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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821615/distinct-structural-mechanisms-determine-substrate-affinity-and-kinase-activity-of-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE
#1
Sangbae Lee, Titu Devamani, Hyun Deok Song, Manbir Sandhu, Adrien Larsen, Ruth Sommese, Abhinandan Jain, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan
Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) belongs to the family of AGC kinases that phosphorylate multiple peptide substrates. While the consensus sequence motif has been identified and used to explain substrate specificity for PKCα, it does not inform the structural basis of substrate binding and kinase activity for diverse substrates phosphorylated by this kinase. The transient, dynamic, and unstructured nature of this protein-protein interaction has limited structural mapping of kinase-substrate interfaces. Here, using multiscale MD simulation-based predictions and FRET sensor-based experiments, we investigated the conformational dynamics of the kinase-substrate interface...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821151/flexibility-of-backbone-fibrils-in-%C3%AE-chitin-crystals-with-different-degree-of-acetylation
#2
Zechuan Yu, Denvid Lau
Acetyl groups are backbone outreaches that enhance inter-fibril connection in chitin and chitosan fibril bundle. Removal of acetyl groups affects flexibility of chitosan fibril bundle, thereby affecting mechanical strength of chitosan-based products. Understandings of relationship between degree of acetylation and flexibility of chitin fibril bundle conduce to optimization of synthetic chitin materials. Here, the relationship is examined by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Coiling of chitin and chitosan fibril bundle with different degree of acetylation is observed and flexibility of fibrils is measured...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821043/effect-of-moderate-electric-fields-in-the-properties-of-starch-and-chitosan-films-reinforced-with-microcrystalline-cellulose
#3
Caroline C S Coelho, Miguel A Cerqueira, Ricardo N Pereira, Lorenzo M Pastrana, Otniel Freitas-Silva, António A Vicente, Lourdes M C Cabral, José A Teixeira
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) can provide improved properties when the aim is the development of biodegradable packaging materials. In this work the physicochemical properties of polysaccharide-based films (chitosan and starch) with the incorporation of MCC and the application of moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasonic bath (UB) as treatments, were evaluated. For each treatment, the thickness, moisture content, solubility, water vapor permeability, contact angle, mechanical properties, along with its color and opacity were determined...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820847/effectiveness-of-a-16-week-high-intensity-cardioresistance-training-program-in-adults
#4
Tina A Greenlee, Daniel R Greene, Nathan J Ward, Ginger E Reeser, Courtney M Allen, Nicholas W Baumgartner, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Aron K Barbey
Greenlee, TA, Greene, DR, Ward, NJ, Reeser, GE, Allen, CM, Baumgartner, NW, Cohen, NJ, Kramer, AF, Hillman, CH, and Barbey, AK. Effectiveness of a 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training program in adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2528-2541, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower-body explosive power, and self-reported activity level...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816944/acute-changes-in-neuromuscular-activity-in-vertical-jump-and-flexibility-after-exposure-to-whole-body-vibration
#5
Giuseppe Annino, Ferdinando Iellamo, Francesco Palazzo, Augusto Fusco, Mauro Lombardo, Francesca Campoli, Elvira Padua
This study was aimed to investigate the neuromuscular activity after 10 minutes of exposure to a whole body vibration (WBV) session.Twenty male young adults (24.8 ± 2.5 year olds) were randomized and divided into 2 groups: the vibration group (VG) was exposed to 10 minutes of WBV at 35 Hz; performed 10 minutes of WBV at 35 Hz (displacement = 5 mm; magnitude = 5 g); the nonvibrated group (NVG) was the placebo group that maintained the same position on the plate but without exposure to any type of vibration...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814054/crux-a-compliant-robotic-upper-extremity-exosuit-for-lightweight-portable-multi-joint-muscular-augmentation
#6
Steven Lessard, Pattawong Pansodtee, Ash Robbins, Leya Breanna Baltaxe-Admony, James M Trombadore, Mircea Teodorescu, Adrian Agogino, Sri Kurniawan
