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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801359/ccr7-deficiency-allows-accelerated-clearance-of-chlamydia-from-the-female-reproductive-tract
#1
Lin-Xi Li, Jasmine C Labuda, Denise M Imai, Stephen M Griffey, Stephen J McSorley
Immune mechanisms responsible for pathogen clearance from the female reproductive tract (FRT) are incompletely defined; in particular, the contribution of lymphocyte trafficking to this process is unclear. CCR7-deficient mice have profoundly altered lymphocyte recirculation and display ectopic formation of lymphocyte aggregates within mucosal nonlymphoid tissues, including the FRT. In this study, we investigated how altered lymphocyte distribution in CCR7-deficient mice would affect host responses to Chlamydia muridarum within the reproductive tract...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801138/cadmium-exposure-in-newborn-rats-ovary-induces-developmental-disorders-of-primordial-follicles-and-the-differential-expression-of-scf-c-kit-gene
#2
Wenchang Zhang, Tingting Wu, Chenyun Zhang, Lingfeng Luo, Meimei Xie, Huiling Huang
Since the 1990s, the rising problem that gonad reproductive toxicity on adult female after exposing to cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted high attention at home and abroad,and was systematically studied. Our research focuses on a further problem is that early cadmium exposure (during birth to before puberty) impact on development and function of ovarian cells and its possible mechanism. Our research focuses on the changes of ovarian cells growth and development after the newborn rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status...
August 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798692/change-in-the-lipid-transport-capacity-of-the-liver-and-blood-during-reproduction-in-rats
#3
Yufeng Zhang, Christine Kallenberg, Hayden W Hyatt, Andreas N Kavazis, Wendy R Hood
To support the high energetic demands of reproduction, female mammals display plasticity in many physiological processes, such as the lipid transport system. Lipids support the energy demands of females during reproduction, and energy and structural demands of the developing offspring via the placenta in utero or milk during the suckling period. We hypothesized that key proteins supporting lipid transport in reproductive females will increase during pregnancy and lactation, but drop to non-reproductive levels shortly after reproduction has ended...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796292/exposure-to-low-environmental-concentrations-of-manganese-lead-and-cadmium-alters-the-serotonin-system-of-blue-mussels
#4
Marc Fraser, Marlène Fortier, Delphine Foucher, Pierre-Hervé Roumier, Pauline Brousseau, Michel Fournier, Céline Surette, Cathy Vaillancourt
Serotonin plays a crucial role in mussel survival and reproduction. Although serotonin system can be affected by metals, the effects of environmental concentration of metals, such as manganese (Mn), lead (Pd), and cadmium (Cd), have never been studied in blue mussels. This study aims to determine the effects of exposure to Mn, Pb or Cd on serotonin levels, monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, and serotonin transporter (SERT) in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed in vivo to increasing and environmentally relevant doses of Mn (10-1000 nM; 0...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792084/genetic-control-of-complex-traits-with-a-focus-on-reproduction-in-pigs
#5
REVIEW
Louisa J Zak, Ann Helen Gaustad, Alfonso Bolarin, Marleen Broekhuijse, Grant A Walling, Egbert F Knol
Reproductive traits are complex, and desirable reproductive phenotypes, such as litter size or semen quality, are true polygenetic traits determined by multiple pathways. Each individual gene contributes to the overall variation in these traits, so genetic improvements can be achieved using conventional selection methodology. In the past, a pedigree-based-relationship matrix was used; this is now replaced by a combination of pedigree-based- and genomic-relationship matrices. The heritability of reproductive traits is low to moderate, so large-scale data recording is required to identify specific, selectable attributes...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792003/vaccine-modified-nf-kb-and-gr-signaling-in-cervicovaginal-epithelium-correlates-with-protection
#6
L Shang, A J Smith, C S Reilly, L Duan, K E Perkey, S Wietgrefe, M Zupancic, P J Southern, R P Johnson, J V Carlis, A T Haase
Cervicovaginal epithelium plays a critical role in determining the outcome of virus transmission in the female reproductive tract (FRT) by initiating or suppressing transmission-facilitating mucosal immune responses in naïve and SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated animals, respectively. In this study, we examined the very early responses of cervical epithelium within 24 h after vaginal exposure to SIV in naive and SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated rhesus macaques. Using both ex vivo and in vivo experimental systems, we found that vaginal exposure to SIV rapidly induces a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory responses in the epithelium associated with a reciprocal regulation of NF-kB and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathways...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783590/vulvar-thermal-pattern-following-synchronization-of-estrus-is-linked-to-fertility-after-timed-artificial-insemination-in-goat
