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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145698/illicit-drug-use-illicit-drug-use-disorders-and-drug-overdose-deaths-in-metropolitan-and-nonmetropolitan-areas-united-states
#1
EDITORIAL
Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones, Michael F Ballesteros
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. REPORTING PERIOD: Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145359/racial-ethnic-health-disparities-among-rural-adults-united-states-2012-2015
#2
Cara V James, Ramal Moonesinghe, Shondelle M Wilson-Frederick, Jeffrey E Hall, Ana Penman-Aguilar, Karen Bouye
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Rural communities often have worse health outcomes, have less access to care, and are less diverse than urban communities. Much of the research on rural health disparities examines disparities between rural and urban communities, with fewer studies on disparities within rural communities. This report provides an overview of racial/ethnic health disparities for selected indicators in rural areas of the United States. REPORTING PERIOD: 2012-2015...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131385/rural-community-birth-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-for-planned-community-births-among-rural-women-in-the-united-states-2004-2009
#3
Elizabeth Nethery, Wendy Gordon, Marit L Bovbjerg, Melissa Cheyney
BACKGROUND: Approximately 22% of women in the United States live in rural areas with limited access to obstetric care. Despite declines in hospital-based obstetric services in many rural communities, midwifery care at home and in free standing birth centers is available in many rural communities. This study examines maternal and neonatal outcomes among planned home and birth center births attended by midwives, comparing outcomes for rural and nonrural women. METHODS: Using the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2...
November 13, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130252/i-introduction-moving-through-adolescence-developmental-trajectories-of-african-american-and-european-american-youth
#4
Leslie Morrison Gutman, Stephen C Peck, Oksana Malanchuk, Arnold J Sameroff, Jacquelynne S Eccles
In this monograph, we investigate the developmental trajectories of a predominantly middle-class, community-based sample of European American and African American adolescents growing up in urban, suburban, and rural areas in Maryland, United States. Within risk-protection and positive youth development frameworks, we selected developmental measures based on the normative tasks of adolescence and the most widely studied indicators in the three major contexts of development: families, peer groups, and schools...
December 2017: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128881/disparities-in-geographic-accessibility-of-national-cancer-institute-cancer-centers-in-the-united-states
#5
Yanqing Xu, Cong Fu, Tracy Onega, Xun Shi, Fahui Wang
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Centers form the backbone of the cancer care system in the United States since their inception in the early 1970s. Most studies on their geographic accessibility used primitive measures, and did not examine the disparities across urbanicity or demographic groups. This research uses an advanced accessibility method, termed "2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA)" and implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to capture the degree of geographic access to NCI Cancer Centers by accounting for competition intensity for the services and travel time between residents and the facilities...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121923/decentralised-training-for-medical-students-a-scoping-review
#6
Marietjie de Villiers, Susan van Schalkwyk, Julia Blitz, Ian Couper, Kalavani Moodley, Zohray Talib, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, medical students are trained at sites away from the tertiary academic health centre. A growing body of literature identifies the benefits of decentralised clinical training for students, the health services and the community. A scoping review was done to identify approaches to decentralised training, how these have been implemented and what the outcomes of these approaches have been in an effort to provide a knowledge base towards developing a model for decentralised training for undergraduate medical students in lower and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
November 9, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119240/ivc-filter-placements-in-children-nationwide-comparison-of-practice-patterns-at-adult-and-children-s-hospitals-using-the-kids-inpatient-database
#7
Vibhor Wadhwa, Premal S Trivedi, Sumera Ali, Robert K Ryu, Amir Pezeshkmehr
BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement in children has been described in literature, but there is variability with regard to their indications. No nationally representative study has been done to compare practice patterns of filter placements at adult and children's hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To perform a nationally representative comparison of IVC filter placement practices in children at adult and children's hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database was searched for IVC filter placements in children <18 years of age...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112713/st-product-characteristics-and-relationships-with-perceptions-and-behaviors-among-rural-adolescent-males-a-qualitative-study
#8
Elizabeth T Couch, Ellen F Darius, Margaret M Walsh, Benjamin W Chaffee
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools...
November 3, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112666/disparities-in-chronic-conditions-among-women-hospitalized-for-delivery-in-the-united-states-2005-2014
#9
Lindsay K Admon, Tyler N A Winkelman, Michelle H Moniz, Matthew M Davis, Michele Heisler, Vanessa K Dalton
OBJECTIVE: To estimate trends in the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of chronic conditions among women hospitalized for obstetric delivery in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective, serial cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 2005-2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample. We estimated the prevalence of eight common, chronic conditions, each associated with obstetric morbidity and mortality, among all childbearing women and then across socioeconomic predictors of obstetric outcomes...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106914/geographic-and-demographic-variation-in-use-of-ranibizumab-versus-bevacizumab-for-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-the-united-states
#10
Emily W Gower, Joshua D Stein, Nakul S Shekhawat, Shravani Mikkilineni, Taylor S Blachley, Nicholas M Pajewski
PURPOSE: To examine demographic and geographic variation in the use of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among Medicare beneficiaries. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using a 100% sample of Medicare claims data, we evaluated Medicare beneficiaries (N = 195 812) with an index claim for neovascular AMD between July 1, 2006, and June 30, 2009, to determine whether beneficiaries first received ranibizumab or bevacizumab following initial diagnosis...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101831/temporal-trends-in-air-pollution-exposure-inequality-in-massachusetts
#11
Anna Rosofsky, Jonathan I Levy, Antonella Zanobetti, Patricia Janulewicz, M Patricia Fabian
Mounting evidence over the past several decades has demonstrated inequitable distribution of pollutants of ambient origin between sociodemographic groups in the United States. Most environmental inequality studies to date are cross-sectional and used proximity-based methods rather than modeled air pollution concentrations, limiting the ability to examine trends over time or the factors that drive exposure inequalities. In this paper, we use 1km(2) modeled PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations in Massachusetts over an 8-year period and Census demographic data to quantify inequality between sociodemographic groups and to develop a more nuanced understanding of the drivers and trends in longitudinal air pollution inequality...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099026/cost-and-distribution-of-hysterectomy-and-uterine-artery-embolization-in-the-united-states-regional-rural-urban-disparities
#12
Marquisette Glass Lewis, Olúgbémiga T Ekúndayò
Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroids while allowing women to keep their uteri. The preponderance of data collection and research has focused on care quality in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, with little on location and viability related to care utilization, accessibility and physical availability...
