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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885585/the-conundrums-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-aging
#1
REVIEW
Richard J Glassock, Aleksandar Denic, Andrew D Rule
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), as presently defined, is a common disorder. Aging is a nearly universal phenomenon that can affect renal anatomy and function, but at variable rates in individuals. Loss of nephrons and a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a characteristic of normal aging, called renal senescence. Using fixed and absolute thresholds for defining CKD on the basis of GFR for all ages may lead to diagnostic uncertainty (a conundrum) in both young and older subjects. This brief review will consider the physiological and anatomical changes of the kidney occurring in the process of normal renal senescence focusing on GFR and will examine the relevance of these observation for the diagnosis of CKD using GFR as the distinguishing parameter...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862866/utility-of-patient-specific-silicone-renal-models-for-planning-and-rehearsal-of-complex-tumor-resections-prior-to-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-partial-nephrectomy
#2
Friedrich-Carl von Rundstedt, Jason M Scovell, Smriti Agrawal, Jacques Zaneveld, Richard E Link
OBJECTIVE: Surgical planning for robotic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) depends on preoperative imaging and interpretation of spatial relationships between tumor and renal anatomy. We describe our experience using patient specific tissue-like kidney models created with advanced 3D printing technology for preoperative planning and surgical rehearsal prior to RALPN . PATIENTS AND METHODS: A feasibility study of 10 patients with solid renal masses who underwent RALPN after preoperative rehearsal using 3D print models...
November 10, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847799/clinical-importance-of-congenital-anomalies-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-in-organ-procurement-surgery-from-a-deceased-donor-two-case-reports
#3
Mi-Hyeong Kim, Kang-Woong Jun, In-Sung Moon, Ji-Il Kim
Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare but important problems in living donors for kidney transplantation, especially in cases of a short left renal vein and accompanying vascular and urological anatomic variations. However, the clinical impacts of IVC anomalies in deceased donors have yet to be reported. The unexpected presence of an IVC in an unusual position poses challenges to surgeons and increases the risk of bleeding during organ removal. Accompanying vascular variations can cause unexpected bleeding and injury and therefore technical complications in procurement and subsequent implantation...
November 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830490/soft-3d-printed-phantom-of-the-human-kidney-with-collecting-system
#4
Fabian Adams, Tian Qiu, Andrew Mark, Benjamin Fritz, Lena Kramer, Daniel Schlager, Ulrich Wetterauer, Arkadiusz Miernik, Peer Fischer
Organ models are used for planning and simulation of operations, developing new surgical instruments, and training purposes. There is a substantial demand for in vitro organ phantoms, especially in urological surgery. Animal models and existing simulator systems poorly mimic the detailed morphology and the physical properties of human organs. In this paper, we report a novel fabrication process to make a human kidney phantom with realistic anatomical structures and physical properties. The detailed anatomical structure was directly acquired from high resolution CT data sets of human cadaveric kidneys...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829833/unusual-presentation-of-duplex-kidneys-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction
#5
Cemile Başdaş, Süleyman Çelebi, Seyithan Özaydın, Birgül Karaaslan, Elmas Reyhan Alim, Ünal Güvenç, Serdar Sander
Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is rarely associated with a duplex collecting system. We review this unusual anomaly in terms of presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical management. Method. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with a duplex system with UPJO. Result. Sixteen patients (6 girls, 10 boys) with 18 moieties were treated surgically and four patients were treated conservatively. The median age at surgery was two years (range, 2 months to 7 years)...
2016: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811161/seventy-six-year-old-woman-with-an-unusual-anatomy-of-the-left-ureter
#6
George A Demetriou, Sohan Perera, Constantine Halkias, Shwan Ahmed
We present a case of a 76-year-old woman, who attended with features suggestive of renal colic; however on imaging, she was found to have a right pelvic kidney and a left-sided uretero-sciatic hernia (USH), identified on CT urography (CT urogram). She was managed conservatively as she had a normal renal function and reported no symptoms in follow-up appointments. USH are rare hernias, where the ureter herniates through the sciatic foramen. Patients might present with sepsis in which case they require emergency stenting either anterograde or retrograde or with pain in which a less urgent approach can be followed and plan for surgery...