#7
Calogero Stelletta, Koray Tekin, Mehmet Borga Tirpan, Havva Alemdar, Beste Cil, Fatma Oztutar Stelletta, Kemal Tuna Olgac, Muhammed Enes Inanc, Ali Daskin
Aim of this study was to study the vulvar thermal pattern variation during the timed artificial insemination protocol in Angora goat and identify the relationship with the successful rate. Does (36 adult healthy females) were synchronized using PGF2α at the day 0, 11 days of progesterone impregnated sponges intra-vaginally, PMSG 48 h before sponges withdraw (day 11) and the intra-cervical inseminations were carried out 48 h later (Timed Artificial Insemination: TAI) with chilled semen. Vulvar (VST) and perivulvar (PST) areas were considered to evaluate the thermal pattern during the protocol at the day 0 and at the TAI using a thermo camera (E60, FLIR System)...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783542/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-cancer-risk-an-overestimated-risk
#8
Johanna Simin, Rulla Tamimi, Jesper Lagergren, Hans-Olov Adami, Nele Brusselaers
AIM: We aimed to assess the overall cancer risk among contemporary menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users in Sweden and the risk for different cancer types. METHODS: A nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study including all 290,186 women aged ≥ 40 years having used systemic MHT during the study period (July 2005 and December 2012), compared with the Swedish female background population. MHT ever-use (all MHT, oestrogen-only MHT [E-MHT] and oestrogen plus progestin MHT [EP-MHT]) was based on the nationwide Prescribed Drug Registry...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783116/teratogenic-effects-of-topiramate-in-a-zebrafish-model
#9
Yu-Heng Lai, Yu-Ju Ding, David Moses, Yau-Hung Chen
Topiramate is commonly used for treating epilepsy in both children and adults. Recent clinical data suggests that administration of topiramate to women during pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts in their offspring. To better understand the potential effects of topiramate, we dosed adult female zebrafish with topiramate, and investigated the altered morphologies in adult females and their offspring. It showed that topiramate-treated female fish had reduced oocyte maturation, and the survival rates of their offspring were seriously decreased during embryogenesis...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775379/tia1-is-a-gender-specific-disease-modifier-of-a-mild-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#10
Matthew D Howell, Eric W Ottesen, Natalia N Singh, Rachel L Anderson, Joonbae Seo, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Elizabeth M Whitley, Ravindra N Singh
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deletions or mutations of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The nearly identical SMN2 cannot compensate for SMN1 loss due to exon 7 skipping. The allele C (C (+/+)) mouse recapitulates a mild SMA-like phenotype and offers an ideal system to monitor the role of disease-modifying factors over a long time. T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) regulates SMN exon 7 splicing. TIA1 is reported to be downregulated in obese patients, although it is not known if the effect is gender-specific...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770675/photoperiodism-of-male-offspring-production-in-the-water-flea-daphnia-pulex
#11
Kenji Toyota, Tomomi Sato, Norihisa Tatarazako, Taisen Iguchi
Photoperiodism is a biological seasonal timing system utilized to regulate development and reproduction in organisms. The freshwater micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex displays environmental sex determination, the precise physiological mechanisms of which are largely unknown due to the lack of an experimental system to induce female or male offspring production by alterations of the rearing environment. We recently found that D. pulex, WTN6 strain, produces female or male offspring in response to long-day or short-day conditions, respectively...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770366/management-of-pregnancy-related-issues-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-the-need-for-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#12
Maria Pia Amato, Antonio Bertolotto, Roberto Brunelli, Paola Cavalla, Benedetta Goretti, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Francesco Patti, Carlo Pozzilli, Leandro Provinciali, Nicola Rizzo, Nicola Strobelt, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Maria Trojano, Giancarlo Comi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), most probably autoimmune in origin, usually occurring in young adults with a female/male prevalence of approximately 3:1. Women with MS in the reproductive age may face challenging issues in reconciling the desire for parenthood with their condition, owing to the possible influence both on the ongoing or planned treatment with the possible consequences on the disease course and on the potential negative effects of treatments on foetal and pregnancy outcomes...