May 16, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096028/the-role-of-maternal-and-child-characteristics-in-chinese-children-s-dietary-intake-across-three-groups
#13
Nan Zhou, Charissa S L Cheah, Yan Li, Junsheng Liu, Shuyan Sun
Objective: To examine whether mothers' early-life food insecurity (ELFI), pressuring to eat feeding practices (PEP), and child effortful control (EC) are associated with child dietary intake within and across three Chinese ethnic groups. Method: Participants included 119 Chinese international immigrants in the United States, 230 urban nonmigrant, and 468 rural-to-urban migrant mothers and preschoolers in China. Mothers reported on their ELFI, PEP, and their children's EC and dietary intake...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094102/project-echo-a-telementoring-program-for-cervical-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-in-low-resource-settings
#14
Melissa S Lopez, Ellen S Baker, Andrea M Milbourne, Rose M Gowen, Ana M Rodriguez, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Catherine Mwaba, Susan Citonje Msadabwe, José Humberto Tavares, Georgia Fontes-Cintra, Gustavo Zucca-Matthes, Donato Callegaro-Filho, Danielle Ramos-Martin, Icaro Thiago de Carvalho, Robson Coelho, Renato Moretti Marques, Thiago Chulam, Mila Pontremoli-Salcedo, Fernanda Nozar, Veronica Fiol, Mauricio Maza, Sanjeev Arora, Ernest T Hawk, Kathleen M Schmeler
Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093949/edawu-a-journey-from-in-patient-rehabilitation-to-community-based-treatment-and-rehabilitation-in-nigeria
#15
N Chakraborty, A Erinfolami, A Lucas
Community-based rehabilitation is the strategy endorsed by the World Health Organization and other international bodies to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In this article we trace the journey of Edawu, a mental health rehabilitation unit in a rural area of Benue State, Nigeria, from an in-patient rehabilitation unit to a community-focused service. The partnership of organisations from the UK with Edawu along the journey is also described. The authors set out learning points from the project and the principles behind sustainable overseas organisational partnerships...
August 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091981/trends-in-hospitalization-for-opioid-overdose-among-rural-compared-to-urban-residents-of-the-united-states-2007-2014
#16
Hilary Mosher, Yunshou Zhou, Andrew L Thurman, Mary Vaughan Sarrazin, Michael E Ohl
Hospitalizations and deaths due to opioid overdose have increased over the last decades. We used data from the National Inpatient Sample and the American Community Survey to describe trends in hospitalization rates for opioid overdose among rural residents compared with urban residents in the United States from 2007 to 2014. Hospitalization rates for heroin overdose increased in all years and were higher in urban residents compared with rural residents (5.5 per 100,000 in large urban populations vs 2.1 per 100,000 in rural populations in 2014)...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079108/reap-what-you-sow-which-rural-surgery-training-programs-currently-exist-and-do-medical-students-know-of-their-existence
#17
Isolina R Rossi, Aaron L Wiegmann, Pat Schou, David C Borgstrom, Matthew B Rossi
BACKGROUND: There exists an acute need to recruit and train general surgeons for rural communities. To assist medical students interested in rural surgery, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) website lists general surgery residencies, which are tailored to train the rural surgeon by providing exposure to endoscopy, gynecology, urology, orthopedics, and otolaryngology. Another available reference is the American Medical Association Fellowship and Residency Electronic Database (FREIDA)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076548/citizen-participation-in-disaster-recovery-projects-and-programmes-in-rural-communities-a-comparison-of-the-haiti-earthquake-and-hurricane-katrina
#18
Loretta Pyles, Juliana Svistova, Suran Ahn, Tom Birkland
This study investigates predictors of local participation in recovery projects and programmes following Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005 and the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Using two sets of survey data, it examines whether disaster impacts and social capital (social trust and civic engagement) are associated with disaster recovery participation and compares predictors of such engagement in the two locations. Multivariate logistic regression results reveal that physical injuries, limited community mobility, and government trust increase recovery participation in Haiti (n=278), whereas emotional distress and homeownership decrease it...
October 27, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072408/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-colorectal-cancer-among-school-teachers-in-al-ahsa-saudi-arabia
#19
Abulaziz K Al-Thafar, Abdullah F Al-Naim, Daood S Albges, Saad K Boqursain, Abdulaziz S Aldhafar, Seba M Ghreiz, Sayed Ibrahim
Background: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of deaths among cancers affecting both men and women in the United States. Annually, about 140,000 Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and more than 50,000 people die from it. In Saudi Arabia, this cancer ranks first among men and third among women. Nevertheless, this type of cancer is one of the most preventable types of cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among teaching staff (educators) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072148/patient-family-eol-communication-and-its-predictors-reports-from-caregivers-of-latino-patients-in-the-rural-u-s-mexico-border-region
#20
Eunjeong Ko, Jaehoon Lee, Carlos Ramirez, Denicka Lopez, Stephanie Martinez
OBJECTIVE: Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U...
October 26, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
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