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Spleen anatomy

Rohit S Loomba, Andrew N Pelech, Robert H Anderson
BACKGROUND: "Heterotaxy syndrome", best segregated as isomerism, is characterised by laterality defects of the thoraco-abdominal organs, causing functional impairment. In particular, the spleen is frequently affected, increasing susceptibility to bacteraemia. This study explored factors that may increase the risk of bacteraemia in patients with isomerism. METHODS: We identified patients with CHD and isomerism. Review of outpatient, inpatient, and surgical records was conducted to collect data and determine trends in the cohort...
September 29, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Dimitrios Maras, Nikolaos Kontopodis, Athansios Dedes, Antonios Tsanis, Ioannis Mazarakis, Christos Gekas, Christos V Ioannou
We present an 82-year-old man with a history of hairy cell leukemia, having an 11-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, who also had severe thrombocytopenia (about 20 000 platelets/μL) and splenomegaly at presentation. The patient had unfavorable anatomy for endovascular aneurysm repair, and therefore, an open procedure was planned. To reduce risk for perioperative bleeding and optimize patient preoperative status, a staged approach was employed. Initially, several sessions of embolization of 2 splenic artery branches were performed with the intent to decrease spleen size and to increase platelet count thus decreasing the perioperative bleeding risk...
August 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Alois Lametschwandtner, Christine Radner, Bernd Minnich
Microvascular anatomy and histomorphology of larval and adult spleens of the Clawed Toad, Xenopus laevis were studied by light microscopy of paraplast embedded serial tissue sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs). Histology showed i) that white and red pulp are present at the onset of metamorphic climax (stage 57) and ii) that splenic vessels penetrated deeply into the splenic parenchyma at the height of metamorphic climax (stage 64). Scanning electron microscopy of VCCs demonstrated gross arterial supply and venous drainage, splenic microvascular patterns as well as the structure of the interstitial (extravasal) spaces representing the "open circulation routes...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Modesta Makungu, Wencke M du Plessis, Michelle Barrows, Hermanus B Groenewald, Katja N Koeppel
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Bettina Wilm, Ramon Muñoz-Chapuli
The Wilms' tumor suppressor gene 1 (Wt1) is critically involved in a number of developmental processes in vertebrates, including cell differentiation, control of the epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype, proliferation, and apoptosis. Wt1 proteins act as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators, in mRNA splicing and in protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, Wt1 is involved in adult tissue homeostasis, kidney function, and cancer. For these reasons, Wt1 function has been extensively studied in a number of animal models to establish its spatiotemporal expression pattern and the developmental fate of the cells expressing this gene...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Liansheng Zheng, Ce Zhang, Da Wang, Qi Xue, Xiaoping Liu, Ke-Jian Zhou, Hao Liu, Guoxin Li
BACKGROUND: The conventional radical resection of proximal gastric cancer is even more risky when performed laparoscopically, though this technique is widely used in gastrointestinal surgery and is accepted as the superior method. This paper explores the feasibility of laparoscopic spleen-preserving hilar lymph node dissection using a retro-pancreatic approach for the treatment of proximal gastric cancer. METHODS: Two cadavers were dissected for examination of and the pre-pancreatic and retro-pancreatic spaces...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Qi-Yue Chen, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng, Ping Li, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jian-Xian Lin, Jun Lu, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin, Ru-Hong Tu, Zhi-Liang Hong
For advanced proximal gastric cancer (GC), splenic hilar (No. 10) lymph nodes (LN) are crucial links in lymphatic drainage. According to the 14(th) edition of the Japanese GC treatment guidelines, a D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for advanced GC, and No. 10 LN should be dissected for advanced proximal GC. In recent years, the preservation of organ function and the use of minimally invasive technology are being accepted by an increasing number of clinicians. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection has become more accepted and is gradually being used in operations...
June 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Jiro Omata, Katsuyuki Utsunomiya, Yoshiki Kajiwara, Risa Takahata, Nobuo Miyasaka, Hidekazu Sugasawa, Naoko Sakamoto, Yoji Yamagishi, Makiko Fukumura, Daiki Kitagawa, Mitsuhiko Konno, Yasushi Okusa, Michinori Murayama
A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Jianfeng Shang, Dong Chen, Wei Fang, Ying Wu, Yayan Cui, Fei Teng, Wen Fu, Wei Wang, Guoliang Lian, Shaoshuai Mei
OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnostic accuracy of fetal pulmonary venous abnormalities through the analysis of the fetal pulmonary vein anatomy. METHODS: 234 cases of congenital cardiac abnormalities were detected by echocardiography during pregnancy in An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from May 2010 to August 2015. Autopsy was then performed. The type of fetal pulmonary venous malformation, cardiac abnormalities, systemic venous malformations, and other internal organs deformities were documented...
March 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
M S Shumi, M Khalil, S Z Sultana, S Mannan, J Sultana, T Farzana, R Sultana
The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms...
January 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Danielle Aw, Lucy Hilliard, Yoshio Nishikawa, Emma T Cadman, Rachel A Lawrence, Donald B Palmer
The precise mechanisms responsible for immunosenescence still remain to be determined, however, considering the evidence that disruption of the organization of primary and secondary lymphoid organs results in immunodeficiency, we propose that this could be involved in the decline of immune responses with age. Therefore, we investigated the integrity of the splenic microarchitecture in mice of increasing age and its reorganization following immune challenge in young and old mice. Several differences in the anatomy of the spleen with age in both the immune and stromal cells were observed...
