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Female reproductive system

William Schafer
Nematodes comprise one of the largest phyla in the animal kingdom, both in terms of individual numbers and species diversity. Although only 20,000-30,000 species have been described, it is estimated that the true number ranges between 100,000 and 10 million. Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial species are all widespread, and some nematodes have even been isolated from such inhospitable environments as deserts, hot springs, and polar seas. Some nematode species are parasitic, with either plant or animal hosts; other species are free-living microbivores, scavengers, or predators of insects or other nematodes...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Oliver R Oakley, Kee Jun Kim, Po-Ching Lin, Radwa Barakat, Joseph A Cacioppo, Zhong Li, Alex Whitaker, Kwang Chul Chung, Wenyan Mei, CheMyong Ko
17β-estradiol is a potent sex hormone synthesized primarily by gonads in females and males that regulates development and function of the reproductive system. Recent studies show that 17β-estradiol is locally synthesized in non-reproductive tissues and regulates a myriad of events, including local inflammatory responses. In this study, we report that mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches are novel sites of de novo synthesis of 17β-estradiol. These secondary lymphoid organs are located within or close to the gastrointestinal tract, contain leukocytes, and function at the forefront of immune surveillance...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
Lu Gao, Tian-Wen Wu, Xin Ni
Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide synthesized endogenously in living organisms produce an array of disparate biological effects, so as to be considered as gas transmitters. These three gaseous molecules play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes in the bodies, such as the regulation of vascular tone and inflammatory responses as well as reproductive function. This review mainly focuses on the distribution and biological functions of these three gas transmitters in female reproductive tissues...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Adrien Favre, Alex Widmer, Sophie Karrenberg
In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silene dioica and S. latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F1 ) and second-generation (F2 ) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4 yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F1 hybrids performed intermediately and F2 hybrids underperformed in comparison to F1 hybrids (hybrid breakdown)...
October 24, 2016: New Phytologist
Csaba Vastagh, Annie Rodolosse, Norbert Solymosi, Zsolt Liposits
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a key role in the central regulation of reproduction. In proestrous female mice, estradiol triggers the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, however, its impact on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in GnRH neurons has not been explored yet. We hypothesized that proestrus is accompanied by substantial changes in the expression profile of genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors in GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact, proestrous, and metestrous female GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexander I Agoulnik, Irina U Agoulnik, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan
Relaxin is a small heterodimeric peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin superfamily produced mainly in female and male reproductive organs. It has potent antifibrotic, vasodilatory, and angiogenic effects and regulates the normal function of various physiological systems. Preclinical studies and recent clinical trials have shown the promise of recombinant relaxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases. However, there are universal drawbacks of peptide-based pharmacology which apply to relaxin: a short half-life in vivo requires its continuous delivery, there are high costs of production, storage and treatment, as well as the possibility of immune response...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Marianne Ronovsky, Stefanie Berger, Alice Zambon, Sonali N Reisinger, Orsolya Horvath, Arnold Pollak, Claudia Lindtner, Angelika Berger, Daniela D Pollak
Gestational infection is increasingly being recognized for its involvement as causative mechanism in severe developmental brain abnormalities and its contribution to the pathogenesis of psychopathologies later in life. First observations in the widely accepted maternal immune activation (MIA) model based upon the systemic administration of the viral mimetic Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) have recently suggested a transmission of behavioral and transcriptional traits across generations. Although maternal care behavior (MCB) is known as essential mediator of the transgenerational effects of environmental challenges on offspring brain function and behavior, the possible propagation of alterations of MCB resulting from MIA to following generations has not yet been examined...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Noah T Ashley, Greg E Demas
Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions...