November 3, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796600/robust-augmented-reality-registration-method-for-localization-of-solid-organs-tumors-using-ct-derived-virtual-biomechanical-model-and-fluorescent-fiducials
#7
Seong-Ho Kong, Nazim Haouchine, Renato Soares, Andrey Klymchenko, Bohdan Andreiuk, Bruno Marques, Galyna Shabat, Thierry Piechaud, Michele Diana, Stéphane Cotin, Jacques Marescaux
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) is the fusion of computer-generated and real-time images. AR can be used in surgery as a navigation tool, by creating a patient-specific virtual model through 3D software manipulation of DICOM imaging (e.g., CT scan). The virtual model can be superimposed to real-time images enabling transparency visualization of internal anatomy and accurate localization of tumors. However, the 3D model is rigid and does not take into account inner structures' deformations...
October 27, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795549/nanomedicines-for-renal-disease-current-status-and-future-applications
#8
REVIEW
Nazila Kamaly, John C He, Dennis A Ausiello, Omid C Farokhzad
Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778490/robotic-pyelolithotomy-in-a-congenital-pelvic-kidney-side-docking-and-robotic-prostatectomy-port-site-approach
#9
Rawan Al-Yousef, Ahmad Almarzouq, Saad Aldousari
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Ectopic pelvic kidneys with renal stones are challenging to treat. We report our experience in managing a case of ectopic pelvic kidney with a pelvic stone by robotic pyelolithotomy after failure of flexible ure¬teroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 46-year old male with 2 months history of vague lower abdominal pain was found to have on Computed Tomography scan a left ectopic pelvic kidney with a 12mm stone in an anomalous renal pelvis...
October 20, 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770469/toward-imaging-the-body-at-10-5-tesla
#10
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770429/radiation-dosimetry-of-the-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-receptor-ligand-18-f-flubatine-comparing-preclinical-pet-mri-and-pet-ct-to-first-in-human-pet-ct-results
#11
Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Stephan Wilke, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Steffen Fischer, Marianne Patt, Andreas Schildan, Jörg Patt, René Smits, Alexander Hoepping, Jörg Steinbach, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust
BACKGROUND: Both enantiomers of [(18)F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+)-[(18)F]flubatine compared to (-)-[(18)F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+)-[(18)F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (-)-[(18)F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751879/can-preeclampsia-be-considered-a-renal-compartment-syndrome-a-hypothesis-and-analysis-of-the-literature
#12
David G Reuter, Yuk Law, Wayne C Levy, Stephen P Seslar, R Eugene Zierler, Mark Ferguson, James Chattra, Tim McQuinn, Lenna L Liu, Mark Terry, Patricia S Coffey, Jane A Dimer, Coral Hanevold, Joseph T Flynn, F Bruder Stapleton
The morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia is staggering. The physiology of the Page kidney, a condition in which increased intrarenal pressure causes hypertension, appears to provide a unifying framework to explain the complex pathophysiology. Page kidney hypertension is renin-mediated acutely and ischemia-mediated chronically. Renal venous outflow obstruction also causes a Page kidney phenomenon, providing a hypothesis for the increased vulnerability of a subset of women who have what we are hypothesizing is a "renal compartment syndrome" due to inadequate ipsilateral collateral renal venous circulation consistent with well-known variation in normal venous anatomy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731512/retroperitoneal-laparoscopy-in-dogs-access-technique-working-space-and-surgical-anatomy
#13
Junemoe Jeong, Jonghyeok Ko, Hyunjoo Lim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon, Wan Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: To develop and describe a laparoscopic retroperitoneal access technique, investigate working space establishment, and describe the surgical anatomy in the retroperitoneal space as an initial step for clinical application of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric and experimental study. ANIMALS: Cadaveric (n=8) and healthy (n=6) adult dogs. METHODS: The retroperitoneal access technique was developed in 3 cadavers based on the human technique and transperitoneal observation...