May 2016: Immunology
Maysam M Jafar, Arman Parsai, Marc E Miquel
There is considerable disparity in the published apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values across different anatomies. Institutions are increasingly assessing repeatability and reproducibility of the derived ADC to determine its variation, which could potentially be used as an indicator in determining tumour aggressiveness or assessing tumour response. In this manuscript, a review of selected articles published to date in healthy extra-cranial body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is presented, detailing reported ADC values and discussing their variation across different studies...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Wouter Willaert, Francesca Tozzi, Tom Van Hoof, Wim Ceelen, Piet Pattyn, Katharina D''Herde
BACKGROUND: Vascular reperfusion of Thiel cadavers can aid surgical and anatomical instruction. This study investigated whether ideal embalming circumstances provide lifelike vascular flow, enabling surgical practice and enhancing anatomical reality. METHODS: Pressure-controlled pump-driven administration of blue embalming solution was assessed directly postmortem in a pig model (n = 4). Investigation of subsequent pump-driven vascular injection of red paraffinum perliquidum (PP) included assessment of flow parameters, intracorporeal distribution, anatomical alterations, and feasibility for surgical training...
2016: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Qian Xia, Yuanbo Feng, Ting Yin, Yewei Liu, Sayuan Liang, Jianjun Liu, Linjun Tong, Gang Huang, Jie Yu, Yansheng Jiang, Uwe Himmelreich, Raymond Oyen, Yicheng Ni
OBJECTIVES: We sought to devise and test a multifunctional contrast dye agent for X-ray based digital radiography (DR) or computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and colored staining in ex vivo validation part of animal experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The custom-formulated contrast dye namely red iodized oil (RIO) was prepared by solubilizing a lipophilic dye Oil Red O in iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol or LPD) followed by physicochemical characterizations...
February 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Jason DiPoce, Xiaolin Liu-Jarin, Jeffrey Newhouse
A 33-year-old pregnant woman (gravida 11, para 8) presented with increasing severe abdominal pain during the first trimester of pregnancy and increasing abdominal distention out of proportion to her prior pregnancies. Ultrasonography (US) without Doppler performed at another hospital had revealed a pelvic mass; therefore, this patient had been referred to our institution for further evaluation. Unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was then performed at 8 weeks of gestation. The main portion of the gravid uterus and the ovaries was not seen on these images, but the parts that were seen appeared normal...
January 2016: Radiology
Joanna Walczyk, Maria Krystyna Walas
Ultrasound scan of the spleen is an integral part of the overall abdominal examination. Due to its anatomical position, physical examination of the spleen is frequently supplemented with an ultrasound which plays a special role in the differential diagnostics of splenic diseases and facilitates the determination of further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Similarly to other types of ultrasound scans, the examiner should be familiar with all significant clinical information as well as results of examinations and tests conducted so far...
March 2013: Journal of Ultrasonography
Thiago R Müller, Raquel S Marcelino, Livia P de Souza, Carlos R Teixeira, Maria J Mamprim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe the normal abdominal echoanatomy of the tigrina and to compare it with the abdominal echoanatomy of the domestic cat. Reference intervals of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species are important for accurate diagnoses and interpretation of routine health examinations. The hypothesis was that the echoanatomy of the tigrina was similar to that of the domestic cat. METHODS: Eighteen clinically healthy tigrina were selected for abdominal ultrasound examination, in order to obtain normal parameters of the bladder, spleen, adrenal gland, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, liver and gall bladder, and Doppler parameters of liver and kidney vessels...
November 30, 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Chunhua Dong, Yen-Wei Chen, Amir Hossein Foruzan, Lanfen Lin, Xian-Hua Han, Tomoko Tateyama, Xing Wu, Gang Xu, Huiyan Jiang
Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs is a key step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Probabilistic atlas based on human anatomical structure, used as a priori information in a Bayes framework, has been widely used for organ segmentation. How to register the probabilistic atlas to the patient volume is the main challenge. Additionally, there is the disadvantage that the conventional probabilistic atlas may cause a bias toward the specific patient study because of the single reference...
December 1, 2015: Computers in Biology and Medicine
George K Paraskevas, Konstantinos N Koutsouflianiotis, Zoi Nitsa, Theano Demesticha, Panagiotis Skandalakis
The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era...
January 2016: Anatomical Science International
Jad M Abdelsattar, T K Pandian, Eric J Finnesgard, Moustafa M El Khatib, Phillip G Rowse, EeeL N H Buckarma, Becca L Gas, Stephanie F Heller, David R Farley
OBJECTIVE: Preparation of learners for surgical operations varies by institution, surgeon staff, and the trainees themselves. Often the operative environment is overwhelming for surgical trainees and the educational experience is substandard due to inadequate preparation. We sought to develop a simple, quick, and interactive tool that might assess each individual trainee's knowledge baseline before participating in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). DESIGN: A 4-minute video with 5 separate muted clips from laparoscopic procedures (splenectomy, gastric band removal, cholecystectomy, adrenalectomy, and inguinal hernia repair) was created and shown to medical students (MS), general surgery residents, and staff surgeons...
November 2015: Journal of Surgical Education
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