October 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
G P Adams, M H Ratto, M E Silva, R A Carrasco
The ovulation-inducing effect of seminal plasma was first reported in Bactrian camels over 30 years ago, and the entity responsible was dubbed 'ovulation-inducing factor' (OIF). More recent studies, primarily in llamas and alpacas, characterized the biological and chemical properties of OIF and ultimately identified it as βNGF. This recent discovery has allowed a convergence of knowledge previously separated by discipline and by mechanism; that is, neurobiology and reproductive biology, and autocrine/paracrine vs endocrine...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Yingmei Wang, Limei Hu, Ping Ji, Fei Teng, Wenyan Tian, Yuexin Liu, David Cogdell, Jinsong Liu, Anil K Sood, Russell Broaddus, Fengxia Xue, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive system. Migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) gene was recently discovered candidate tumor suppress gene which located at chromosome 1p36.22. 1p36 deletion was found in many types of tumor including EC. In the present study, we will determine the role and mechanism of MIIP in EC metastasis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to measure MIIP expression in normal and EC tissue...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Aharon M Feldman, Ziying Zhang, Thomas Buekers, Mohamed A Elshaikh
In contrast to multiple myeloma (MM) which exhibits diffuse bone marrow and other organ involvement, solitary plasmacytomas carry a favourable prognosis. Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are a unique form of plasma cell neoplasms. These tumours are rare in the female reproductive tract. Only 24 cases of gynaecologic plasmacytomas were reported to date (7 cases were solitary plasmacytomas and 17 cases were either part of disseminated MM with involvement of a gynaecologic organ or were lacking complete work-up to rule out MM)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
A M Kurmanova, G M Kurmanova, V N Lokshin
The viral hepatitis abnormalities in the female reproductive system are due to hepatic and extrahepatic damage. On the background of HBV- and HCV-infections, menstrual disorders prevail in the structure of reproductive system pathology; disorders of reproductive function in the form of pregnancy loss and infertility are detected in each second case. Depression of T-cell immunity in the immune status is observed in the patients with intact reproductive function. When miscarriage was in past medical history then divergent changes subpopulations of lymphocytes are found...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Denys deCatanzaro, Tyler J Pollock
Estradiol-17β (E2) plays critical roles in female maturation, sexual receptivity, ovulation, and fertility. In many mammals, contact with males can similarly affect these female parameters, while male excretions contain significant quantities of E2 We administered radiolabeled estradiol ([(3)H]E2) to male mice in doses representing a small fraction of their endogenous E2 These males were paired with sexually-receptive females, and radioactivity was traced into the females' systems. In Experiment 1, males were given [(3)H]E2 at 24 and 1 h prior to mating...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Valirie Ndip Agbor, Tsi Njim, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernias in women of reproductive age containing the ovary are very rare. When they occur in this age group, they are mostly associated with malformations of the urogenital system. Prompt surgical intervention is the key to ensure survival of the ovary. Here we present a case of an ectopic ovary presenting like an acute appendicitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 16-year-old Cameroonian girl presented at our emergency service with an acute exacerbation of a mild and intermittent right iliac fossa pain of 5 days' duration...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Justin D Vidal
Evaluation of the female reproductive system in a general toxicity setting can be challenging for the toxicologic pathologist due to the cyclic nature of the estrous and menstrual cycles, timing of puberty and reproductive senescence, and species differences. Age in particular can have a significant impact on the histologic appearance of the female reproductive system and create challenges when trying to distinguish test article-related findings from normal developmental or senescent changes. This review describes the key physiologic and histologic features of immaturity, the transition through puberty, sexual maturity, and reproductive senescence in the female reproductive system, with an emphasis on practical applications for the toxicologic pathologist, and includes recommendations for distinguishing and documenting these developmental periods...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Carola Becker, Gerhard Scholtz
Female reproductive systems are important characters for understanding the evolution of Brachyura and resolving its phylogenetic relationships. We herein investigate a podotreme brachyuran reproductive system comprehensively for the first time studying spermathecae and gonopores of Homoloidea with histological methods, micro-computer tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that spermathecal apertures are species-specific and their shape corresponds closely to that of male copulatory organs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Jessica H Knight, Penelope P Howards, Jessica B Spencer, Katina C Tsagaris, Sam S Lim
OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
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