies have identified biomechanical differences between youth and adult pitchers but have not investigated changes within individual young pitchers as they mature. HYPOTHESIS: Pitching kinematics and kinetics will change significantly during a youth pitcher's career. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Pitching biomechanics were captured in an indoor laboratory with a 12-camera, 240-Hz motion analysis system for 51 youth pitchers who were in their first season of organized baseball with pitching...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Mahmoud Zaqout, Kristof Vandekerckhove, Nathalie Michels, Thierry Bove, Katrien François, Daniel De Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are as fit as their peers. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 66 children (6-14 years) who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect (n = 19), coarctation of aorta (n = 10), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 15), and transposition of great arteries (n = 22); and 520 healthy children (6-12 years). All children performed physical fitness tests: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Johnny Birch, Hörður Kári Harðarson, Sanaullah Khan, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Richard Ipsen, Christel Garrigues, Kristoffer Almdal, Maher Abou Hachem, Birte Svensson
Interactions of exopolysaccharides and proteins are of great importance in food science, but complicated to analyze and quantify at the molecular level. A surface plasmon resonance procedure was established to characterize binding of seven structure-determined, branched hetero-exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14-4.9MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0-5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RUmax) and apparent affinity (KA,app) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold, respectively, in the complexation with native β-lactoglobulin at pH 4...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pengfei Niu, Brian J Nablo, Kiran Bhadriraju, Darwin R Reyes
Changes in electrical impedance have previously been used to measure fluid flow rate in microfluidic channels. Ionic redistribution within the electrical double layer by fluid flow has been considered to be the primary mechanism underlying such impedance based microflow sensors. Here we describe a previously unappreciated contribution of microchannel deformation to such measurements. We found that flow-induced microchannel deformation contributes significantly to the change in electrical impedance of solutions, in particular to those solutions producing an electrical double layer in the order of a few tens of nanometers (i...
September 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Karen A Keenan, Meleesa F Wohleber, Katherine A Perlsweig, Thomas M Baldwin, Michael Caviston, Mita Lovalekar, Christopher Connaboy, Bradley C Nindl, Kim Beals
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has examined lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) patterns and risk factors in Special Operations Forces (SOF) trainees, conventional military personnel, and athletes; however, it is unclear if SOF have the same patterns/risk factors. This study aimed to determine the association of musculoskeletal, balance, and physiological characteristics with LE MSI in SOF. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: A total of 726 Air Force (N=140), Navy Sea, Air, and Land (N=301), and Special Warfare Combatant Crewmen (N=285) SOF (age=25...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Dipankar Das, Shengmin Zhang, Insup Noh
A biocompatible hybrid film has been fabricated using alginate (Alg), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) micro-particle and calcium chloride through ionic crosslinking as biomaterial. "Screeding method" (like concrete finishing process) has been employed to develop the Alg- α-TCP film. For this method, Alg/α-TCP blend has been prepared using an ultra-sonicator and then put on a glass slide. After that, the excess volume of blend has been cut off by skidding another slide along with the surface of the blend to achieve proper grade and flatness...
September 28, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Leonhard Hitzler, Johann Hirsch, Burkhard Heine, Markus Merkel, Wayne Hall, Andreas Öchsner
The thorough description of the peculiarities of additively manufactured (AM) structures represents a current challenge for aspiring freeform fabrication methods, such as selective laser melting (SLM). These methods have an immense advantage in the fast fabrication (no special tooling or moulds required) of components, geometrical flexibility in their design, and efficiency when only small quantities are required. However, designs demand precise knowledge of the material properties, which in the case of additively manufactured structures are anisotropic and, under certain circumstances, inhomogeneous in nature...
September 26, 2017: Materials
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