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Spleen anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631052/anatomic-variations-of-the-spleen-current-state-of-terminology-classification-and-embryological-background
#1
REVIEW
Ivan Varga, Jozef Babala, David Kachlik
A thorough understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and development of the spleen is essential for determining the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning splenic diseases and congenital variations. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the normal development of the spleen, and to provide an overview of clinically relevant congenital splenic variations. These include such variations as asplenia, polysplenia, hyposplenia, lobulation of spleen, accessory spleens, accessory splenic nodules, wandering spleen, splenogonadal and splenopancreatic fusion, splenic cysts, and cavernous haemangioma of the spleen...
June 19, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440234/endoscopic-ultrasound-of-peritoneal-spaces
#2
Malay Sharma, Jayan Gopinath Madambath, Piyush Somani, Amit Pathak, Chittapuram Srinivasan Rameshbabu, Raghav Bansal, Kovil Ramasamy, Amol Patil
The peritoneal cavity is subdivided into supracolic and infracolic compartments by transverse colon and its mesocolon. The supracolic compartment contains the liver, spleen, stomach, and lesser omentum. The infracolic compartment contains the coils of small bowel surrounded by ascending, transverse, and descending colon and the paracolic gutters. The imaging of different compartments is possible by various methods such as ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography. The treating physicians should be familiar with the relevant radiological anatomy of different compartments and spaces as accurate localization of fluid collection/lymph node in peritoneal cavity greatly aids in selection of a treatment strategy...
March 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323442/an-investigation-of-human-body-model-morphing-for-the-assessment-of-abdomen-responses-to-impact-against-a-population-of-test-subjects
#3
Philippe Beillas, Fabien Berthet
OBJECTIVE: Human body models have the potential to better describe the human anatomy and variability than dummies. However, data sets available to verify the human response to impact are typically limited in numbers, and they are not size or gender specific. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of model morphing methodologies within that context. METHODS: In this study, a simple human model scaling methodology was developed to morph two detailed human models (Global Human Body Model Consortium models 50th male, M50, and 5th female, F05) to the dimensions of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) used in published literature...
May 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320741/hypoxia-enhances-antibody-dependent-dengue-virus-infection
#4
Esther Shuyi Gan, Wei Fun Cheong, Kuan Rong Chan, Eugenia Ziying Ong, Xiaoran Chai, Hwee Cheng Tan, Sujoy Ghosh, Markus R Wenk, Eng Eong Ooi
Dengue virus (DENV) has been found to replicate in lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver in post-mortem analysis. These organs are known to have low oxygen levels (~0.5-4.5% O2) due to the vascular anatomy. However, how physiologically low levels of oxygen affect DENV infection via hypoxia-induced changes in the immune response remains unknown. Here, we show that monocytes adapted to 3% O2 show greater susceptibility to antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection. Low oxygen level induces HIF1α-dependent upregulation of fragment crystallizable gamma receptor IIA (FcγRIIA) as well as HIF1α-independent alterations in membrane ether lipid concentrations...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317122/an-anthropomorphic-abdominal-phantom-for-deformable-image-registration-accuracy-validation-in-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#5
Yuliang Liao, Linjing Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiawei Chen, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Ruihao Wang, Shuxu Zhang, Xuejun Gu, Xin Zhen, Linghong Zhou
PURPOSE: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). METHOD: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra, and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291918/organ-motion-in-pediatric-high-risk-neuroblastoma-patients-using-four-dimensional-computed-tomography
#6
Sneha Kannan, Boon-Keng Kevin Teo, Timothy Solberg, Christine Hill-Kayser
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): High-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) requires multimodality treatment, including external beam radiation of the primary tumor site following resection. Radiotherapy planning must take into account motion of the target and adjacent normal anatomy, both of which are poorly understood in the pediatric population, and which may differ significantly from those in adults. METHODS/MATERIALS: We examined 4DCT scans of 15 consecutive pediatric patients treated for HR-NBL, most with tumors in the abdominal cavity...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112399/estimating-organ-doses-from-tube-current-modulated-ct-examinations-using-a-generalized-linear-model
#7
Maryam Bostani, Kyle McMillan, Peiyun Lu, Grace Hyun J Kim, Dianna Cody, Gary Arbique, S Bruce Greenberg, John J DeMarco, Chris H Cagnon, Michael F McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: Currently, available Computed Tomography dose metrics are mostly based on fixed tube current Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and/or physical measurements such as the size specific dose estimate (SSDE). In addition to not being able to account for Tube Current Modulation (TCM), these dose metrics do not represent actual patient dose. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a dose estimation model based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), which extends the ability to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated examinations by incorporating regional descriptors of patient size, scanner output, and other scan-specific variables as needed...