Wearable robots can potentially offer their users enhanced stability and strength. These augmentations are ideally designed to actuate harmoniously with the user's movements and provide extra force as needed. The creation of such robots, however, is particularly challenging due to the underlying complexity of the human body. In this paper, we present a compliant, robotic exosuit for upper extremities called CRUX. This exosuit, inspired by tensegrity models of the human arm, features a lightweight (1.3 kg), flexible multi-joint design for portable augmentation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813972/novel-ankle-orthosis-with-elastomer-embedded-flexible-joint
#7
Takehito Kikuchi, Kohei Ishiya, Isao Abe, Sosuke Tanida, Takashi Yasuda
In this study, we propose a new ankle orthosis with elastomer-embedded flexible joints (EEFJ), composed of C-shaped springs and 3D-printed circular elastomer. This orthosis was designed to reduce burden on the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and to achieve clearance between the tip of the toe and the ground. Fabrication method, strength testing, and gait analysis were conducted. According to the results of strength testing, the combination of the C-spring with 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm thickness and the elastomer with 30% and 60% filling density performs a supporting torque of 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812354/3d-moldable-nanofiber-reinforced-transparent-composites-with-hierarchically-self-assembled-reverse-nacre-like-architecture
#8
Subir Kumar Biswas, Hironari Sano, Md Iftekhar Shams, Hiroyuki Yano
Achieving structural hierarchy and a uniform nanofiller dispersion simultaneously remains highly challenging for obtaining a robust polymer nanocomposite of immiscible components. In this study, a remarkably facile Pickering emulsification approach is developed to fabricate hierarchical composites of immiscible acrylic polymer and native cellulose nanofibers by taking advantage of the dual role of the nanofibers as both the emulsion stabilizer and polymer reinforcement. The composites feature a unique "reverse" nacre-like microstructure reinforced with well-dispersed two-tier hierarchical nanofiber network, leading to a synergistic high strength, modulus, and toughness (20, 50, and 53 times that of neat polymer, respectively), high optical transparency (89%), high flexibility and a drastically low thermal expansion (13 ppm/K, 1/15th of the neat polymer)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810729/thermal-stability-of-organic-monolayers-grafted-to-si-111-insights-from-reaxff-reactive-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#9
Federico A Soria, Weiwei Zhang, Adri C T van Duin, Eduardo Martin Patrito
We used the ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the chemical mechanisms and kinetics of thermal decomposition processes of silicon surfaces grafted with different organic molecules via Si-C bonds at atomistic level. In this work, we considered the Si(111) surface grafted with n-alkyl (ethyl, propyl, pentyl and decyl) layers in 50 % coverage and Si-CH3, Si-CCCH3 and Si-CHCHCH3 layers in full coverage. Si radicals primarily formed by the homolytic cleavage of Si-C bonds play a key role in the dehydrogenation processes that lead to the decomposition of the monolayers...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806436/effectiveness-of-a-timing-and-coordination-group-exercise-program-to-improve-mobility-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Jennifer S Brach, Subashan Perera, Sandra Gilmore, Jessie M VanSwearingen, Deborah Brodine, Neelesh K Nadkarni, Edmund Ricci
Importance: Timing and coordination exercises may be an important addition to community-based health promotion exercise programs to improve walking in older adults. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of the On the Move group exercise program, which focuses on the timing and coordination of movement, with a seated strength, endurance, and flexibility program (usual care) at improving function, disability, and walking ability of older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cluster-randomized, single-blind intervention trial...
August 14, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799671/hydrophobic-flexible-and-lightweight-mxene-foams-for-high-performance-electromagnetic-interference-shielding
#11
Ji Liu, Hao-Bin Zhang, Renhui Sun, Yafeng Liu, Zhangshuo Liu, Aiguo Zhou, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Ultrathin, lightweight, and flexible electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding materials are urgently required to manage increasingly serious radiation pollution. 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) are considered promising alternatives to graphene for providing excellent EMI-shielding performance due to their outstanding metallic electrical conductivity. However, the hydrophilicity of MXene films may affect their stability and reliability when applied in moist or wet environments. Herein, for the first time, an efficient and facile approach is reported to fabricate freestanding, flexible, and hydrophobic MXene foam with reasonable strength by assembling MXene sheets into films followed by a hydrazine-induced foaming process...