November 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663048/robot-assisted-level-ii-iii-inferior-vena-cava-tumor-thrombectomy-step-by-step-technique-and-1-year-outcomes
#14
Sameer Chopra, Giuseppe Simone, Charles Metcalfe, Andre Luis de Castro Abreu, Jamal Nabhani, Mariaconsiglia Ferriero, Alfredo Maria Bove, Rene Sotelo, Monish Aron, Mihir M Desai, Michele Gallucci, Inderbir S Gill
BACKGROUND: Level II-III inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombectomy for renal cell carcinoma is among the most challenging urologic oncologic surgeries. In 2015, we reported the initial series of robot-assisted level III caval thrombectomy. OBJECTIVE: To describe our University of Southern California technique in a step-by-step fashion for robot-assisted IVC level II-III tumor thrombectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five selected patients with renal neoplasm and level II-III IVC tumor thrombus underwent robot-assisted surgery with a minimum 1-yr follow-up (July 2011 to March 2015)...
September 20, 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646443/oxidative-stress-responses-in-wistar-rats-on-subacute-exposure-to-pharmaceutical-wastewater
#15
Ali Sharif, Muhammad Ashraf, Aqeel Javeed, Aftab Ahmed Anjum, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Bushra Akhtar, Ammara Saleem
Water pollution has been a major concern for agrarian societies like Pakistan. Pharmaceutical industries are amongst the foremost contributor to industrial waste. Present study addresses the generation of oxidative stress caused by 2 months exposure to pharmaceutical wastewater in rats and their response to oral treatment with vitamin E, a potent antioxidant. The rats were randomized into five groups (n = 5) named as negative control, pharmaceutical wastewater (PEW) 100 %, PEW 10 %, PEW 1 %, and PEW 100 % + vitamin E...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601933/large-subcapsular-hematoma-following-ureteroscopic-laser-lithotripsy-of-renal-calculi-in-a-spina-bifida-patient-lessons-we-learn
#16
Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Azi Samsudin, Gurpreet Singh, Peter L Hughes, Bakul M Soni, Fahed Selmi
INTRODUCTION: Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594986/autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-recent-advances-in-clinical-management
#17
REVIEW
Zhiguo Mao, Jiehan Chong, Albert C M Ong
The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 (th) century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 (st) century...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579441/robot-assisted-laparoscopic-nephroureterectomy-for-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-a-right-pelvic-kidney
#18
Michael E Rezaee, Zubin Shetty, David Pridmore, Chirag N Dave, Sugandh D Shetty
BACKGROUND: Nephroureterectomy is the standard of care for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) involving the upper urinary tract. However, few published case reports exist describing the surgical treatment of ectopic kidneys with TCC. Surgical removal of a pelvic kidney can be complicated by aberrant vasculature supply, a tortuous ureter and abutting anatomical structures. Thus, it is necessary to determine the most appropriate surgical technique for treatment of pelvic kidneys with suspected malignancy...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579433/the-cystoscope-sheath-as-a-platform-for-performing-retrograde-intrarenal-surgery-in-a-transplanted-kidney-with-complex-renal-anatomy
#19
Aaron F Brafman, Marla J Wardenburg, Vincent Bird
BACKGROUND: Endourology is a widely used means by which to manage urolithiasis. Patient anatomy can oftentimes limit what can be accomplished with current technology. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a patient with renal and ureteral stones within a transplant kidney. Her anatomy would not allow for a standard retrograde ureteroscopic approach. We describe a method by which to overcome this difficult scenario by using a rigid cystoscope as a platform by which a ureteroscope was passed to allow for stone removal...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579412/transperitoneal-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-should-be-considered-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-pelvic-kidneys
#20
Sophie Plagakis, Darren Foreman, Peter Sutherland, Andrew Fuller
We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys.
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
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