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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648353/healthcare-contact-and-treatment-uptake-following-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-and-counseling-among-rural-appalachian-people-who-use-drugs
#1
Dustin B Stephens, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since 2009, Kentucky has led the United States in cases of acute HCV, driven largely by injection drug use in rural areas. Improved treatment regimens hold promise of mitigating the impact and transmission of HCV, but numerous barriers obstruct people who inject drugs (PWID) from receiving care, particularly in medically underserved settings. METHODS: 503 rural people who use drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and received HCV screening and post-test counseling...
June 22, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640797/rural-and-urban-differences-in-air-quality-2008-2012-and-community-drinking-water-quality-2010-2015-united-states
#2
Heather Strosnider, Caitlin Kennedy, Michele Monti, Fuyuen Yip
PROBLEM/CONDITION: The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639994/hiv-care-initiation-delay-among-rural-residents-in-the-southeastern-united-states-1996-to-2012
#3
B L W Lopes, J Eron, M J Mugavero, W Miller, S Napravnik
BACKGROUND: Delaying HIV care initiation may lead to greater morbidity, mortality and further HIV transmission. Rural residence may be associated with delayed diagnosis and linkage to care, with negative clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between rural patient residence and CD4 cell count at HIV care initiation in a large HIV clinical cohort in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: We included HIV-infected patients who initiated care between 1996-2012 with a geocodable address and no prior history of HIV clinical care...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639149/safety-feasibility-results-and-economic-impact-of-common-interventional-procedures-in-a-low-volume-region-of-the-united-states
#4
Aaron Clem, Sami Awadallah, Zahid Amin
The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and economic benefit of a high-volume operator performing common interventional procedures in a rural region of the United States (U.S.). Rural areas of the U.S., even with well-equipped cardiac catheterization laboratories, may not have a full-time pediatric interventional cardiologist (PIC); this requires patients to travel out of state even for simple interventions. Since 2005, we have adopted a policy of performing cardiac catheterizations and common interventional procedures with a visiting PIC...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636972/assessing-landowners-attitudes-toward-wild-hogs-and-support-for-control-options
#5
Carlotta A Caplenor, Neelam C Poudyal, Lisa I Muller, Chuck Yoest
Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626048/contributors-to-the-excess-stroke-mortality-in-rural-areas-in-the-united-states
#6
George Howard, Dawn O Kleindorfer, Mary Cushman, D Leann Long, Adam Jasne, Suzanne E Judd, John C Higginbotham, Virginia J Howard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke mortality is 30% higher in the rural United States. This could be because of either higher incidence or higher case fatality from stroke in rural areas. METHODS: The urban-rural status of 23 280 stroke-free participants recruited between 2003 and 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) was classified using the Rural-Urban Commuting Area scheme as residing in urban, large rural town/city, or small rural town or isolated areas...
June 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615354/parenting-intervention-at-age-11-and-cotinine-levels-at-age-20-among-african-american-youth
#7
Yi-Fu Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gene H Brody
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that African American preadolescents who participated in a family-centered parenting intervention at age 11 would show lower levels of cotinine, a biomarker for recent smoking, at age 20 than would similar participants in the control condition. The study was also designed to test the hypothesis that prevention-induced increases in supportive parenting would account for any prevention effects that emerged. METHODS: African American parents and their 11-year-old children in the rural southern United States were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families program or to a control condition...
June 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614244/impact-of-patient-race-and-geographical-factors-on-initiation-and-adherence-to-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-medicare-breast-cancer-survivors
#8
Fabian T Camacho, Xi Tan, Héctor E Alcalá, Surbhi Shah, Roger T Anderson, Rajesh Balkrishnan
To evaluate variations in the use of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) by race and geography, this research examined their influence on initiation and adherence to AET in female Medicare enrollees with breast cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2011.Using SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program)-Medicare data from 2007 to 2001, logistic regressions with random intercept for county of residence were used to predict AET initiation during 1st year and AET adherence assessed by the medication possession ratio (MPR) during year after initiation in a sample of fee-for-service medicare beneficiaries...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613378/genetic-diversity-of-desmanthus-sp-accessions-using-issr-markers-and-morphological-traits
#9
J C Costa, G G M Fracetto, F J C Fracetto, M V F Santos, M A Lira Júnior
Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with high nutritional value, productive potential, and ability to obtain nitrogen in association with diazotrophic bacteria. The use of accurate techniques for genotype identification and characterization is essential for breeding programs. Morphological markers are widely used to know the genetic diversity and the molecular markers are fundamental in these studies. We investigated the genetic diversity among Desmanthus sp genotypes in Pernambuco (Brazilian Northeast State), using morphological traits and ISSR markers...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613257/dissemination-of-chronic-disease-self-management-education-cdsme-programs-in-the-united-states-intervention-delivery-by-rurality
#10
Matthew Lee Smith, Samuel D Towne, Angelica Herrera-Venson, Kathleen Cameron, Kristie P Kulinski, Kate Lorig, Scott A Horel, Marcia G Ory
Background: Alongside the dramatic increase of older adults in the United States (U.S.), it is projected that the aging population residing in rural areas will continue to grow. As the prevalence of chronic diseases and multiple chronic conditions among adults continues to rise, there is additional need for evidence-based interventions to assist the aging population to improve lifestyle behaviors, and self-manage their chronic conditions. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the geospatial dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) Programs across the U...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611712/executive-function-buffers-the-association-between-early-math-and-later-academic-skills
#11
Andrew D Ribner, Michael T Willoughby, Clancy B Blair