August 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769903/covert-infection-of-insects-by-baculoviruses
#13
REVIEW
Trevor Williams, Cristina Virto, Rosa Murillo, Primitivo Caballero
Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae) are occluded DNA viruses that are lethal pathogens of the larval stages of some lepidopterans, mosquitoes, and sawflies (phytophagous Hymenoptera). These viruses have been developed as biological insecticides for control of insect pests and as expression vectors in biotechnological applications. Natural and laboratory populations frequently harbor covert infections by baculoviruses, often at a prevalence exceeding 50%. Covert infection can comprise either non-productive latency or sublethal infection involving low level production of virus progeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766698/allocation-not-male-resistance-increases-male-frequency-during-epidemics-a-case-study-in-facultatively-sexual-hosts
#14
Jessica L Hite, Rachel M Penczykowski, Marta S Shocket, Katherine Griebel, Alexander T Strauss, Meghan A Duffy, Carla E Cáceres, Spencer R Hall
Why do natural populations vary in the frequency of sexual reproduction? Virulent parasites may help explain why sex is favored during disease epidemics. To illustrate, we show a higher frequency of males and sexually produced offspring in natural populations of a facultative parthenogenetic host during fungal epidemics. In a multi-year survey of 32 lakes, the frequency of males (an index of sex) was higher in populations of zooplankton hosts with larger epidemics. A lake mesocosm experiment established causality: experimental epidemics produced a higher frequency of males relative to disease-free controls...
August 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764815/a-proteomic-insight-into-the-midgut-proteome-of-ornithodoros-moubata-females-reveals-novel-information-on-blood-digestion-in-argasid-ticks
#15
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main African vector of the human relapsing fever agent Borrelia duttoni and the African swine fever virus. Together with saliva, the tick midgut forms part of the host-tick-pathogen interface, and numerous midgut proteins play key functions in the blood digestion-related process and the infection and transmission of pathogens. This work explores the composition of the midgut proteome of unfed and fed O. moubata females with the aim to complete the biological information already obtained from the midgut transcriptome and provide a more robust and comprehensive perspective of this biological system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764812/anopheles-gambiae-larvae-mount-stronger-immune-responses-against-bacterial-infection-than-adults-evidence-of-adaptive-decoupling-in-mosquitoes
#16
Garrett P League, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Yan Yan, Valeria A Garcia-Lopez, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: The immune system of adult mosquitoes has received significant attention because of the ability of females to vector disease-causing pathogens while ingesting blood meals. However, few studies have focused on the immune system of larvae, which, we hypothesize, is highly robust due to the high density and diversity of microorganisms that larvae encounter in their aquatic environments and the strong selection pressures at work in the larval stage to ensure survival to reproductive maturity...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764804/effects-of-date-palm-pollen-on-fertility-research-proposal-for-a-systematic-review
#17
Fatemeh Abdi, Nasibeh Roozbeh, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
OBJECTIVE: Over 10-15% of couples in different countries are infertile. Male infertility is a contributing factor and the only cause of infertility in respectively 50% and 20-30% of all cases of infertility. According to previous research, micro-elements isolated from date palm pollen (DPP), e.g. estrogen and sterols, may enhance male and female fertility. DPP has also been reported to improve sperm parameters including sperm motility and viability, acrosome reaction, and lipid peroxidation...
August 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760882/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-vector-induces-specific-cellular-and-humoral-responses-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-the-main-hiv-portal-of-entry
#18
Romain Marlin, Marie-Thérèse Nugeyre, Nicolas Tchitchek, Matteo Parenti, Hakim Hocini, Fahd Benjelloun, Claude Cannou, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Yves Levy, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Gabriella Scarlatti, Roger Le Grand, Elisabeth Menu
The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the FRT of nonhuman primates after systemic vaccination. Memory T cells were preferentially found in the lower tract (vagina and cervix), whereas APCs and innate lymphoid cells were mainly located in the upper tract (uterus and fallopian tubes)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760766/climate-driven-shifts-in-adult-sex-ratios-via-sex-reversals-the-type-of-sex-determination-matters
#19
Veronika Bókony, Szilvia Kövér, Edina Nemesházi, András Liker, Tamás Székely
Sex reversals whereby individuals of one genetic sex develop the phenotype of the opposite sex occur in ectothermic vertebrates with genetic sex-determination systems that are sensitive to extreme temperatures during sexual differentiation. Recent rises in global temperatures have led researchers to predict that sex reversals will become more common, resulting in the distortion of many populations' sex ratios. However, it is unclear whether susceptibility to climate-driven sex-ratio shifts depends on the type of sex determination that varies across species...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760764/social-determinants-of-adult-sex-ratios-and-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-transmission-of-hiv-and-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-the-usa
#20
REVIEW
Enrique Rodriguez Pouget
In Black population centres in the USA, adult sex ratios (ASRs) are strongly female-biased primarily due to high male incarceration and early mortality rates. I explore the system of social determinants that shape these ASRs, and describe their apparent consequences. Evidence suggests that female-biased ASRs play a role, along with racial residential segregation, to increase mixing between core and peripheral members of sexual networks, facilitating transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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