April 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047839/th-cd-206-08-an-anthropopathic-deformable-phantom-for-geometric-and-dose-accumulation-accuracy-validation-of-deformable-image-registration
#8
Y Liao, H Chen, J Chen, X Gu, X Zhen, L Zhou
PURPOSE: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropopathic abdominal phantom for evaluating deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy on images and dose deformation in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). METHOD: Organ moulds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, are 3D printed using the contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ moulds are molded with deformable gels that made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788285/trend-toward-individualization-of-the-endocrine-and-exocrine-portions-of-the-giant-anteater-pancreas-myrmecophaga-tridactyla-xenarthra
#9
Luciana Pedrosa Iglesias, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Jéssica Borghesi, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Maria Angelica Miglino, Alan Perez Ferraz de Melo
Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679871/factors-influencing-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-isomerism-and-chd-the-effects-of-functional-splenic-status-and-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#10
Rohit S Loomba, Andrew N Pelech, Robert H Anderson
BACKGROUND: "Heterotaxy syndrome", best segregated as isomerism, is characterised by laterality defects of the thoraco-abdominal organs, causing functional impairment. In particular, the spleen is frequently affected, increasing susceptibility to bacteraemia. This study explored factors that may increase the risk of bacteraemia in patients with isomerism. METHODS: We identified patients with CHD and isomerism. Review of outpatient, inpatient, and surgical records was conducted to collect data and determine trends in the cohort...
September 29, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581226/selective-spleen-embolization-of-splenomegaly-to-improve-thrombocytopenia-facilitating-open-aortic-aneurysm-repair-a-staged-approach
#11
Dimitrios Maras, Nikolaos Kontopodis, Athansios Dedes, Antonios Tsanis, Ioannis Mazarakis, Christos Gekas, Christos V Ioannou
We present an 82-year-old man with a history of hairy cell leukemia, having an 11-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, who also had severe thrombocytopenia (about 20 000 platelets/μL) and splenomegaly at presentation. The patient had unfavorable anatomy for endovascular aneurysm repair, and therefore, an open procedure was planned. To reduce risk for perioperative bleeding and optimize patient preoperative status, a staged approach was employed. Initially, several sessions of embolization of 2 splenic artery branches were performed with the intent to decrease spleen size and to increase platelet count thus decreasing the perioperative bleeding risk...
August 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581201/microvascularization-of-the-spleen-in-larval-and-adult-xenopus-laevis-histomorphology-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-vascular-corrosion-casts
#12
Alois Lametschwandtner, Christine Radner, Bernd Minnich
Microvascular anatomy and histomorphology of larval and adult spleens of the Clawed Toad, Xenopus laevis were studied by light microscopy of paraplast embedded serial tissue sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs). Histology showed i) that white and red pulp are present at the onset of metamorphic climax (stage 57) and ii) that splenic vessels penetrated deeply into the splenic parenchyma at the height of metamorphic climax (stage 64). Scanning electron microscopy of VCCs demonstrated gross arterial supply and venous drainage, splenic microvascular patterns as well as the structure of the interstitial (extravasal) spaces representing the "open circulation routes...