August 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798662/prefrontal-contribution-to-decision-making-under-free-choice-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
Executive function is thought to be the coordinated operation of multiple neural processes and allows to accomplish a current goal flexibly. The most important function of the prefrontal cortex is the executive function. Among a variety of executive functions in which the prefrontal cortex participates, decision-making is one of the most important. Although the prefrontal contribution to decision-making has been examined using a variety of behavioral tasks, recent studies using fMRI have shown that the prefrontal cortex participates in decision-making under free-choice conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795571/transparent-healable-elastomers-with-high-mechanical-strength-and-elasticity-derived-from-hydrogen-bonded-polymer-complexes
#13
Yan Wang, Xiaokong Liu, Siheng Li, Tianqi Li, Yu Song, Zhandong Li, Wenke Zhang, Junqi Sun
It is challenging to develop healable elastomers with combined high mechanical strength and good elasticity. Herein, a simple strategy to develop high-performance elastomers that integrate high mechanical strength, enormous stretchability, good resilience, and healability is reported. Through simply complexing poly(acrylic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) based on hydrogen-bonding interactions, transparent composite materials that perform as elastomers are generated. The as-prepared elastomers exhibit mechanical strength (true strength at break) and toughness (fracture energy) as high as 61 MPa and 22...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795008/sports-participation-recommendations-for-patients-with-bleeding-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Cailly Howell, Katherine Scott, Dilip R Patel
There are several sets of guidelines recommending sports participation for patients with bleeding disorders. Though there is a perceived risk of injury and the associated bleeding complications, several studies have been done in this patient population and have found no increased risk. In addition, there are many other benefits to participation including improvement in physical fitness status, better health outcomes, improvement in quality of life, and the development of increased flexibility, gait coordination, and muscular strength, which may actually reduce the risk of subsequent injury...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792584/reproducibility-of-clinician-friendly-physical-performance-measures-in-individuals-with-obesity
#15
Nicola A Maffiuletti, Gabriela Tringali, Alessandra Patrizi, Fiorenza Agosti, Alessandro Sartorio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of different physical performance measures in individuals with obesity. METHODS: Forty subjects (20 men, 20 women), mean age 29 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 42 kg/m2 completed several clinician-friendly performance-based tests (walking, stair-climbing, sit-to-stand, static balance, flexibility and strength) on 2 different occasions (test-retest design). Intraclass correlation coefficients (reliability) and smallest detectable changes (agreement) were calculated for each outcome measure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792204/poly-vinylidene-fluoride-flexible-nanocomposite-films-with-dopamine-coated-giant-dielectric-ceramic-nanopowders-ba-fe0-5ta0-5-o3-for-high-energy-storage-density-at-low-electric-field
#16
Zhuo Wang, Tian Wang, Chun Wang, Yujia Xiao, Panpan Jing, Yongfei Cui, Yongping Pu
Ba(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BFT/PVDF) flexible nanocomposite films are fabricated by tape-casting using dopamine (DA) modified BFT nanopowders and PVDF as matrix polymer. After surface modification by DA layer with a thickness of 5 nm, the interfacial couple interaction between BFT and PVDF is enhanced, resulting in less hole defects at the interface. Then the dielectric constant ('), loss tangent (tan δ) and AC conductivity of nanocomposite films are reduced. Meanwhile, the value of reduced dielectric constant (Δ') and strength of interfacial polarization (k) is introduced to illustrate the effect of DA on dielectric behavior of nanocomposite films...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777744/the-effect-of-wing-flexibility-on-sound-generation-of-flapping-wings
#17
Biao Geng, Qian Xue, Xudong Zheng, Geng Liu, Yan Ren, Haibo Dong
In this study, the unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of a three-dimensional (3D) flapping wing model of Tibicen linnei cicada at forward flight condition are numerically investigated. A single cicada wing is modelled as a membrane with prescribed motion reconstructed from high-speed videos of a live insect. The numerical solution takes a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting approach: the flow field is solved with an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver based on immersed boundary method and the acoustic field is solved with linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCEs)...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773838/experimental-and-simulated-investigations-of-thin-polymer-substrates-with-an-indium-tin-oxide-coating-under-fatigue-bending-loadings
#18
Jiong-Shiun Hsu, Chang-Chun Lee, Bor-Jiunn Wen, Pei-Chen Huang, Chi-Kai Xie
Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO) film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films...
August 24, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773240/metallic-biomaterials-current-challenges-and-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Karthika Prasad, Olha Bazaka, Ming Chua, Madison Rochford, Liam Fedrick, Jordan Spoor, Richard Symes, Marcus Tieppo, Cameron Collins, Alex Cao, David Markwell, Kostya Ken Ostrikov, Kateryna Bazaka
Metallic biomaterials are engineered systems designed to provide internal support to biological tissues and they are being used largely in joint replacements, dental implants, orthopaedic fixations and stents. Higher biomaterial usage is associated with an increased incidence of implant-related complications due to poor implant integration, inflammation, mechanical instability, necrosis and infections, and associated prolonged patient care, pain and loss of function. In this review, we will briefly explore major representatives of metallic biomaterials along with the key existing and emerging strategies for surface and bulk modification used to improve biointegration, mechanical strength and flexibility of biometals, and discuss their compatibility with the concept of 3D printing...
July 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773047/a-novel-method-for-fabricating-wearable-piezoresistive-and-pressure-sensors-based-on-modified-graphite-polyurethane-composite-films
#20
Yin He, Wei Li, Guilin Yang, Hao Liu, Junyu Lu, Tongtong Zheng, Xiaojiu Li
A wearable, low-cost, highly repeatable piezoresistive sensor was fabricated by the synthesis of modified-graphite and polyurethane (PU) composites and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Graphite sheets functionalized by using a silane coupling agent (KH550) were distributed in PU/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, which were then molded to modified-graphite/PU (MG/PU) composite films. Experimental results show that with increasing modified-graphite content, the tensile strength of the MG/PU films first increased and then decreased, and the elongation at break of the composite films showed a decreasing trend...
June 22, 2017: Materials
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