Extensive evidence has suggested that early academic skills are a robust indicator of later academic achievement; however, there is mixed evidence of the effectiveness of intervention on academic skills in early years to improve later outcomes. As such, it is clear there are other contributing factors to the development of academic skills. The present study tests the role of executive function (EF) (a construct made up of skills complicit in the achievement of goal-directed tasks) in predicting 5th grade math and reading ability above and beyond math and reading ability prior to school entry, and net of other cognitive covariates including processing speed, vocabulary, and IQ...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607678/choosing-wisely-a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-decrease-unnecessary-preoperative-testing
#12
John Matulis, Stephen Liu, John Mecchella, Frederick North, Alison Holmes
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center is a rural, academic medical center in the northeastern United States; its General Internal Medicine (GIM) division performs about 900 low and intermediate surgical risk preoperative evaluations annually. Routine preoperative testing in these evaluations is widely considered a low-value service. Our baseline data sample showed unnecessary testing rates of approximately 36%. A multi-disciplinary team used a micro-systems approach to analyze the existing process and formulate a rapid cycle improvement strategy...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601785/pollution-and-regional-variations-of-lung-cancer-mortality-in-the-united-states
#13
Justin Xavier Moore, Tomi Akinyemiju, Henry E Wang
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to identify counties in the United States (US) with high rates of lung cancer mortality, and to characterize the associated community-level factors while focusing on particulate-matter pollution. METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis of lung cancer deaths in the US from 2004 through 2014. We categorized counties as "clustered" or "non-clustered" - based on whether or not they had high lung cancer mortality rates - using novel geospatial autocorrelation methods...
June 8, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595333/the-rise-of-the-current-mortality-pattern-of-the-united-states-1890-1930
#14
Hiroshi Maeda
This article examines how the epidemiologic transition and the reduction of the urban mortality penalty gave rise to the current mortality regime, and demonstrates how the 1918 influenza pandemic signaled its advent. This article approaches those issues by analyzing urban-rural mortality differentials from 1890 to 1930. Until 1910 infectious diseases dwarfed degenerative diseases, and, generally, the more urban the location was, the higher infectious disease, and overall, mortality was, a direct relationship...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583955/progress-in-achieving-health-equity-requires-attention-to-root-causes
#15
Steven H Woolf
Life expectancy and disease rates in the United States differ starkly among Americans depending on their demographic characteristics and where they live. Although health care systems are taking important steps to reduce inequities, meaningful progress requires interventions outside the clinic, in sectors such as employment, housing, transportation, and public safety. Inequities exist in each of these sectors, and barriers to educational attainment, higher-income jobs, and social mobility limit the opportunity of disadvantaged people to improve their circumstances...
June 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581821/randomized-controlled-trial-of-technology-assisted-case-management-in-low-income-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Leonard E Egede, Joni S Williams, Delia C Voronca, Rebecca G Knapp, Jyotika K Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of technology-assisted case management (TACM) with medication titration by nurses using guideline-based algorithms, under physician supervision in improving glycemic control in low-income rural adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults (aged ≥18 years) from the southeastern United States with hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] ≥8% were randomized to TACM or usual care. Evidence-based guidelines were used to develop medication titration algorithms in conjunction with clinic physicians...
June 5, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570502/quickstats-age-adjusted-rate-of-motor-vehicle-traffic-deaths-%C3%A2-by-urbanization-of-county-of-residence-%C3%A2-2005-and-2015
#17
(no author information available yet)
The overall age-adjusted rate of motor vehicle traffic deaths in the United States decreased 25% from 14.6 deaths per 100,000 population in 2005 to 10.9 in 2015. During this period, the rate declined in each of the county groupings, with the largest decline of 26% in the large fringe metropolitan and micropolitan counties and the smallest decline of 20% in rural counties. For both years, the rates for motor vehicle traffic deaths were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. In 2015, the age-adjusted rate in rural counties was nearly three times the rate for large central metropolitan counties (23...
June 2, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561873/the-reciprocity-team-development-of-an-interprofessional-research-collaboration
#18
Bryan M Gee, Nancy Devine, Nicki L Aubuchon-Endsley, Michele Brumley, Heather L Ramsdell-Hudock, Hillary E Swann
The purpose of this article is to articulate and provide detail about an interprofessional research collaboration at a public university in a rural area of western United States. This interprofessional research collaboration was organized to explore infant and maternal reciprocity. As a part of the organization and process portion of the collaborative effort, the authors identify the unique attributes of their collaboration. Additionally, barriers to collaborative research are presented, with opportunities and recommendations made to support existing and future interprofessional collaborative efforts for basic science scholars, clinicians, and educators in health-related professions...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559225/home-based-hiv-testing-and-counseling-for-male-couples-project-nexus-a-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Rob Stephenson, Ryan Freeland, Stephen P Sullivan, Erin Riley, Brent A Johnson, Jason Mitchell, Deborah McFarland, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, yet the majority of research has focused on MSM as individuals, not as dyads, and has discussed HIV risks primarily in the context of casual sex. Nexus is an online prevention program that combines home-based HIV testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). It allows partners in dyadic MSM relationships to receive HIV testing and care in the comfort of their designated residence, via video-based chat...
May 30, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558498/from-systematic-review-to-call-for-action
#20
Erika Metzler Sawin, Linda L Sobel, Sandra L Annan, Donna L Schminkey
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women...
June 2017: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
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