December 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468031/radiographic-and-ultrasonographic-abdominal-anatomy-in-captive-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#13
Modesta Makungu, Wencke M du Plessis, Michelle Barrows, Hermanus B Groenewald, Katja N Koeppel
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417957/the-role-of-wt1-in-embryonic-development-and-normal-organ-homeostasis
#14
Bettina Wilm, Ramon Muñoz-Chapuli
The Wilms' tumor suppressor gene 1 (Wt1) is critically involved in a number of developmental processes in vertebrates, including cell differentiation, control of the epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype, proliferation, and apoptosis. Wt1 proteins act as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators, in mRNA splicing and in protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, Wt1 is involved in adult tissue homeostasis, kidney function, and cancer. For these reasons, Wt1 function has been extensively studied in a number of animal models to establish its spatiotemporal expression pattern and the developmental fate of the cells expressing this gene...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366114/laparoscopic-spleen-preserving-hilar-lymph-node-dissection-through-pre-pancreatic-and-retro-pancreatic-approach-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#15
Liansheng Zheng, Ce Zhang, Da Wang, Qi Xue, Xiaoping Liu, Ke-Jian Zhou, Hao Liu, Guoxin Li
BACKGROUND: The conventional radical resection of proximal gastric cancer is even more risky when performed laparoscopically, though this technique is widely used in gastrointestinal surgery and is accepted as the superior method. This paper explores the feasibility of laparoscopic spleen-preserving hilar lymph node dissection using a retro-pancreatic approach for the treatment of proximal gastric cancer. METHODS: Two cadavers were dissected for examination of and the pre-pancreatic and retro-pancreatic spaces...
2016: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358672/strategies-of-laparoscopic-spleen-preserving-splenic-hilar-lymph-node-dissection-for-advanced-proximal-gastric-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Qi-Yue Chen, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng, Ping Li, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jian-Xian Lin, Jun Lu, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin, Ru-Hong Tu, Zhi-Liang Hong
For advanced proximal gastric cancer (GC), splenic hilar (No. 10) lymph nodes (LN) are crucial links in lymphatic drainage. According to the 14(th) edition of the Japanese GC treatment guidelines, a D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for advanced GC, and No. 10 LN should be dissected for advanced proximal GC. In recent years, the preservation of organ function and the use of minimally invasive technology are being accepted by an increasing number of clinicians. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection has become more accepted and is gradually being used in operations...
June 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221130/acute-gastric-volvulus-associated-with-wandering-spleen-in-an-adult-treated-laparoscopically-after-endoscopic-reduction-a-case-report
#17
Jiro Omata, Katsuyuki Utsunomiya, Yoshiki Kajiwara, Risa Takahata, Nobuo Miyasaka, Hidekazu Sugasawa, Naoko Sakamoto, Yoji Yamagishi, Makiko Fukumura, Daiki Kitagawa, Mitsuhiko Konno, Yasushi Okusa, Michinori Murayama
A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956964/-autopsy-findings-of-19-cases-of-pulmonary-vein-abnormalities-associated-with-fetal-cardiac-anomalies
#18
Jianfeng Shang, Dong Chen, Wei Fang, Ying Wu, Yayan Cui, Fei Teng, Wen Fu, Wei Wang, Guoliang Lian, Shaoshuai Mei
OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnostic accuracy of fetal pulmonary venous abnormalities through the analysis of the fetal pulmonary vein anatomy. METHODS: 234 cases of congenital cardiac abnormalities were detected by echocardiography during pregnancy in An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from May 2010 to August 2015. Autopsy was then performed. The type of fetal pulmonary venous malformation, cardiac abnormalities, systemic venous malformations, and other internal organs deformities were documented...
March 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931241/variations-of-thickness-of-splenic-capsule-of-different-age-and-sex-in-bangladeshi-cadaver
#19
M S Shumi, M Khalil, S Z Sultana, S Mannan, J Sultana, T Farzana, R Sultana
The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms...
January 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840375/disorganization-of-the-splenic-microanatomy-in-ageing-mice
#20
Danielle Aw, Lucy Hilliard, Yoshio Nishikawa, Emma T Cadman, Rachel A Lawrence, Donald B Palmer
The precise mechanisms responsible for immunosenescence still remain to be determined, however, considering the evidence that disruption of the organization of primary and secondary lymphoid organs results in immunodeficiency, we propose that this could be involved in the decline of immune responses with age. Therefore, we investigated the integrity of the splenic microarchitecture in mice of increasing age and its reorganization following immune challenge in young and old mice. Several differences in the anatomy of the spleen with age in both the immune and stromal cells were observed...
May 2016: Immunology
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